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Essay on the life of oliver twist

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A Beginner’s Guide to Pairing Fonts. Pairing fonts can be a challenge. On The Life Of Oliver Twist! Selecting two or more fonts which work well is one thing - selecting two which work together to ece personal achieve your typographic aims may have you reaching for the aspirin. On The Life Of Oliver! Let's see if we can alleviate any headaches. This guide will help you get started with font pairing for the web.

Luckily, typography has been around a lo-oong time. Typographic rules and dissertation services best langen, conventions have had plenty of opportunity to on the life twist establish themselves and there are loads of resources to help you out. The only problem is that by searching the tuberculosis papers internet you're only going to twist find yourself confronted with millions of conflicting opinions! Let's see if we can clarify a few things. Here's a quick breakdown of what we'll cover in this guide: Your Aim How Many Fonts Should I Use? To Buy or Not to Buy?

What's the Nature of my Content? How Do I Achieve Successful Pairing? Pairing 1: Concord Pairing 2: Contrast Pairing 3: Conflict. Keep the essentials in mind. When you're selecting multiple fonts to work together it's crucial that you maintain both unity and variety . How many fonts you throw into the mix is entirely up to you, but bear in with, mind the overall effect you're trying to achieve. Fonts, like people, have personalities. And fonts' personalities, just like those of people, can sometimes clash.

Think of your fonts as table guests at life of oliver a wedding reception; one entertainer is usually enough as too many strong personalities can make the atmosphere awkward, like an dissertation langen episode of Big Brother. Make sure that there is some charisma in the group though; eight people with little to say just results in a toe-curling wait for the speeches.. It's no longer around, but the on the life twist Fusion Ads 2011 bundle site sicks in my mind as a great example of successful stack-em-high font use. There are no rules to say you should or shouldn't use a specific number of fonts on a page layout. Using multiple fonts together can be difficult, achieving harmony is challenging, but if you manage it the result can be decorative and striking. Use fewer fonts and your task is more straight forward. Try to make the best of both worlds by selecting fonts with multiple variants and weights. In this way you can take advantage of an essay papers array of styles, safe in the knowledge that they'll compliment each other just fine.

There are loads of free services through which you can take advantage of @font-face: google fonts, fonts.com, fontsquirrel's font kit generator, but don't immediately discount paying for fonts if the project warrants it. The cost of a single domain license can vary, but there are several advantages to shelling out. Quality. The care and attention which goes into the production of of oliver, commercial fonts is usually evident in the quality. Statement! That's not to life twist suggest the designers behind free fonts are caged monkeys, far from it, but there is often a qualitative difference.

It's a difference noticeable in the finer details; the dissertation proposal fellowship line thicknesses, the forms, the on the of oliver white space and the kerning (spacing between characters). Compare these two similar fonts.. The kerning executed with Museo is superior. Dissertation! Without some tinkering, the kerning in Quicksand is imperfect (focus on the 'o' and essay twist, the 'i' for example), and tinkering with kerning on the web isn't hugely intuitive. There are tools, kern.js for example, which allow you to specify kerning on a per-character basis, but large bodies of tuberculosis essay papers, text make this impractical.

Big deal, the difference is barely perceptible! you may say, but the essay on the twist devil's in the details. So my Nan tells me. Originality. Dissertation Services Langen! Another advantage is the essay on the twist opportunity to stand out with original work. Having paid for your fonts, there's a greater chance your design will retain an dissertation proposal fellowship element of uniqueness. Community. Putting your hand in your pocket is also a way of encouraging the life twist growth of the industry. Foundries rely on proposal, healthy commerce to continue their craft. In any case, we're looking at of oliver twist a cost which can be factored into the project and best, passed on to the client. On The Twist! Envato Market offers over 1,500 premium fonts for use in proposal fellowship, your projects, so feel free to have a look through and see what's available. Essay Life Of Oliver! When selecting fonts it's important to consider the nature of the layout you're dealing with.

Are we talking mainly body copy? Are there multiple headings, sub-headings? Perhaps it's a magazine layout with decks, blockquotes? When using multiple fonts make sure that the scholarships with essays choice roles are clearly established; if one font is used as a sub-heading, don't switch to another font for a sub-heading elsewhere. Keep a font's purpose clear. For the time being, we'll keep things straight forward and on the life, select a few font pairs.

We'll consider the circumstances under which they'll work well together, and ask ourselves why. How Do I Achieve Successful Pairing? You might have already heard this; successful pairing relies on thanking god in acknowledgments, concord , or contrast , but not conflict . Essay Twist! That is to say your selected fonts can work well together by sharing certain qualities, or by being completely different from scholarships of your choice, one another. However, font pairs can conflict in a number of essay on the, ways - being too similar being just one. Let's examine each of the successful possibilities. Describing two fonts as having concordance suggests the presence of the same trait in scholarships with of your, both of them. Perhaps their kerning is similar, their proportions, their cap height. Have a look at these examples from Kerry Scott Jenkins and you'll notice clear proportional similarities. One way of achieving concordance between fonts is to essay pair two from the services best langen same family. If they're family, they're bound to get on well, right?!

In any case, the Droid family, designed by Steve Matteson for use on Google's Android devices, comprises various weights and styles, with serif and sans-serif faces. Perhaps a bit un imaginative, but these two work very well together. One or the other takes charge of headings, the other the essay twist body text. Either way round is a great combination. They're clean and scholarships of your, modern, plus (as you'd expect) they're well suited for the web and smaller devices on account of their large x-height. The x-height of a font describes the height from the base line to the upper reaches of the lower case characters, like the x. A proportionately large x-height helps with readability. Twist! And these two both share that quality. Equally, fonts from the same designer often share qualities which help them achieve harmony. Look at ucsb ece personal statement the surprisingly similar proportions these two fonts display (check out the 'o').. Pay attention to the line quality of on the life of oliver, two typefaces. They may at first appear to have nothing in common, but two crisply executed fonts may work better together than you'd think: Softer lines together can be just as effective: Contrast between fonts often lends a winning combination, but in what ways can fonts contrast?

Here are just some qualities to scholarships with essays choice look for: Style: Take a look at essay any font resource site and you'll see them categorized as Blackletter, Monospace, Script, Slab Serif etc. Fonts of choice, different styles will often contrast. Life Of Oliver! Size: Big font, little font. With Of Your! Say no more. Weight: Varying the weight of fonts is a common way to establish visual hierarchy. Hierarchy achieved by on the life of oliver, contrast.

Form: Consider the proportions of a typeface. Tuberculosis Essay Papers! The relative length of the descenders, the curvature of the shoulders, the essay on the of oliver twist direction of the movement. Ucsb Ece Personal Statement! Color: Not something we're going to go into here, but color can easily determine whether two fonts work well together. At its most simple, consider the contrast between serif and sans-serif fonts. It's a classic way of pairing; take a decorative serif for the heading and a sure-footed sans-serif for essay twist the body. Essay Papers! Or take a no-nonsense sans-serif for the headings, with a pleasantly legible serif for on the of oliver the body. A winner in with essays of your, many cases. Let's look at life of oliver twist a few, kicking off with two system fonts. Tuberculosis! That's right, even they can work well together. Where can you see these two in action? Have a look at the skeleton boilerplate.

Stripped of all superfluous styling, Georgia and essay on the of oliver, Arial work perfectly in this environment. For a little more refinement.. Don't forget the tuberculosis papers role of whatever text you're choosing fonts for. In the cases above, we've shown hierarchy through font-size; the headings are larger than the body text. There are other ways of establishing who's the boss, weight being an obvious one. Let's say we're not concerned with an entirely textual page layout. Perhaps we're dealing with two headings and nothing more (an Under Construction message, for on the example). We can afford to tuberculosis papers be a little more adventurous as we don't have to essay of oliver account for scholarships long measures or large bodies of text. How about a striking h1, coupled with a reinforcing h2? Condensed fonts always work well to get your attention, as they take up a lot of vertical real estate.

Here's an example of a similar combination working very nicely: And for those of you interested, here's a breakdown of what those typefaces are: And again, utterly contrasting qualities, yet a clear hierarchy through color which prevents either from stepping on the other's toes.. Or how about two straight-playing sans-serif buddies? The next main heading (Conqueror) is an inline font designed expressly for titling. With it being an twist uppercase font, you might need to expand the letter-spacing a bit, as done in the example below. Inline describes a typeface with white lines appearing inside the character strokes. - fonts.com. Sadly, it's not available as a web font (yet) so you'll have to make do with it for pixel design at the moment.. It's definitely one of my favorite fonts at the moment. Take this slab serif font; minimum effort, maximum impact.

Slab serifs make very effective attention grabbers, but can be a bit pushy if you're not careful. God In Acknowledgments! Bull in a china shop sort of thing. Essay On The Life Of Oliver Twist! The above example works actually very well with its more delicate partner, because it contrasts whilst also sharing some personality traits. They appear to be very different fonts, but if you examine the curves, you'll see they're not as dissimilar as you'd first think. Some fonts are just so delicious that you almost can't fail. Take Buttermilk for example; sumptuous, elaborate and with essays, decorative. It will look great whatever you pair it with (as long as you don't try to essay on the of oliver twist steal its thunder!) Here we have pairing with Georgia: And with Aller, an ece personal statement equally subtle sans-serif: Then this was going to essay on the life of oliver be my example of pairing it with a clashing personality - too strong in its own right. But you know what?

I can live with this, it's actually quite nice! I guess sometimes you can never tell.. Let's not focus too much on what doesn't work well, we don't want to essay sour the joyous combinations in on the life, the rest of this guide do we? That said, let's just illustrate how two fonts, which are arguably too similar, can look awkward together. But why don't they work well together? I thought the idea was to contrast whilst ensuring an element of unity? They're different styles; one's a Blackletter, the dissertation other Roman serif, check.

They have different proportions; one's condensed with a relatively large x-height, the other more extended with taller ascenders, check. Yet they share weight and size, and both share those odd spurs on the end of each character. Therein lies the problem. Essay Life Of Oliver! By sharing those last three details (weight, size and decoration) they've become too alike. They're performing very similar roles, but the god in small differences are conflicting which makes for on the twist an awkward overall effect.

The curvatures of the thanking spurs, for example, are completely at odds with one another: Their axes are just 'off': And the essay on the life way a Blackletter's formed gives it a slight direction, as opposed to the vertical nature of the Roman:. Essay! These differences might not be a problem in other examples, but here we have two fonts which (at first glance) appear the same. It's a bit like when you see a celebrity standing next to their waxwork model at Madame Toussauds. It's never comfortable to essay life look at. It's difficult to attribute 'working' or 'not working' to facts and figures, normally it will be a feeling you get, you'll just know.

Once you've concluded that you don't like a font pairing, try to work out why and it will help you make decisions more quickly in the future. These days, if you head on over to Google's Web Font directory, you'll find pairing suggestions for each font. Tidy. I hope your approach to pairing fonts has been simplified by this beginners' guide. If there's one important rule you should take away from this it's You won't know until you try! Be adventurous.

As web designers we have an ever-growing repository of fonts available for use in our designs. Papers! Consider the on the life twist fundamentals, then experiment. You'll undoubtedly be surprised by what you find. If you want something really unique for your website typography, try getting one of the Envato Studio experts to create a custom typeface for you. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!

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computer usage essay Version Date: December 30, 1994. Abstract: This article discusses the use of computer software (from word processing to specialized applications) as an aid in analyzing literature by essay life of oliver twist, finding, counting, graphing, and analyzing texts available in electronic format. The personal computer is not a new tool to god in, most undergraduate students of literature. Most students probably use word processors, together with their built-in grammar and essay on the life of oliver twist spelling checkers, to write and edit papers.

And many campuses provide access to on-line catalogs for research. But the computer can do much more than that for the student: The ready availability of essay papers, English and other literary texts in essay on the electronic format now makes possible the fellowship incorporation of computing tools to aid students in their reading and study of literature. Professors can now make available to students copies of novels, poems, and plays on disk for computer-assisted searching and of oliver twist analysis. Once the student is familiar with a text, the computer offers several features that can help the student to analyze, test theories, and make significant discoveries. Even if the only software available is a word processing program, the built-in capabilities provide a surprisingly powerful tool to aid the ucsb statement student in literary research. More specialized text-analysis software is also available very inexpensively, enabling students to essay on the life of oliver, produce additional results. I. Using a Word Processor for Analysis. For example, a student might decide to examine George Eliot's use of ghosts and ghost images in Silas Marner . The book can be brought to the screen and the student can search for thanking god in dissertation acknowledgments ghost . Nearly all find commands in modern word processing programs allow the user to specify whether or not to look for essay life of oliver twist whole words only (thus finding only ghost , or not only ghost , but also ghostly, ghostlike , and so on). When each occurrence is found, the student can either read the contextual area or print the appropriate section or save it to a research file for essays choice later examination.

When searching for a theme, the student can develop a search list of related words that the of oliver twist author uses (or might use) when treating the scholarships with theme and essay life of oliver then search sequentially for the occurrences of each word. The location, context, frequency, and clustering of occurrence can all play a significant role in the working out of the theme. Equipped with this information, the student can construct an purdue library evidence-rich argument about a thematic feature of interest. Essay On The Of Oliver! It is important to note that a major benefit of computer-aided analysis of this sort is with essays of your, that the student often discovers a much fuller set of empirical data for supporting (or rebutting) interpretive claims than would be found by essay of oliver, looking back through the work at notes and underlinings. For initial assignments, the dissertation services langen professor may wish to provide some guidance and ideas to the student. Sometimes a hint will suffice: What do you make of the repeated occurrence of the word joy in on the life twist Robinson Crusoe ? And what about those words closely associated with it? Here the thesis student, who may vaguely remember one or two occurrences of the word, can look through the novel and find them all, together with their contexts, both immediate and wider. From this starting point, some good inductive thinking can proceed. To give students several ideas about the kinds of things they might look for, as well as to supply them with topics should their own creativity fail, a longer assignment might be helpful.

Here, for example, is a computer analysis homework assignment from essay life a course in The Novel, where students were given electronic copies of dissertation proposal, The Red Badge of Courage: Red Badge of Courage Computer Homework Use your computer's search capability to locate something of thematic significance in Red Badge. If some image or word or phrase seems to you to have occurred several times in an interesting way, look for that and see what you find. If you are at a loss, here are some suggestions: 1. Search for essay on the of oliver twist a color and thanking determine how it is used. For example, in what context does red seem to on the of oliver twist, be most often used? What about yellow ? Other colors to look for in context include white, crimson, brown, light, black, dark, green, blue, orange, purple, gray . Do different colors signal different events or moods? Discuss. 2. Search for the words like and as to find similes. Services Langen! The book is filled with similes, so you will find many. On The Twist! Perhaps you could make a list to copy for the class. What generalizations or interpretations can you make about Crane's use of similes?

3. The army is described as a snake. Look for ucsb snake, serpent, serpentine , and analyze what you get. 4. Look for the use of religious words as metaphors. For example, prophet, mystic, devotee, cathedral, sacred . Are these words used in their straightforward sense, or has their meaning been transferred? Explain. 5. Look for a word that occurs repeatedly in significant passages. Some possibilities include laugh, laughter, faded, run, glory, grass, mother, fantastic, rumor, flag, spirit, outcast, fear, oath, panic, hero, hate, hatred. 6. Life Twist! Be creative and ece personal look for whole phrases of interest or other words you are curious about. Essay Twist! Look for synonyms and antonyms of the term(s) you are interested in. Plan to report to the class on the significance of what you find. Provide some statistics (This word occurs 12 times while its opposite term occurs 5 times) together with some analysis of meaning or significance.

Write up a one-page report to dissertation proposal, pass out to the class. It is interesting to note that for a computer analysis assignment like this, students will often search for words or phrases that did not necessarily appear to them to be significant when they initially read the book; instead the students become curious and conjectural when the ability to search becomes available. For the assignment above, one student looked for the role of women in the novel, and essay life twist eventually reported on the relative occurrence of words referring to proposal, men and women, having discovered that Red Badge is an overwhelmingly male-focused novel. Thus, the computer search provides a new tool for the curious and life the creative, a helpful way to examine a text and to uncover the data for a deeper and services best langen better analysis. Some other examples for searches of various kinds would include these: 1. Search for a subset. Essay Of Oliver! Example: Study the epic similes in tuberculosis essay papers Milton's Paradise Lost . Essay On The Of Oliver! Many begin with as when , but others begin with only as , so the researcher can find a reduced set or the full set.

2. Search for an entire phrase. Proverbs, clichés, eponyms, colloquialisms, allusions, and signature phrases are all possibilities. Example: When Sherlock Holmes uses the expression, My dear Watson, what is the detective's attitude toward his friend? Is it consistent (that is, always patronizing, always kindly, or what)? 3. Search for a punctuation mark. Example: Study the function of questioning in the conversations of Jane Eyre . Which characters ask the questions and scholarships with which answer them?

By searching for the question mark in the first four chapters of the novel, we can see that Jane is the object of questions 89 percent of the time; of all the essay life of oliver twist questions asked, her questions about others amount to only one in ten. Other characters show their power over Jane by constantly demanding answers-demanding, in effect, that she explain her existence. She even questions herself a substantial amount. The number of questions each character asks could be graphed in a pie chart to create a visual result. An effective way to count the number of occurrences of dissertation proposal fellowship, a feature is to use the word processor's find and essay on the life replace mode.

While the find command in most word processors do not count occurrences, most replace commands do. Therefore, the user can tell the word processor to find the word or mark of interest and replace it with itself and another mark. (See Inserting Fireworks under Specialized Searches, below.) 4. Distinguish between uppercase and tuberculosis essay lowercase. Most search functions offer the user the ability to choose whether or not to essay life of oliver, match case. Choosing to langen, match case would enable a search for initial-word questions, such as Who or What . The case match will find Who but not who. 5. Search for life of oliver twist an exact match. Example: Search for tuberculosis papers heavy weather in Richard Henry Dana's Two Years Before the Mast . Search set: storm, rain, gale, wind . Essay Life Of Oliver Twist! At first this seems straightforward, with storm yielding 32 hits; rain , 108; gale , 75; and wind, 345 hits. But unless an exact match is specified, a search for wind will find windlass , windward , and tradewinds as well, while a search for rain will also locate strained, restraint, and drain . An exact match on rain now shows 62 hits, while wind shows 201. Searches over wider areas can now be made also, a process that would be enormously difficult to perform without the aid of the computer. Here are some examples: 1. Search for Shakespeare's use of conceive through all the plays, and discuss his play upon literal and intellectual conception.

2. Search selected novels of Fielding, Defoe, and Swift for thief and dissertation services best thieves to see the varied focus the writers have toward those people. A fuller search set might include rob and steal as well. 3. On The Of Oliver Twist! Search all the Sherlock Holmes stories and novels to prove that the expression, Elementary, my dear Watson, appears nowhere in Doyle, even though elementary and my dear Watson do occur several times. 4. Edgar Allan Poe's fondness for phantasm has been often remarked. Search through all his works for phantasm and phantasmagoric to see how frequently and in what context he uses these words. For example, in his well-known article, Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences, Mark Twain alleges the following: Another stage-property that he [Cooper] pulled out of his box pretty frequently was his broken twig. He prized his broken twig above all the rest of his effects, and worked it the hardest. It is dissertation fellowship, a restful chapter in any book of his when somebody doesn't step on a dry twig and alarm all the of oliver reds and library whites for two hundred yards around. Every time a Cooper person is in peril, and absolute silence is worth four dollars a minute, he is essay life of oliver twist, sure to step on papers a dry twig. (Twain 634) To see whether Twain was accurate or exaggerating, students can search for twig or even branch or stick in life of oliver Deerslayer or Last of the Mohicans and examine both the number and context of the occurrences. Once again, to help students get started, the instructor may wish to dissertation proposal fellowship, provide some theories for testing. Here is an example assignment for essay on the life twist Gulliver's Travels : Computer search for dissertation proposal Gulliver's Travels Directions: Test one of the following theories by essay, developing a search list of appropriate words or phrases and library then by using your search program to on the life of oliver twist, locate them.

Write an scholarships essays choice analytic argument supporting or rebutting the theory with the evidence you have found. 1. Theory: Swift's favorite number is fourteen, which he uses often and for comic effect. Test this theory by finding the essay life of oliver twist number of occurrences of fourteen, compared with other numbers, especially the other teen numbers: thirteen, fifteen, sixteen, etc. Scholarships Essays Of Your! Also, attend to essay on the of oliver twist, the context of the occurrence of fourteen and ece personal statement the others to see if fourteen is used in comic contexts more than the others. On The! 2. Theory: Gulliver is so servile that he always calls his host in library thesis the land he enters, my master. Find the essay twist occurrences of my master to see whether this theory has adequate supporting evidence. Also look up his master and perhaps my servant or another phrase that would indicate that Gulliver sometimes sees himself as a master.

3. Theory: Images of violence are more apparent than images of peace . Develop a search list of violent words like blood, death, kill and peace-related words like calm, peace, tranquil, etc. Search for and tabulate the occurrences of tuberculosis essay papers, these words. Be sure to attend to the context of occurrence. How do you interpret the results? 4. Theory: Horses are viewed negatively in the first three books . On The! (Horses are the intelligent beings in Book IV, but how do they figure in the other books?) Look for number of scholarships essays of your choice, occurrences, context, attitude toward, and so forth. Essay Twist! 5. Theory: Exaggeration is an integral part of Swift's satire, and Swift uses exaggeration through his word choice. Look up the number of occurrences of words that might be used for tuberculosis essay purposes of exaggeration, such as million, thousand (check the word before it to see if it's a number also, as in on the life of oliver six thousand ), huge, enormous, vast, large, extreme . Essay! Then check these usages against a reference novel of the essay of oliver twist same period, such as Tom Jones or Robinson Crusoe, by calculating an exaggeration-per-thousand-words figure for scholarships with essays of your choice each novel. Interpret your findings.

For pedagogical purposes, not all the theories in an assignment should be supportable or stated in precisely accurate terms. The students should be encouraged to support, revise, or rebut the theories they work with, depending on what they discover in the text. Two or more themes can be measured and plotted simultaneously to reveal the relationship, if any, between their ebbing and essay twist flowing. Does one theme rise as another falls, or do they track one another, or are they completely independent of one another? The rising and falling of theme-related words could also be traced against the perceived rising and proposal fellowship falling of the action of a work. 1. Inserting Sectional Markers. On The Life! The beginning and ucsb ece personal ending of essay on the life of oliver, speeches, passages of best langen, description, crucial scenes, subplots, or other text portions can be marked by unusual characters (such as angle brackets: section 6) and then the essay on the life twist words between the markers can be studied-counted, searched for thematic nuances, and so on. For example, the number of words spoken by each of several characters could be counted quickly (spelling checkers usually count words as part of their activity) and the results analyzed. Is one character dominating the conversation of the work? Are some characters indulging in long speeches while others speak only in bursts?

2. Inserting Fireworks. To enable the student to locate and tuberculosis essay compare the proximity of two or more words or phrases of interest, the latter can be marked prominently for essay of oliver subsequent location by glancing through the text. A large repetition is not needed: three or four unusual symbols in a row will stand out from the text sufficiently. For example, in the issue mentioned above about papers, passages relating to essay life twist, heavy weather in library thesis Two Years Before the Mast , the search words could be marked for easy location near each other. Here is a sample paragraph thus marked: Giving up all attempts to collect my things together, I lay down upon the sails, expecting every moment to hear the cry of all hands ahoy, which the approaching ###storm### would soon make necessary. I shortly heard the $$$rain$$$-drops falling on deck, thick and fast, and the watch evidently had their hands full of work, for I could hear the loud and repeated orders of the mate, the trampling of feet, the creaking of blocks, and all the accompaniments of essay on the life of oliver twist, a coming ###storm###. In a few minutes the slide of the hatch was thrown back, which let down the noise and tumult of the deck still louder, the loud cry of All hands, ahoy! tumble up here and take in ece personal statement sail, saluted our ears, and the hatch was quickly shut again. When I got upon on the life, deck, a new scene and a new experience was before me. The little brig was close hauled upon the @@@wind@@@, and lying over, as it then seemed to me, nearly upon her beam ends. 3. Best Langen! Marking Individual Features. The student can read through a text and mark certain features of interest as they occur by adding a special character (such as an @ or # or %), or by using angle brackets or braces (as in zeugma).

For example, in a long poem, mark each Alexandrine line, or each triplet, or each enjambed line with a marker and essay life twist then search for these markers to discover patterns not otherwise visible. II. Thesis! Using Grammar and Style Checkers. Students may wish to compare average sentence lengths across multiple authors or across a single author's works. For example, Dreiser's Sister Carrie averages about 12 words per sentence (partly because of the substantial amount of short dialog), while Swift's A Modest Proposal averages about 31. B. Analyzing the Particulars of Discourse. Frequency plot of fear, dread, fright, terror, feared fearful, fears, afraid, dreadful, frightened, scared alarming, alarmed, represents the motif fear, which occurred 128 times. Each row represents 500 lines. While some modules of MTAS have file size limitations (mentioned below) the Word Distribution Graph function had no trouble searching for references to Miss Westen and Sophia in the 340,000-word Tom Jones (a file size of just under two megabytes), so the program should handle most novels without a problem. Another program, BE.EXE , calculates the percentage of words in Basic English, the 850-word vocabulary defined by essay on the life twist, C. K. Ogden.

Readability Plus provides a display of mortar and tuberculosis papers bricks, the relationship between the number of words in the text that match one of the most commonly used words (a list of essay on the life twist, 2450) and the number that do not match. Since most prose draws about dissertation services best langen, 80 percent of its words from the most commonly used list, comparisons can be made to determine whether the text under study departs from this figure. Information provided by these programs can be used along with that from other text analysis programs to study vocabulary richness and uniqueness. The program Micro-Eyeball, while designed for essay on the of oliver twist use on relatively small text samples , produces a large set of statistical descriptions useful for linguistic analysis (Ross 2). The ratio of proposal fellowship, adjectives to nouns, the average length of subordinate clauses, the relative usage of essay on the, nouns to verbs, and the average length of tuberculosis, prepositional phrases are some of the kinds of on the, data produced. These calculations allow the student to compare various texts with each other, to discover significant differences between texts. Studies of authorship or comparison of writing styles are just two possibilities. For example, a student might ask, How does the style of the eighteenth-century novel differ from that of the twentieth-century novel? Or how does diction vary between early and late Shakespeare, or between two plays?

Computer tools, like other literary tools (such as concordances or even the OED), provide aids for student research. Proposal Fellowship! Coupled with some creativity, they open up new possibilities, they stimulate curiosity, and they create excitement through discovery. A student can explore a question or an idea and trace themes and connections wherever interest or insight may lead. The search or the graph or the of oliver printout is never the end result. Instead, each one enables the student to return to the text to examine, compare, and think. Several hundred novels, poems, plays, philosophical works, and other prose writings, from ancient Greece through the library thesis 19th century, are readily available for scholarly research. Texts of 20th century works are more problematic because of essay on the life twist, copyright restrictions. Tuberculosis Essay! Academics should consult with the copyright holder of any modern work before making copies of it available to students for research. For works in the public domain, the most efficient and least expensive way to obtain a large number of texts is with a CD ROM disc. The professor can choose one or more works from the essay on the disc and copy them onto floppy disks for distribution to students.

Several dozen novels, poems, and plays are available on scholarships with essays of your choice the disc, Desktop Bookshop , from WeMake CD's, Indianapolis, Indiana. These files are in ASCII format and can be searched by virtually any word processor or search program on Macintoshes and on the life twist IBM PC's. Another source of ASCII-format texts is Project Gutenberg, whose 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 collections are available on a single CD-ROM from Walnut Creek CD-ROM, 1547 Palos Verdes Mall, #260, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. The publisher intends to update the disc every six months to add the new titles issued by scholarships, the Project. As of this writing, the most recent disk is November, 1994. On The Of Oliver! Files are also available directly from the Project over the Internet. Andromeda Interactive (1050 Marina Village Pky. Ste. 107, Alameda, CA 94501) produces the library thesis Oxford University Press Complete Works of Shakespeare and the Classic Library.

This latter title contains 60 novels, 40 plays, 600 poems, and 144 short stories, together with a graphical interface and search capability. World Library (2809 Main St., Irvine, CA 92714) has several CD-ROM products available for Windows, in its Library of the Future series. While the files are not stored in ASCII format, searching software accompanies the disc and essay life of oliver individual works can be saved to ASCII files on hard or floppy disk. Mary Mallery has recently published a list of electronic text archives (292-322). Finally, scanners with optical character recognition software are now affordable for thesis many departments, so it is essay on the twist, possible to scan one's own texts for research and teaching. If the work you wish to use is copyrighted, be sure to check with the copyright holder before disseminating copies of the e-text to students. Sources of Specialized Software. MTAS and TACT are available from The Centre for Computing in the Humanities, Robarts Library, 14th Floor, 130 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A5.

Micro-Eyeball is available from Donald Ross, English Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Readability Plus is available from Scandanavian PC Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 3156, Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3156. Mallery, Mary. Directory of Electronic Text Centers.

Text Technology 4(1994): 292-322. Ogden, C. K. The System of Basic English . Dissertation! New York: Harcourt, 1934. Ross, Donald and David Hunter. Micro-EYEBALL: An Interactive System for Producing Stylistic Descriptions and Comparisons. Computers and the Humanities 28(1994):1-11. Smith, John B. Computer Criticism. In Rosanne G. Potter , Literary Computing and Literary Criticism: Theoretical and essay life of oliver twist Practical Essays on Theme and Rhetoric . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. Scholarships Essays Of Your Choice! (13-44). Twain, Mark. Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences. In Charles Neider, ed.

The Complete Humorous Sketches and Tales of Mark Twain. New York: Doubleday, 1961. (631-642). VirtualSalt Home. w w w . v i r t u a l s a l t . Essay Life! c o m About the author:

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cave painting essays Prehistoric Cave Art: Prehistoric cave-art is twist, important as it serves as some of the best means of showing the interaction between our primitive ancestors and dissertation proposal, the world as they perceived it. The Image (right) is the most basic self portrait (From Pech Merle, c. 25,000 BP). Through it we can see the first steps of our awakenings as a species. There are certain characteristics of cave-art that allow us to begin to on the life, form an purdue impression of the people behind the drawings, often found at the depths of long, deep tunnel systems in small secretive caverns. Article : Nature.com (May, 2013) 'The Earliest Known Cave Paintings Fuel Arguments About Whether Neanderthals Were The Mental Equivalent to Modern Humans'. Until recently, t he earliest European cave-art dates from Chauvet in France, around 32,000 years ago. (2) With over 350 cave-art sites in France and Spain alone, variously occupied over the 25,000 years preceding the essay life twist, end of the thanking god in dissertation acknowledgments, last ice-age, it is surprising to find that the range of cave-art is so narrow. Predatory Felines. Chauvet, France c. 30,000 BP.

Some of the essay on the twist, earliest cave-art in the world. Article : ScienceDaily.com: (June, 2012) Oldest Rock Art in Europe Discovered In Spain. 'Recent studies have shown that the ' Palaeolithic paintings in essay El Castillo cave in Northern Spain date back at least 40,800 years' -- making them Europe's oldest known cave art, according to new research published June 14 in Science. Hand stencils and disks made by blowing paint onto essay the wall in El Castillo cave were found to date back to at least 40,800 years, making them the oldest known cave art in Europe, 5-10,000 years older than previous examples from France. A large club-shaped symbol in dissertation the famous polychrome chamber at essay on the life of oliver twist Altamira was found to be at least 35,600 years old, indicating that painting started there 10,000 years earlier than previously thought, and that the cave was revisited and painted a number of times over fellowship a period spanning more than 20,000 years'. The first real claim for the existence of Palaeolithic cave art was that made in 1880 for the Spanish cave of Altamira by essay life of oliver a local landowner, de Sautuola.

His views were treated with scepticism by the archaeological establishment, because nothing similar had previously been reported, and almost all known portable art had come from France. The rejection of Altamira persisted for twenty years until a breakthrough was made at the cave of La Mouthe (Dordogne) where, in 1895, the removal of some fill had exposed an unknown gallery, the walls of which had engravings including a bison figure. Because of Palaeolithic deposits in the blocking fill, it was clear that the pictures must be ancient. Thanking Dissertation Acknowledgments! Finally, in 1901, engravings were found in essay on the twist the cave of Les Combarelles (Dordogne) and paintings in the nearby cave of Font de Gaume. In 1902 the existence of scholarships with of your choice cave art was officially recognized by essay twist the archaeological establishment. The Distribution of European Cave-art. The distribution of cave art ( art parital ) is equally patchy, though it is most abundant in areas that are also rich in decorated objects: the Prigord, the French Pyrenees, and Cantabrian Spain. Palaeolithic decorated caves are found from Portugal and the very south of statement Spain to the north of France.

Traces have been found in southwest Germany, and there are concentrations in Italy and Sicily. A handful of caves are also known in Yugoslavia, Romania, and Russia. On The! The current total for Eurasia is about 280 sites. Some contain only one or a few figures on the walls, whereas others like Lascaux or Les Trois Frres have hundreds. Distribution of primary Palaeolithic cave-art locations in Eurasia. In recent years it has become apparent that Palaeolithic people also produced rock art in the open air, where it has survived in exceptional circumstances: Six sites have so far been found in Spain, Portugal, and the French Pyrenees with engravings that are Palaeolithic in style. Ucsb Ece Personal! So cave art is essay of oliver, not typical of the period; caves are merely the services best, places where most art has survived.

What Materials did they use? The range of colours Palaeolithic man found in the natural world is quite remarkable – reds in the form of essay on the of oliver twist iron ore, blacks in library thesis the form of charcoal or manganese, yellows from iron oxide and whites from chalk or even burned bone or shell. Essay On The Life Of Oliver! Clay ochre too provided some basic colours. Purdue Library! The artists displayed incredible ingenuity in applying these pigments to their pictures. At Lascaux, for on the, instance, hundreds of dissertation best rudimentary pigment crayons were discovered scattered around the on the life, floor. Analysis of some of these has revealed that artists used recipes to prepare them, combining the raw colour with talc or feldspar to increase their bulk, and adding animal and plant oils to bind the materials. (4) Analysis of samples of pigment from Lascaux revealed scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite. Because there are no known deposits of these minerals in the area, more distant origins and trade-routes are inferred. The nearest modern known Mn-rich province from Lascaux is the Pyrenees, which is scholarships with essays, 250 km from the Dordoigne area. (7) The early dates attributed to these very specific oxides, and their common use in adornment and twist, covering the dead in library thesis funerary rituals worldwide make it a reasonable speculation that the life of oliver, origins of mining are linked in with the need for pigment. The Mystery of La Marche. (15,000 B.P.)

Hundreds of beautifully engraved and painted human heads and faces were discovered on slates carefully placed so as to cover the floor of the cave at La Marche. Dissertation Proposal! Just to of oliver twist, make the discovery even more unique, several of the sketches include representations of ece personal clothing. Some of the twist, human heads and faces discovered on slates on tuberculosis essay, the floor at La Marche, France. Lascaux Cave. These drawings are over 17,000 years old. They are suggested to have astronomical relevance.

At Lascaux, sockets in the walls show that a scaffold system was used for painting the ceiling drawings. Lascaux, France. Of Oliver Twist! (Left) Pleiades and Taurus, (Right) Suggested Lunar Count (3) . Article: Lascaux Under Threat. 'The cave has been under attack since 1998 from tuberculosis, mould, fungi and bacteria. A new air conditioning system put into on the twist place in best 2000 involved many workers coming in and out of the cave and twist, it is believed that they did not properly disinfect their shoes upon entering, thereby bringing a common local mould into the cave. Authorities began spraying massive doses of with essays choice antibiotics and fungicides in an effort to stop the rapidly spreading organisms.

The foreign organisms continued to advance so most of the air conditioning system was shut down raising the on the life of oliver twist, temperature of the cave. In 2001, authorities aggressively poured quicklime over the floor of the cave in an effort to essay, stop the essay life of oliver, fungus. Compresses soaked in a mixture of fungicides and services langen, antibiotics were then applied directly on life twist, the paintings. By 2002, the fungi and mould retreated, but the bacteria were still causing large dark spots to grow in the cave. An invasive and tuberculosis essay papers, highly labour intensive, mechanical removal treatment was then tried. Of Oliver! This involved the removal of the bacteria's roots and proved to be damaging because crews were constantly inside physically removing the spots. Furthermore, the brown bacterial spots that remain are highly visible.

By 2006, colonies of black spots, some as large as human hands, were quickly proliferating, spreading over painted and unpainted surfaces. The spots have yet to be identified by a microbiologist. Some of the paintings are in critical condition and colour tones are fading. The cave, in addition, is currently very wet and water can be seen running over the face of paintings. The limestone which gave the cave a remarkable brilliance, has turned grey. Current managers have found no treatment and the spots continue to spread'. Pleiades and the Taurus Constellation. Research into the prominence of clusters of seven dots alongside images of Auroch's in European cave-art has led to the suggestion that they may represent the first indications of constellations. (5) The heliacal rising of library thesis Pleiades was one of the on the twist, most important celestial markers after the moon to prehistoric people around the world. It represented the beginning of the tuberculosis essay, new-year and of the agricultural season.

Markings on bones, stones and paintings on cave walls have shown that the sky was probably used for orientating in time and space. As well as Lascaux, a panel in the cave of La-Tete-du-Lion, France c 21,000 BP) also has a combination of Auroch (Bull-Aldebaran) and seven dots (Pleiades). In addition, at both sites, the eye of the bovine marks the position of on the of oliver twist Aldebaran, the primary star in the Taurus constellation. A survey of cave-symbols has highlighted the appearance of dissertation 26 symbols which appear to repeat themselves around the Palaeolithic world. Article; New Scientist. (February 17th, 2010) Chauvet Cave and it's Palaeolithic art. The most famous of the paintings is the essay on the life twist, group of trotting horses, or the two rhinoceros in a bad mood, or even the depiction of wild cattle. What is generally ignored by library thesis the art critics who manage to essay of oliver, enter the cave system are the semi circles, lines and ucsb ece personal statement, zigzag signs marked on the same walls - they have mostly been ignored. Until now.

Two students have proposed these signs are actually symbols - not doodles by idle hands, and they form a written 'code' that is akin to an early form of transmitting information. Essay On The Life Of Oliver! It seems the Palaeolithic people are sending us a message - but what does it mean? Alas, the students don't know - or the archaeologists, anthropologists, and anyone else, it seems. The students come from the University of Victoria on Vancouver Island and they have compled a comprehensive database of all recorded cave signs from 146 sites in France covering 25,000 years of time - from 35,000-10,000BC. It seems that 26 signs, all drawn in proposal fellowship the same style, appear again and again at different sites. Some of them are quite simple brush strokes, such as straight lines, circles, semi-circles and on the life, triangles. Fellowship! Others are more complex - such as the tusks of mammoth (without a body).

This is the kind of thing developed much later in the pictographic languages, it is essay of oliver twist, suggested, and evolved into abstract symbols. Some signs appear repeatedly in pairs as in for example hands, or dots, fingerplanting and thumb stencils. The symbols, it is now realised, might represent a rudimentary language - they are telling us something (see also Van Pezinger and Nowell in Antiquity and in The Journal of Human Evolution ). The research didn't end there however as they tried to date and track the symbols - lines, dots, love heart shapes, kidney shapes, ladder shapes, and the spiral for example. The spiral only appeared in 2 out essays of your, of the 146 locations which surprised them as in the Holocene era it became a common motif. Likewise, the zig zag symbol appeared very late in the sequence (in the Palaeolithic) but once again is a common Holocene symbol (on pottery for example, or at Newgrange and other megalithic monuments). However, three quarters of the signs as defined by Petzinger and Nowell occur from the earliest point (after 35,000BC). In other words, the signs were already established at of oliver that point in time - with no evidence of a transition phase (a building process as different signs were added to tuberculosis, the collection) and therefore they argue, quite realistically, the essay on the life of oliver twist, signs have an origin before 35,000BC - and before the arrival of modern humans in Europe (expect a lot of resistance to dissertation proposal, this idea). Essay Life Of Oliver! Of course, there could be a catastrophic reason for tuberculosis papers, a sudden emergence of such symbols around 35,000BC - and they may in fact be describing some unusual events they experienced. Essay On The Twist! Similar symbols turn up in Australia and southern Africa and it might be argued that early human migrants brought them Out of Africa. Purdue Thesis! The race is on to interpret the meaning behind the signs.

A Chart of the 26 reccurring shapes (proto-alphabet) from the essay life twist, 146 French rock art sites. This interpretation of Palaeolithic cave-art reflects the suggestion of an interest in the metaphysical side of life. Images of mixtures of humans and animals are proposed to be 'visionary' and suggestive of profound experiences, often suggested to have been drug-induced. Left: Mushroom/Bee Man. Centre: Moab Shaman. Right: Australian Petroglyphs. Left: The 'Sorcerer', from Trois Freres, France. Right: Similar figure, Dordoigne. These hybrid figures are considered as evidence of scholarships essays of your early shamanic practices from the Palaeolithic era.

There is essay on the of oliver twist, apparently little cave-art concerned with reproduction or fertility in ucsb statement cave-art. However on occasion on can find painted on twist, the walls of caves in Europe, illustrations of the Palaeolithic sexuality as seen through the following images: La Marche, France. One of several 'erotic' drawings discovered there. These examples of Palaeolithic 'vulva' art are only a couple of ucsb ece personal several found associated with European cave-art. The image on essay life, the right is from Chauvet cave in France. It has a feline on one side, and a bull on the other. The two animals combine to create the image of a female vulva. . These three women are called the ' Angles sur l'Anglin ', France. Ece Personal! (Iakovleva, Pinon 1997, fig. 162-169) . Reclining female nude, cave wall engraving, The Dordogne, France, c. 12,000 B.C. Reclining female nude, cave wall engraving, La Magdelaine Cave, France, c. 15,000-10,000 B.C. The study of Palaeo-acoustics has revealed that several ancient structures were built so as to incorporate acoustic phenomena in their design.

Examples such as the Hypogeum in Malta, and of oliver twist, the Mayan Temples at Chitzen Itza demonstrate that this science was well recognised and understood in thanking god in dissertation Neolithic times but remarkably, this same effect was already being initiated at essay on the twist several cave systems in Palaeolithic Europe as the following articles demonstrate: Article : ( New Scientist , p. 14, November 28, 1992) - ' The Acoustics Of Rock Art' '..S. Waller has visited rock art sites in Europe, North America, and Australia. Standing well back from the painted walls, he claps or creates percussion sounds, and records the dissertation fellowship, echo's bouncing back. It turns out, that rock art seems to be placed intentionally where echo's are not only unusually loud but are also related to the pictured subject matter. Where hoofed animals are depicted, one easily evokes echo's of a running herd. If a person is drawn, the echo's of voices seem to emanate from the picture itself! At open air sites with paintings, Waller found that echo's reverberate on on the, average at a level 8 decibels above the level of the background. With Choice! At sites without art the average was 3 decibels. In deep caves such as Lascaux and Font-de-Gaume in France, echo's in painted chambers produce sound levels of between 23 and 31 decibels.

Deep cave walls painted with cats produce sounds from about 1 to 7 decibels. Essay On The Life Twist! In contrast, surfaces without paint are 'totally flat'. Left: One of several 3-dimensional Buffalo at Altamira, Spain, and Right: Hand and horse at Chauvet in France. Note the use of the rock outcrop at Peche Merle, France. Only 18 sites of sculptures are known in France (6) . At Montespan in France (c. 20,000 BP), a three-dimensional bear was formed out of a whopping 700 kg of the stuff.

Sometimes the natural contours and features of a cave, rock or wall – stalagmites or other mineral formations – would be used to accentuate and augment images (most often animals’ genitals). Carvings of Horses and Bison. L'Abri-du-Cap-Blanc, France. 15,000 BP.