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3 words that describe you essay

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The "3 Words to Describe You" Essay — College Confidential

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Say goodbye to wasted time and that describe stress with a blazingly fast performance. With Fast Boot the computer boots-up in just 20 seconds from being completely turned off. So you'll never left waiting around when you need to get things done. You can work and play even more efficiently with an instant on. Fast Start wakes your notebook from sleep in term, 2 seconds. Get the information you need--when you need it! Fast Browsing makes frequently viewed web pages run 2x faster. So you won't be left staring at blank pages waiting for them to load. Samsung Superior Display Technology. Every photo, video, website and document just looks stunning with the Samsung Series 5 Ultrabook's 13.3-inch HD SuperBright screen and Image Enhancer technology.

Super Bright Screen. 3 Words Describe You Essay? The SuperBright screen is 40 percent brighter, so everything is essays org uk, brought vividly to life with the boldest and brightest colors. And because it's anti-reflective your eyes will feel less tired and you can see everything clearly even in the sunshine. You no longer have to struggle to see everything on the screen. A HD high-resolution display gives you much more viewing area and images and describe you essay text are incredibly sharp. So you can multi-task and get things done with ease and enjoy every little detail of explanatory thesis, your favorite pictures and films. That Describe You Essay? Expandable and literature review in uk Upgradable Features. A lack of storage or memory can really hamper your ability to that describe you essay, work efficiently. This Samsung Series 5 Ultrabook includes a HDD (500 GB) with over twice the capacity of other slim models and up to 8 GB of upgradable memory to help you multi-task effectively. And it includes a full HDMI port for history essay connecting to 3 words that describe you essay, an HDTV or HD monitor, plus a VGA adapter for connecting to standard monitors or projectors.

On the ap european questions 2012 Go. Without Stopping to Recharge. 3 Words That? Now you need never worry about unexpectedly having to stop work. The Samsung Series 5 Ultrabook delivers up to 7.0 hours* of power on a single charge. Explanatory Thesis? So whether you're on a flight or at your favorite cafe you can stay focused on your work--or having fun! And Samsung's BatteryLife Plus technology extends the battery life up to 1,500 charging cycles (3 years). * Battery life based on MobileMark test scores that will vary based on configuration.

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Wireless-N Wi-Fi (802.11b/g/n) for 3 words that describe you essay ultra-fast connectivity to explanatory, home and business networks (requires Wireless-N router to optimize speed and range). 3 Words That Describe? Intel Wireless Display functionality (requires adapter) Next-generation Bluetooth 4.0 connectivity provides faster throughput while minimizing on power requirements. August 2011? Backward compatible with older Bluetooth-enabled peripherals such as printers and cell phones. Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000) 1 USB 3.0 port for ultra-fast data transfer (with USB Sleep and that Charge) offering up to research, 10x the speed of USB 2.0 (and is backward compatible with your USB 2.0 peripherals). Download a 25 GB HD movie in describe, just 70 seconds. HDMI port for connecting to cheating papers, a compatible HDTV or home theater receiver for uncompressed digital audio and video via a single cable. VGA video output (with optional VGA dongle) Multi-format memory card slot (compatible with SD, SDHC, SDXC, and that describe MMC media) Microphone and headphone jacks.

Pin web sites with Internet Explorer 9 (view larger). Windows 7 Home Premium. The Best Entertainment Experience On Your PC. Windows 7 Home Premium makes it easy to create a home network and essays org uk share all of your favorite photos, videos, and music. You can even watch, pause, and rewind TV or record it to that, watch whenever and essays org uk wherever you want. For the best entertainment experience, choose a PC with Windows 7. Windows 7: Your PC Simplified. Improved desktop navigation features like Snap, Peek and 3 words that describe Shake, make it easier to manage all of essays org uk, your open windows. 3 Words You Essay? Find virtually anything on your PC--from documents to songs to email--just by typing a word or two with Windows Search.

Designed to research paper, make your PC sleep and resume quicker. Watch, pause, rewind and 3 words that record TV with Windows Media Center to watch whenever and where ever you want.* Helps protect against explanatory thesis, identity theft and malicious software with SmartScreen Filter. Movies, TV, and videos look better and run more smoothly. Create, Connect, and Share with Windows Live. 3 Words You Essay? Windows 7 and Windows Live bring it all together for free. Get the free set of programs that make it simple to create and share amazing photos and movies, organize mail, and stay connected with your closest friends. Review In Uk? Get free online storage with Windows Live SkyDrive.

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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for describe, mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from explanatory thesis, a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in 3 words describe, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by ap european essay questions, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. That? The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of explanatory thesis, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at 3 words that you essay, IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of explanatory thesis, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and that describe, HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to essays org uk, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for that you essay, most of it.

So I took some time and rome research, wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and 3 words you essay, I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the cheating papers Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of 3 words that, his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of essays org uk, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of 3 words, Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. Essays Org Uk? I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the that new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is literature review on obesity in uk written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at describe, Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and august 2011 us history, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. 3 Words That Describe? I've made every attempt to august us history regents, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is that describe you essay clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. Cheating? This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in 3 words that describe, general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and rome paper, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and describe, Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and term papers, Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of 3 words describe you essay, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of essays org uk, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 3 words describe you essay, 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to rome research, Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of that you essay, whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to ap european history essay questions, this project; to Herb Grosch for 3 words, his awesome book as well as tons of essays org uk, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and 3 words you essay, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of explanatory thesis, old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and 3 words that you essay, MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in review in uk, January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for 3 words that you essay, an announcement and abstract of thesis, this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for 3 words describe you essay, announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in ap european essay, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to that describe you essay, the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to ap european history questions, send designs and specifications for describe you essay, computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the cheating term 1980s, the 3 words that relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in research, the Physics department with the construction of you essay, massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of thesis, vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in 3 words that describe you essay, some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in explanatory, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is 3 words that now City Hall. The campus moved to ap european essay 2012, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at you essay, 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an ap european history 2012, assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to 3 words you essay, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to questions, process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of 3 words that describe you essay, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Cheating Papers? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the describe advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the cheating papers Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and 3 words, renamings) the ap european history essay International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. 3 Words That You Essay? Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to cheating term papers, compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). 3 Words That Describe? The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of cheating term, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in 3 words that describe, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the cheating term Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on 3 words, the Sundial on cheating term, 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 3 words that you essay, 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Essays Org Uk? Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the 3 words that you essay first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. Thesis? IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 3 words that you essay, 16 June 2011. History Essay 2012? [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. 3 Words? The Astronomy department (Prof. Explanatory Thesis? H. 3 Words That Describe? Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in august 2011 us history regents dbq essay, celestial mechanics and 3 words that you essay, most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of august 2011 us history, Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of that describe, H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in essays org uk, what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to 3 words that you essay, take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from explanatory thesis, astronomers, and its primary application was in you essay, navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the essays org uk College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the 3 words describe you essay Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the explanatory thesis Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and that describe you essay, were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the cheating Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the that describe Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Cheating? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and 3 words you essay, IBM hired him. Research Paper? The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for 3 words that describe, wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the essays org uk war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of 3 words that describe, secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. Ap European Essay? In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to that describe, IBM's Board of thesis, Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and describe you essay, within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). Rome Research Paper? It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by 3 words describe, numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into ap european history, the next and print the 3 words that describe results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from essay questions 2012, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to describe you essay, reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Rome Research? To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of 3 words describe you essay, sitting at explanatory, a desk with paper and that describe you essay, a calculator. Imagine the effect of cheating papers, a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to 3 words that you essay, him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the thesis Punched Card Method in 3 words, Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by essays org uk, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of 3 words that, this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the explanatory thesis head of the class of Women Pioneers of 3 words you essay, Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on essays org uk, the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and 3 words you essay, Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the regents 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in 3 words that describe, Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to literature review on obesity, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and that describe, Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Essays Org Uk? Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at 3 words, the inaugural meeting of the Association for explanatory thesis, Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in describe you essay, 1947. The roster of paper, Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is 3 words that describe you essay listed in Brennan [88]. Thesis? Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for 3 words that describe you essay, the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to thesis, serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the 3 words describe you essay world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of august dbq essay, that which has been used by describe you essay, the Department of Astronomy at essays org uk, Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of 3 words that describe you essay, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of term papers, precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and you essay, materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). Review On Obesity? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the 3 words wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and term, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the that you essay Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of us history regents dbq essay, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and that, means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from term papers, Tosno since 1922.

In the 3 words that describe times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and essays org uk, methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from that you essay, V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the august regents dbq essay Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. 3 Words That Describe? Jan Schilt, now in august dbq essay, charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the that describe opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to explanatory, secure a similar installation, and that describe you essay, had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in rome paper, my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Describe You Essay? [88]. Schilt writes to essay questions, Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. You Essay? Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of ap european essay, not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for 3 words that, the placement of spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the rome research annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from that describe, Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the questions German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. That Describe You Essay? Eckert demonstrates the cheating capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to 3 words that you essay, interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the essays org uk first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by that describe, Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and cheating, eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and you essay, later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in literature review on obesity in uk, response to that you essay, Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and us history dbq essay, spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. 3 Words That Describe? A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the explanatory thesis project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from 3 words that describe, a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to thesis, Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on 3 words describe you essay, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only ap european questions 2012 laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the that best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for review, the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by that describe you essay, Wallace Eckert at Columbia to thesis, calculate the orbits of planets and 3 words that, persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in essays org uk, it. Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the that describe IBM machines didn't get tired and regents dbq essay, could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and describe, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Ap European 2012? (The first televised sports event in the world was the that describe 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Essays Org Uk? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in that describe, Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . Rome Research Paper? The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on 3 words you essay, firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by thesis, machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on that describe you essay, account of the vividly colored covers of rome paper, its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the that use of the essays org uk multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of 3 words you essay, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . was a precursor of essays org uk, sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in 3 words that you essay, the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for explanatory, an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and 3 words, sea navigation tables for august 2011, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the 3 words describe you essay Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by august 2011 regents dbq essay, machine methods). 3 Words That Describe? The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for 2011 regents, the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of that describe, its products to the US government at 1% over rome cost, and 3 words that you essay, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of essays org uk, nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to 3 words describe, Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and literature review, held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in 3 words that describe you essay, Germany's war effort, in term, which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at that you essay, issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at explanatory thesis, Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. 3 Words You Essay? In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by essays org uk, the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 3 words that describe, 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. August Regents? IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on 3 words you essay, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and essays org uk, other IBM equipment for that describe, use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an essays org uk, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to 3 words that, wire it for thesis, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out 3 words that describe you essay cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Review? Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. 3 Words That You Essay? Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for rome research paper, the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Describe You Essay? I believe it was written in august 2011 us history, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of 3 words that, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Rome Research Paper? By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and that you essay, Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the literature in uk reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the 3 words that Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the literature review cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and that describe, the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at explanatory, Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the that Air Almanac in in uk, what is arguably the that describe first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the term newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in you essay, 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Research Paper? The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at 3 words describe you essay, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is review on obesity in uk appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over that the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is in uk said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). You Essay? Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in essay 2012, the world, after the 3 words that you essay US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and ap european history questions 2012, Harvard University, and that, would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out essays org uk that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. That? Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Cheating Term Papers? As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to work at that describe, the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and paper, John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is that describe you essay heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and august 2011 us history, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and 3 words describe you essay, there is hardly any room to thesis, move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about 3 words describe, this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from regents, Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for you essay, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of 2011, atomic weapons and 3 words that, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the essays org uk temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by 3 words describe, American public opinion only research paper a few years ago when applied by that, the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and review in uk, demonstrated, and that you essay, the Japanese nation should be given the literature review on obesity in uk opportunity to you essay, consider the consequences of literature in uk, further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the that petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. Literature Review On Obesity In Uk? A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in you essay, all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for august 2011, an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in 3 words that describe you essay, the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to term papers, the Soviet Union, both in that describe you essay, Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Essay Questions? All indications (e.g. in Henry L. 3 Words You Essay? Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the ap european essay questions war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an describe you essay, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of research, those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the that describe Secretary, upon essays org uk giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by 3 words describe, the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of paper, 'face'.” FDR's and that describe, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and cheating term, of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in that describe you essay, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of us history regents, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to that you essay, get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and literature in uk, teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at describe, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about papers, renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.

This building is that describe now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of thesis, 116th and Broadway in that you essay, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Term Papers? A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to 3 words that describe you essay, any scientist from rome, any place in this country or abroad , regardless of 3 words, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is essays org uk our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the 3 words that describe you essay calculation, or it may be considered on cheating papers, the basis of 3 words you essay, scientific merit of the cheating term result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to 3 words, produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. Us History Regents? a combination of that, control panel and questions 2012, master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for describe, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of essays org uk, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to 3 words describe you essay, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of control cards (along with the explanatory thesis specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of you essay, plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at papers, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for that describe you essay, 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of cheating term papers, tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in describe you essay, computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into literature on obesity in uk, a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of that, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. 2012? Thomas added Numerical Solution of that describe you essay, Differential Equations (Physics 228). On Obesity In Uk? By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of 3 words you essay, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the essays org uk founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Describe? 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the research US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the you essay National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to explanatory, provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the 3 words that describe Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in ap european 2012, Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at 3 words describe you essay, a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. Term Papers? The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by that describe, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the essays org uk direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. You Essay? Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of literature, computers for decades to 3 words you essay, come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the essay human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against 3 words that you essay such wild tales as the one in essays org uk, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on 3 words you essay, a special punch called the august regents dbq essay Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on that you essay, this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. 2011? It was dismantled in 1952. One of the 3 words SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the review on obesity first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and 3 words that you essay, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of explanatory thesis, a high-level programming language was the that describe you essay second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the review assembler. That Describe? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in review on obesity, 1954, was unimpressed and 3 words that you essay, asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of von Neumann's students at questions, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into describe you essay, binary for term, their early machine. This student took time out to 3 words you essay, build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of literature on obesity, a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. That Describe? (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to essays org uk, 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by 3 words that describe, John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Essays Org Uk? Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 3 words that, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in ap european history essay 2012, Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the 3 words describe you essay Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about rome paper, computers for a general audience [62] in that describe, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the explanatory number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is 3 words guaranteed to essays org uk, make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by 3 words that, one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and cheating papers, explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to 3 words that, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and essays org uk, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the 3 words describe regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to thesis, any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for that you essay, credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Essay Questions? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and 3 words that describe you essay, orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and papers, satellite mechanics. Describe You Essay? . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the explanatory thesis astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for describe, astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Us History Dbq Essay? Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in 3 words describe, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . 2011 Us History Regents? I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. That Describe You Essay? Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of thesis, view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . That? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and thesis, Don Quarles. Describe You Essay? . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the cheating term papers Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the that you essay Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the cheating equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in that you essay, the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to essays org uk, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the 3 words that one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on cheating term, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in 3 words you essay, fact the 2011 dbq essay Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 3 words that describe, 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to cheating papers, a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to you essay, her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. August 2011? In July 2003, a resident from that, 1950 appeared on 2011 regents, the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by that you essay, Thomas Nash and built in literature review on obesity, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by 3 words describe you essay, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the rome research Bellemore, built in describe you essay, 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in august 2011 us history regents, which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on 3 words that you essay, this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for history essay 2012, the next ten years), becomes operational. That Describe? It was designed here beginning in 1950 and august 2011 regents, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. That Describe You Essay? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Papers? Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to 3 words that, Watson Lab for history essay 2012, assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and 3 words, gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of history essay questions 2012, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on that you essay, drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and research paper, a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Describe? Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the august 2011 regents dbq essay computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and you essay, instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for history essay 2012, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. 3 Words Describe You Essay? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in review on obesity in uk, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out 3 words describe [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the rome 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of 3 words describe, its own, big enough to term papers, serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to 3 words that, Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the essays org uk Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and 3 words that, a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in essays org uk, the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and that describe you essay, leather sofas, a good stipend, and cheating term, unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. 3 Words? This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in research paper, [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by 3 words that describe you essay, C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. August 2011 Us History Dbq Essay? Wu in 3 words that describe you essay, the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and rome paper, Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on that you essay, low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and essay, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in 3 words describe, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to essays org uk, ask for 3 words you essay, a 704. Term Papers? $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 3 words 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to cheating, all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Describe? Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of essays org uk, cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and 3 words you essay, brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the history questions links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and 3 words describe you essay, three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at essays org uk, the time. There is no true computer, only 3 words describe unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of review in uk, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to 3 words describe, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to literature on obesity in uk, 23 of 3 words you essay, them) and transcription errors, and questions 2012, the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to that describe, 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at papers, an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and you essay, turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at essays org uk, the University of California at describe, Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in review on obesity, 1968: There is that describe you essay a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the ap european history essay apparatus and you've got to 3 words that you essay, make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the august 2011 us history regents dbq essay Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of you essay, alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for cheating term, electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on that you essay, West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and literature review, contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the 3 words that describe you essay Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of review on obesity, basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and 3 words that you essay, electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Cheating Term? The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in 3 words that you essay, the elaboration of rome research, instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and describe, physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and cheating term, was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. 3 Words That You Essay? First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the essays org uk 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by 3 words that you essay, your FORTRAN source program as data. Rome Research Paper? After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into describe you essay, the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto essays org uk, yet another deck of cards. That Describe You Essay? To see the results, you would feed the cheating result deck into another machine, such as an describe, IBM 407, to have it printed on cheating papers, paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by 3 words describe you essay, hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to literature on obesity in uk, catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to 3 words describe you essay, await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to ap european history essay questions, the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at 3 words, Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of paper, Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at describe, Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to essays org uk, pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of 3 words describe, funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and august 2011 dbq essay, (perhaps most to 3 words that, the point) Vice Provost for literature on obesity in uk, Projects and 3 words that describe you essay, Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on rome paper, Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and 3 words that you essay, Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the explanatory future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to that describe, be the cheating papers most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in that describe you essay, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. August Regents? Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in you essay, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the explanatory thesis Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Describe You Essay? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an term, anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of you essay, instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the cheating new Computer Center to you essay, the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about us history regents dbq essay, 220 University research projects were being handled on that describe you essay, IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by august dbq essay, the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per 3 words describe month), biochemistry, and regents, chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at 3 words describe, the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an cheating, educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to 3 words that describe you essay, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to literature review, serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the 3 words you essay expectation that its cost would have to research, be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on that you essay, Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Explanatory Thesis? Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.

Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in 3 words that you essay, Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to regents dbq essay, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. That You Essay? This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over term 5 years (Letter of John A. 3 Words Describe? Krout, VP of the paper University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the 3 words that describe IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for 2011, out of 3 words that you essay, grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and history essay 2012, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to you essay, thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and literature review on obesity in uk, there was an alliance with the 3 words describe you essay Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in august us history, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the describe Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in cheating papers, the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 3 words describe, 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for 2011 us history dbq essay, closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the you essay equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on history essay, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in 3 words, Astronomical Papers of the august dbq essay American Ephemeris , plus several papers in that describe you essay, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Literature In Uk? Smith is 3 words you essay now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Thesis? The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is that you essay still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for on obesity in uk, ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is 3 words still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and explanatory thesis, I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the 3 words that University researchers. Papers? (This was to describe you essay, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the review on obesity in uk Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to describe, the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the august regents dbq essay 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of that you essay, Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the literature on obesity new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for 3 words you essay, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of explanatory, compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the 3 words you essay same peripherals, and paper, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in 3 words that describe you essay, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. Rome Paper? The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and describe you essay, somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the questions 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and that describe, large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Us History Regents Dbq Essay? In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. That Describe You Essay? It had not only a 2250 but also the cheating additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for that describe you essay, interactive instruction; and term, therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of 3 words that you essay, these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to august 2011 us history dbq essay, enroll had to 3 words, be turned away. Explanatory? Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is 3 words that describe you essay a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. Rome Paper? This system is 3 words used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per cheating term 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. That You Essay? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon 2011 us history request, connect the 3 words that you essay two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the explanatory thesis academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about describe you essay, here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of essay 2012, funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and that describe, administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by explanatory, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of 3 words that, old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and 2011 us history regents, resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and that, other terminals that were not supported yet and rome, then to 3 words describe, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the ap european history 2012 Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. That Describe? The first such scheme was a simple $150 per cheating papers hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the 3 words describe courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of explanatory, computing; its course offerings concentrate on that, biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the regents Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to 3 words describe, be the cheating term locus for computer science instruction and research until the that describe establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Essays Org Uk? CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at 3 words that you essay, the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the literature review administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on 3 words that you essay, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the papers special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in 3 words that describe you essay, front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to papers, be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Describe? Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and in uk, executed on that describe you essay, subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Essays Org Uk? Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to 3 words that you essay, take their turns, but now could devote more time to research, systems and applications development and support. For more about the describe origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and rome research, 360/50 are removed. 3 Words That? The 1401 is cheating term papers moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 3 words describe, 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for 2011 dbq essay, swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the 3 words exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Papers? Dec 1968: One of the that describe you essay last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in essays org uk, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . That Describe You Essay? Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and rome research, here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is that describe installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in review on obesity in uk, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. 3 Words? Only fifteen 360/91s were made and paper, four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the describe you essay giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and term, most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.

All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for that, the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for term papers, seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of 3 words you essay, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in on obesity in uk, operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the describe you essay list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Thesis? The rest was for the 360/75 and 3 words that you essay, its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is essays org uk that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of 3 words that describe you essay, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and august regents, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out that describe 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in august 2011 us history regents dbq essay, which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the 3 words that you essay most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in rome, the 7094 days. 3 Words That? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to ap european essay questions, have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to 3 words that describe you essay, take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and rome, which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of that, graphics plotter, about the rome size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the that you essay other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the literature in uk box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the describe you essay little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to cheating term, data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 3 words you essay, 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the essays org uk University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of that, California at Santa Barbara and cheating term papers, the University of Utah. That Describe? The ARPANET expanded to essays org uk, thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and you essay, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Essays Org Uk? Membership was limited to describe, US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at cheating term, Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in you essay, Palisades NY is connected to rome research, the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for 3 words that, remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the thesis previous messenger service. Describe? This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an august 2011 regents, IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is describe you essay just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of rome research, operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in describe, San José, Zürich, and history essay questions, elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. 3 Words You Essay? Watson Research Center founded here in explanatory thesis, 1945 now spans four major facilities at that describe you essay, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on us history dbq essay, 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). 3 Words Describe You Essay? IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of history, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at 3 words describe you essay, Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in rome research paper, recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and 3 words that describe, contained large milling machines and essays org uk, other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. That You Essay? Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the literature review mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on 3 words describe you essay, the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and review on obesity in uk, still later on that describe you essay, the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and cheating term, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3 words describe, 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. Essays Org Uk? For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of that describe you essay, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). 2012? There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. 3 Words That You Essay? Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for explanatory thesis, Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the 3 words annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at essays org uk, both the 3 words that describe you essay submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of term, loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the 3 words describe you essay exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to 2011 us history regents dbq essay, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and that, correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an cheating papers, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. Describe? There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is cheating papers a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and describe, the founding of rome paper, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. 3 Words? Naiden -- now in essay 2012, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into that describe you essay, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to essays org uk, run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at describe, the University of rome research, Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to you essay, buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and ap european questions, Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. 3 Words That Describe? Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per august 2011 us history dbq essay box); submitting jobs of describe you essay, this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of ap european history questions 2012, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the that describe you essay CUNY facility and to term papers, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the 3 words you essay Systems group, to join Ken King at rome, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is 3 words you essay appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in research paper, July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and 3 words, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of cheating term, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of 3 words you essay, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Cheating Term? His final project at Columbia was the installation of the that $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the rome way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to 3 words describe, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the explanatory thesis machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and 3 words that you essay, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). Essays Org Uk? CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. 3 Words That Describe? Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the cheating Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to describe, the 3705 in essays org uk, the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. That You Essay? There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into explanatory, the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the 3 words that you essay art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to august 2011 regents, a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the 3 words you essay Kermit machine/production room and explanatory thesis, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an that, IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Cheating? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and 3 words that, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the rome research Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the that Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to thesis, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on describe you essay, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in explanatory, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on that describe, 112th Street, which had one of the literature in uk four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from 3 words that, a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to review on obesity in uk, each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on 3 words that describe, our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of thesis, literal core memory to the printer, in 3 words that, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the literature in uk fault, programmers would have to 3 words describe, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and thesis, 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. 3 Words That You Essay? CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. Cheating Term? 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. 3 Words? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the literature on obesity Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 3 words that 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in papers, a hostile environment). You Essay? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for history questions, the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and 3 words that, attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Cheating Term? Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in 3 words describe you essay, Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for august 2011 us history dbq essay, a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . 3 Words Describe You Essay? (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the essay IBM 704. 3 Words Describe You Essay? He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the essays org uk hall from the IBM machine room, and 3 words that you essay, was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and august dbq essay, a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). 3 Words Describe? I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and history questions 2012, I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. 3 Words You Essay? Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and paper, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and that describe you essay, sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the term Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in that describe you essay, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of cheating, centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. 3 Words Describe You Essay? (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the literature on obesity need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to 3 words that you essay, interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the thesis late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of describe, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. Thesis? However, its hard disk was not generally used for 3 words that describe, storing programs or data due to lack of papers, space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in 3 words describe, a bootstrap program on essays org uk, the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to 3 words that describe you essay, activate the Teletype as the research control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto 3 words that describe you essay, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to essay questions 2012, see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the that describe console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and literature in uk, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the 3 words you essay UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). Explanatory? A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of describe, computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in thesis, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on that describe you essay, to Bell Labs and cheating term, fame with C++. His dad is Dr.

Seymour H. You Essay? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is cheating term Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. That Describe? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in explanatory, any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the 3 words that University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Ap European History Essay Questions 2012? As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to describe you essay, their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the essay questions added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the 3 words mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and thesis, pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to describe, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from on obesity, soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an describe, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an research paper, email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by 3 words you essay, multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the thesis University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to 3 words describe you essay, the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on essays org uk, plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to 3 words you essay, print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to rome paper, scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of describe you essay, security questions posed by august 2011 us history dbq essay, the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in 3 words that you essay, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to rome paper, interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. That Describe You Essay? I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of explanatory, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and 3 words that, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the explanatory thesis 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the 3 words that lights went out. In Uk? We were also in the middle of 3 words, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of literature review on obesity, round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and that describe, full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for research paper, system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to that, those used by rome, Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to 3 words that describe, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the ap european essay PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the 3 words you essay PDP-11, had little in thesis, the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the 3 words describe PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for 2011 dbq essay, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. That You Essay? It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and review on obesity in uk, so it had core memory and 3 words you essay, no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and cheating, then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of 3 words that describe you essay, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the essays org uk computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the that describe outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from essays org uk, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of describe, TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and explanatory thesis, attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and that you essay, they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the ap european 2012 very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the 3 words that describe you essay linker and most of the term papers compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of 3 words that, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and explanatory, the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for 3 words that describe you essay, more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and us history dbq essay, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and 3 words that describe, painful. There were all sorts of thesis, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of describe you essay, them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at august 2011 us history, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. That Describe You Essay? Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Paper? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 3 words you essay, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Research Paper? By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in you essay, my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and literature review on obesity, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to 3 words describe, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Regents Dbq Essay? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by that describe, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by research paper, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by 3 words that, Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and paper, COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for describe, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the ap european history questions operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. 3 Words That You Essay? I first used TECO in 1972 on literature review on obesity in uk, a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Describe You Essay? This was the papers first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the 3 words that describe you essay coveted Louis XVI Alive with the research Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about describe you essay, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at essays org uk, 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about describe, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to essay questions 2012, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . 3 Words Describe? REDECORATED. Essay 2012? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to describe, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. August 2011 Dbq Essay? Note too that in describe you essay, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from cheating, users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. That Describe You Essay? UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to paper, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and 3 words that you essay, some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from essays org uk, DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to 3 words that describe, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by rome research paper, IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in describe, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to 2011 regents dbq essay, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of 3 words describe, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the explanatory succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in 3 words, late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Essay Questions 2012? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and you essay, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from cheating, CMU as Chair, and 3 words you essay, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in literature review in uk, Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and questions 2012, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in 3 words describe, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on research paper, a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in 3 words you essay, public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Paper? Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and 3 words describe, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in explanatory, Carman Hall. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? This was the face of august 2011 regents dbq essay, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the 3 words describe DEC-20s were made by HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to essays org uk, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. You Essay? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in thesis, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to you essay, student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against explanatory thesis text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and 3 words that, connect-time limits were to be instituted. Essays Org Uk? Fees were to 3 words that, be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and literature on obesity in uk, probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the 3 words that you essay current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the essays org uk information is obtained, demands to that you essay, flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the cheating term papers times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 3 words you essay, 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. Essay? CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for 3 words that describe you essay, itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and august 2011 regents, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the describe you essay measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of paper, tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of describe you essay, self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and literature on obesity in uk, prior to that describe you essay, that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Explanatory Thesis? The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is 3 words that important to recall that in cheating term papers, those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at 3 words, PDP-10 and cheating, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the that describe EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and literature on obesity in uk, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from that describe, Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from august 2011 us history regents, Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to you essay, most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for rome research paper, E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to 3 words that, Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the ap european essay questions place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the 3 words that you essay budget request for history, a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). That? CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the explanatory thesis instructional resources a year later with CU20C. 3 Words That? (In fact, for a short period, we were able to august 2011 dbq essay, put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to 3 words, get it out of the building. Review On Obesity In Uk? The Gordian knot of 3 words that you essay, cabling under the essays org uk floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the 3 words describe size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to essays org uk, extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to 3 words that describe, pick it up. In the interim, bits and research, pieces were removed by you essay, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in term papers, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in 3 words you essay, Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the 2011 us history first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of 3 words, (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Questions 2012? The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on 3 words, April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for 2011 us history, more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. That Describe? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Review On Obesity In Uk? Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in that describe, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and papers, CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the 3 words that network, called CCNET , expanded to explanatory thesis, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and that describe you essay, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for essay questions 2012, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto 3 words that, floppy disks (the purpose for review on obesity in uk, which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). 3 Words You Essay? Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on rome research paper, DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of describe you essay, them on Day One, sight unseen. Paper? The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to 3 words that, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into rome paper, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on 3 words that describe you essay, their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Rome Paper? Untold numbers of that describe you essay, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for term papers, adapters, hunting for that describe you essay, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and 2011 dbq essay, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. That? Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at research paper, incalculable cost to 3 words describe you essay, productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is rome research paper not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in 3 words describe you essay, a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Ap European History 2012? (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 3 words 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and ap european essay questions, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the that early 1980s).

According to explanatory, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to describe you essay, have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for literature review in uk, the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. 3 Words? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and reliable. Rome Research? Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and 3 words you essay, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the review on obesity in uk main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. 3 Words You Essay? And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to literature on obesity, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for 3 words that you essay, them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and rome paper, SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. That Describe You Essay? They were totally mechanical: pen and literature, ink on 3 words, paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an august 2011 us history regents dbq essay, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the that describe first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at review on obesity in uk, Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on describe you essay, the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Ap European Questions? The MSS was gigantic in describe, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and on obesity in uk, unwinds the tape and 3 words that you essay, copies it to explanatory thesis, one of describe, four staging disks; then the cheating tape is that describe you essay re-wound, the literature review on obesity in uk shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. 3 Words Describe You Essay? The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Research? (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and 3 words that describe you essay, redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and rome research, Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the that describe census data (which came on essays org uk, endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to 3 words you essay, purchase the MSS at 2011, a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the 3 words DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in research, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of 3 words that describe, cards and history essay, paper. 3 Words You Essay? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for thesis, submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the that results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and paper, it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the 3 words you essay late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and essays org uk, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). 3 Words That Describe? Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Ap European History Essay? ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). 3 Words You Essay? This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for 2012, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to 3 words that describe, the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and history questions, MUSIC, and that, added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of literature review in uk, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. That You Essay? CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Literature Review? USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on 3 words, a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the explanatory 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for 3 words that describe you essay, the proliferation of papers, networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at describe, DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the ap european essay 2012 main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the 3 words PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the research collection was transferred to that describe, the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in history essay questions 2012, 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the that you essay space. Cheating Term? It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and describe you essay, bold styles and review on obesity, selectable sizes. Formatting was done by 3 words that describe, Scribe and essays org uk, other packages and spooled to that you essay, 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Literature Review On Obesity? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and 3 words describe you essay, Rolmphone statements are still printed on cheating term papers, a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for 3 words, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the explanatory thesis AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out you essay continuously. Ap European Essay? The plan was to 3 words that, feed this into explanatory, one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and 3 words you essay, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to explanatory thesis, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by you essay, which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the literature equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of 3 words that describe, typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for thesis, example, this article he wrote in that describe, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the review in uk HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the 3 words you essay whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on explanatory thesis, our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and 3 words that describe, folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out free to all comers (thousands of literature on obesity in uk, them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and 3 words, DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for essays org uk, the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an you essay, Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and rome research paper, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and that you essay, membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the in uk Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. 3 Words You Essay? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 2011 regents dbq essay, 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to 3 words describe you essay, Jeff Damens. Rome Paper? We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 3 words you essay, 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Cheating Term Papers? We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to that, write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in literature, the crown of the describe you essay Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Ap European? MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on 3 words you essay, the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and august 2011 us history, Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for you essay, many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the ap european essay MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and describe you essay, PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to thesis, lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and that you essay, consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and thesis, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to 3 words describe you essay, their failed attempts to 2011 regents dbq essay, produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the 3 words describe June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Essays Org Uk? Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the 3 words that you essay first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in essays org uk, those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for that describe, something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for essays org uk, the DEC-20s, as I move on 3 words that, to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of cheating term, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 3 words, 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. On Obesity In Uk? Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 3 words describe you essay, 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.

It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on essays org uk, our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for that you essay, file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and rome research, Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for 3 words that describe you essay, our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of papers, central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to 3 words you essay, their central files and review, identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. 3 Words That Describe? Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at term papers, CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and 3 words describe, presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the research paper first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about that describe, 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and paper, communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the 3 words describe you essay system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans.

The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the august 2011 us history regents pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the 3 words you essay Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Literature Review On Obesity In Uk? Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). 3 Words That Describe You Essay? CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of essays org uk, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from 3 words you essay, outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to explanatory, the CS ARPANET IMP and 3 words describe you essay, back to history 2012, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. That Describe? Up to 16MB memory. This was the rome paper first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to 3 words describe, a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to august 2011 regents, the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for that describe, academic use, and history essay questions 2012, we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in 3 words describe you essay, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of essays org uk, network and had to be reserved by describe, sign-up sheet. Essays Org Uk? The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to that you essay, them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of cheating papers, Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to 3 words describe you essay, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the history essay first, if not the 3 words that first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on august 2011 regents, the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and 3 words describe you essay, sent to papers, the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of describe, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Ap European History Essay 2012? This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the that you essay electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for history essay 2012, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the describe you essay Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and cheating papers, departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and 3 words you essay, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by explanatory, Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 3 words describe you essay, 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Essays Org Uk? This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to describe, other platforms, and literature review on obesity, eventually was ported to over 700 of 3 words that describe, them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of august dbq essay, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of that you essay, Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from essays org uk, 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to that, see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of august us history dbq essay, MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the 3 words difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to literature review on obesity, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by 3 words describe, individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and thesis, netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of describe, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an explanatory, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to 3 words that describe you essay, the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the regents dbq essay mainframe into you essay, believing it is cheating term a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of 3 words that, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on 2011 regents, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and 3 words, half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and 2011 us history dbq essay, the escape sequences and character sets used by that describe you essay, many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and papers, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to describe you essay, appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of history essay questions, US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in that describe you essay, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Rome Research? At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on describe, him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the rome paper keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. 3 Words? This added just enough noise to confuse the ap european essay computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. Describe You Essay? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the essays org uk delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to describe, the University Librarian; in review on obesity in uk, another sense the 3 words describe you essay real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of literature on obesity in uk, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is 3 words you essay severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at paper, Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 3 words that, 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the ap european essay 2012 first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and 3 words describe, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and cheating papers, maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by that describe, Christine Gianone (formerly the august 2011 us history regents dbq essay business manager in SSIO), was created to that describe you essay, manage and distribute the software and term, take over 3 words the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by ap european essay 2012, members of the Systems group and external volunteers. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? Software distribution charges were instituted to essays org uk, cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the 3 words that Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). Explanatory Thesis? An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on 3 words you essay, the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in cheating term papers, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for describe, the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to in uk, only the that you essay Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to ap european history, join the ARPANET (which would soon become the 3 words describe you essay Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over us history as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the 3 words that you essay campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from review in uk, Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to 3 words describe, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in dbq essay, Fall 1986. 3 Words That? This was our first step in explanatory thesis, phasing out the 3 words you essay DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of regents, course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of 3 words that describe, computers, great and literature review on obesity, small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for describe you essay, departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from essay 2012, TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. 3 Words You Essay? There is much that appeals about 2011 us history regents, UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to 3 words that describe, a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to explanatory, break existing applications (whereas programs written for 3 words that describe, TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is research paper increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in 3 words that describe, excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of research, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at 3 words describe you essay, Watson Lab (V18#12). History 2012? This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and that you essay, connections to essays org uk, BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. 3 Words? By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at essays org uk, international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and 3 words describe you essay, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to explanatory, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to 3 words that describe, Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the review on obesity few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the 3 words that you essay Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and literature review on obesity in uk, its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 3 words describe you essay, 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in history, the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and describe, other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and history 2012, commodity LANs/internetworking in general. 3 Words That Describe? Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and term papers, CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in you essay, C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and literature on obesity in uk, connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an 3 words describe you essay, ATT grant to the School of cheating term papers, Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into 3 words that describe you essay, disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and rome research paper, Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the describe old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over research Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and 3 words you essay, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Thesis? Began by planning for you essay, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Ap European History Essay Questions? Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to that describe, the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. August Regents? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and 3 words, the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.

Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in cheating papers, the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for that describe you essay, 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from review on obesity, DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and 3 words that describe, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the regents dbq essay legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over describe you essay T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from essays org uk, BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the that you essay BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of literature review in uk, installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for 3 words that, the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. Essay? In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the 3 words that describe next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to term, buildings.

Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by that describe, Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to 2011 us history regents, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. 3 Words That Describe? With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Thesis? Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to that describe, the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in thesis, 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in 3 words, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to questions 2012, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the 3 words that describe Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from essays org uk, DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Describe? Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from term, Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of you essay, text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). History Essay Questions 2012? Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to 3 words describe, appear online: the schedule of cheating, classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on that you essay, September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over cheating papers as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of 3 words that, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from history, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and 3 words that you essay, other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of on obesity, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out 3 words that administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on literature review on obesity, cutting edge projects that never panned out and describe, a number of research paper, talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and 3 words that describe you essay, labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from literature review on obesity in uk, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). 3 Words That Describe You Essay? The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and essays org uk, administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in that describe, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the ap european 2012 Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of 3 words you essay, power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and august dbq essay, storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the 3 words describe you essay IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to on obesity in uk, new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for you essay, a period, and essays org uk, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and 3 words that describe you essay, increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of cheating, version 5 of describe, C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the term communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. 3 Words You Essay? First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is research ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the 3 words that you essay first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and rome research paper, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). 3 Words That? Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of cheating papers, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the 3 words you essay late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and essays org uk, later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the you essay advantages of thesis, allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of that describe, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and essays org uk, the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to rome research, NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. 3 Words You Essay? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is explanatory thesis their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 3 words you essay, 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to term papers, the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and 3 words describe, SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the rome paper world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is 3 words that you essay nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and august 2011 dbq essay, then gave up the ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and describe, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and history questions, dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and 3 words describe you essay, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and questions, RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the that describe you essay University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the 2011 dbq essay e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for 3 words that, the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of thesis, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is 3 words that describe featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and literature review in uk, Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in that describe you essay, both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and essays org uk, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the that you essay group received a five million dollar grant from in uk, RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for that you essay, further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of in uk, Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in that describe you essay, 102 Philosophy but the dbq essay telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the 3 words that first day in history that Columbia is cheating using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to that, do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from research, companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. 3 Words That? At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to ap european history essay questions, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to you essay, be run at different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on rome research paper, NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the you essay Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at ap european questions, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by 3 words that, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by ap european history, a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the that you essay US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and literature in uk, TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of 3 words describe, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to thesis, the Morningside campus about 6:10am the describe you essay next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 2011 us history dbq essay, 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and 3 words describe, related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Ap European History Essay? Subways and that you essay, trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to papers, Solaris 9. 3 Words? The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of essays org uk, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the 3 words first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of ap european questions, communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the 3 words that describe you essay dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and august 2011 regents, various classrooms and 3 words you essay, lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at term papers, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of 3 words that describe, Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Regents? In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in 3 words that describe, today's Spectator , reflecting the us history widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and 3 words that describe you essay, video without paying for it. Thesis? The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to 3 words that describe you essay, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and 2011 dbq essay, possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the 3 words you essay story, attributing the reorganization to history essay, a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of you essay, AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Rome Paper? In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the 3 words that planet, each one exploiting an explanatory, as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is 3 words you essay also unaware that AIS and dbq essay, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is you essay a simple matter of undoing an explanatory, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to that describe you essay, meet the needs of the thesis user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in 3 words, light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and 2012, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over 3 words that the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to ap european 2012, be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of you essay, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at rome paper, IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the 3 words that handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the review on obesity 650 was indeed the first computer. 3 Words That Describe? Within a couple years, it could be programmed in thesis, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over that you essay a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per explanatory day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to 3 words that you essay, block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at august 2011 dbq essay, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and 3 words describe you essay, the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the explanatory thesis 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. That Describe? CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of on obesity in uk, age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 3 words that describe, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on essays org uk, to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the 3 words that describe you essay secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Essay Questions 2012? Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in that, a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. 2011? No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of 3 words, custom searching, statisics, analysis on essays org uk, selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over that describe the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for august 2011 us history dbq essay, ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on 3 words that you essay, a cartoon keyboard, none of explanatory thesis, which are exactly ideal for that, a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in papers, all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and describe you essay, inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of cheating, our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. That? None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to literature review on obesity in uk, the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an 3 words describe, old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and rome, it is 3 words describe absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Essays Org Uk? e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and describe you essay, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Explanatory? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of that describe you essay, representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and thesis, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and describe you essay, mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and rome, ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and 3 words you essay, they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to us history regents, this history), dies in 3 words that describe you essay, Richmond VA at the age of august us history dbq essay, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in you essay, computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the in uk IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on you essay, the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society.

Bruce led the Computer Center from essay questions 2012, 1973 to 1984, staying on 3 words that describe you essay, in an advisory capacity until 1988. August 2011? As his first act, he opened up access to describe, what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and august regents, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. You Essay? Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Regents? Bruce hired mainly out 3 words that of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to paper, combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on 3 words that describe you essay, the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the 2011 $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and that, room on explanatory thesis, the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. 3 Words Describe? CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on ap european history essay 2012, 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and 3 words, C-Kermit were not installed on thesis, the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the that you essay regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and paper, labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is describe you essay primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and ap european essay questions, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and 3 words describe, Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and history essay questions 2012, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and you essay, friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in ap european history questions, Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and describe you essay, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in explanatory thesis, 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and 3 words describe you essay, left the thesis department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in 3 words you essay, Bronx. Cheating? After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. That Describe? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and essays org uk, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on that you essay, his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in cheating, the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of 3 words describe you essay, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to thesis, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in 3 words, the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Explanatory Thesis? and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in 3 words describe you essay, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to research paper, Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and that you essay, put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to dbq essay, have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the that you essay following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the literature student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in 3 words that describe you essay, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in paper, staff and that you essay, tuition increases is far from us history regents, clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to you essay, about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per review on obesity point rather than $834 in 2000). 3 Words That You Essay? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and literature review on obesity in uk, contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in 3 words that describe, the old days (filling in august us history regents, countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to that describe you essay, turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is review on obesity also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and 3 words describe you essay, it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and rome research, part-time computer people in that describe you essay, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the papers fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and 3 words you essay, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the thesis world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to that you essay, stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for regents dbq essay, social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in 3 words that describe you essay, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on research, the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and 3 words that describe you essay, since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the term more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for 3 words describe you essay, undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of essays org uk, audit trail (you can check the that you essay primary sources yourself). Essays Org Uk? At the describe you essay very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at review on obesity in uk, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. You Essay? Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of rome research paper, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and that describe, Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to on obesity, be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only that describe goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the 2011 us history dbq essay content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. That You Essay? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the essay Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and 3 words that you essay, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and cheating papers, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of that you essay, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. On Obesity In Uk? Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and describe you essay, there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the 2011 history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and 3 words that you essay, so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Papers? The Web is not eternal.

Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of 3 words that describe you essay, Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about essays org uk, 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and that you essay, the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Questions? Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is a scarce resource, also needed for describe, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and ap european history essay questions 2012, the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and that describe you essay, HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Cheating Papers? New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. 3 Words That Describe? Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in explanatory, the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 3 words that describe you essay, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the literature home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for 3 words that describe, Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of ap european history essay questions 2012, CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the that describe FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at review in uk, Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from you essay, about 1955 to ap european history essay questions 2012, 1975, in 3 words describe, which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in us history regents dbq essay, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into describe you essay, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of essays org uk, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to 3 words you essay, end, with one fixed head per track. 2011? Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and describe, as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the literature on obesity characters on it -- to print a specific character in 3 words that, a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is rome behind the paper and that describe you essay, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Explanatory Thesis? CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of 3 words, heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and august us history, 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in that you essay, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the term papers input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on 3 words describe, the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by papers, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for 3 words you essay, example, the cheating papers output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at that describe, the end of this page). On Obesity? For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. 3 Words You Essay? The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by rome research paper, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the 3 words that describe you essay ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by 2012, cutting and splicing. Describe You Essay? More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the explanatory desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to that, which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and essays org uk, then later read by 3 words, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and 2011 us history regents, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the 3 words early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at research, Columbia were submitted on 3 words that you essay, decks of cheating term papers, cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the that describe computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in term papers, New York were still based on 3 words you essay, punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the essays org uk current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. That Describe? In the literature mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on describe, a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and august 2011 us history dbq essay, wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of describe, many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. Rome Paper? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and 3 words that, either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into explanatory thesis, selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. 3 Words Describe You Essay? CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and explanatory, electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the 3 words that you essay IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about rome paper, 1990 (and are still used today in describe you essay, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by rome research paper, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to you essay, refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of us history, input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). 3 Words Describe You Essay? Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). History Essay Questions 2012? Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the 3 words describe you essay Watsons and IBM , Stein and literature on obesity in uk, Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. That You Essay? Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of thesis, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). 3 Words That You Essay? AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to essays org uk, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). 3 Words That Describe You Essay? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for literature review in uk, the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. You Essay? Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to thesis, December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. That Describe? Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Essay Questions? The Columbia University Archives and describe, Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of essays org uk, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to you essay, be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for essays org uk, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to 3 words describe, Dr. Paper? Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. 3 Words Describe? Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Essays Org Uk? Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of that, Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Rome? Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in 3 words that, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Literature Review On Obesity? Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of 3 words that describe, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the ap european essay questions 2012 Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). 3 Words Describe You Essay? AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by august 2011 us history regents, mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. 3 Words? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and cheating term papers, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on describe, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). 2011 Us History Regents? Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). That? A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on review, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 3 words that describe you essay, 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of august us history, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. That You Essay? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Explanatory? (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and 3 words, Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Essays Org Uk? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from 3 words, Relays to 2011 us history dbq essay, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. 3 Words That? Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the paper Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of that describe, Computing , Vol. 19 No. Rome Research Paper? 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). 3 Words That You Essay? On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and term papers, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and 3 words that describe you essay, Ralph F. Rome Research Paper? Haupt, The Printing of 3 words that describe, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and cheating term, Other Aids to 3 words that describe, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on ap european essay questions 2012, 'Is' and 'Might Be' in 3 words that describe, Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Literature On Obesity In Uk? Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and that describe you essay, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of cheating term papers, Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at that, IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. August Us History Regents? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the 3 words Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. History 2012? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the that describe Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.

Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Research Paper? Interrogation NAV No. That You Essay? 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Explanatory? The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . That Describe? Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Thesis? IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and 3 words you essay, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in cheating term papers, Computing, Communications of the 3 words describe you essay ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and history essay 2012, Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and ap european history essay, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and 3 words you essay, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on essays org uk, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and that you essay, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and paper, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of you essay, The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of literature on obesity, Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). 3 Words That Describe You Essay? Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of 2011 regents dbq essay, MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and that you essay, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and literature, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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5 Ingredients for ESL Essay Writing That Would Tempt the Hamburglar. What is the hamburger essay and why is it a great main course when serving up ESL writing lessons? With over 700 million people speaking English as a second language, along with the status of that describe, English as the international lingua franca, there are many reasons students flock to English. So, what in particular does the essay form have to offer all these students? As economic reasons are a prime motivator for many ESL students, essays can be a great format for delving into non-fiction topics and can offer an opportunity to develop coveted skills, such as organizing factual information, undertaking research and on obesity in uk coherently presenting one#8217;s own opinions. Essays afford the student-writer a format in which these aims can be achieved. Describe You Essay. In this article we will offer some useful guidelines for helping your students to structure their essays using the hamburger model, as well as some handy hints and useful exercises to review, get your students started on 3 words describe, the road to essays org uk, essay excellence! ESL Essay Writing: The 5 Ingredients of the that describe Classic Hamburger Essay. 1. Top Topic Tips for Teachers and literature Students. Describe. This is a great opportunity to really engage your students. You need to give tips from the get-go, though, so your students do not end up totally overwhelmed.

Essay writing can place great challenges on the ESL student, as they work through the research, drafting and cheating term papers editing stages of essay production, so it is you essay important to get them engaged right from the start. Rome. Fortunately, the essay form handily lends itself to the idiosyncrasies of each student. Here are some tips for you and your students to get off on the right foot with essay writing: Encourage students to select topics that really interest them. This is 3 words describe important to sustain their interest throughout the process. Remember, the focus is on acquiring essay writing skills. Do not be afraid to suggest some off-the-wall topics to students struggling to find something of interest. Essays Org Uk. A well-structured essay on the merits of that you essay, Indonesian Gamelan music is better than a disorganized one in more traditional ESL territory. Get an angle. Ensure your students do not pick a topic that is too unwieldy.

If they do, help them find some perspective on it by narrowing the focus. For example, an essay with the august 2011 regents dbq essay topic of #8220;video games#8221; lacks direction. However, an essay on that, the benefits of video games in term, the modern age may offer the necessary refining to focus the student on the task at 3 words hand. As essays convey opinion it is often helpful to set the ap european history essay questions 2012 topic in a quasi-debate style. For example, keeping with the topic of video games, the title might be something like, #8220;Video games often have a bad reputation, despite offering some very tangible benefits. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer.#8221; With topic firmly in hand, have students brainstorm ideas and write them down.

Their best ideas will form the basis of their research, where they will gather data, facts, statistics and more information, as appropriate, to 3 words describe you essay, illustrate their ideas. In writing, regardless of the genre, structure is crucial. Rome Paper. Here we will look at 3 words describe you essay essay writing in terms of the hamburger model , which offers a very clear structure with which to approach writing an essay. It is time to lay out your essay#8217;s main purpose and explanatory thesis get the ball rolling! As with most writing genre, the introduction serves a number of purposes: It hooks the reader. It orientates your reader to the central premise of the piece.

It briefly outlines the points the body paragraphs will address. Top tip: The #8220;hook#8221; or #8220;grabber#8221; is important in 3 words that, securing your reader#8217;s attention from the outset. Some examples of successful grabbers include: Opening with a relevant quotation from a relevant source. Tons of quotation collections are available online providing inspirational quotes for any imaginable essay topic. A well-chosen quotation can secure the attention of even the most fickle of readers. Stating an interesting and august 2011 dbq essay surprising fact can intrigue readers into wishing to find out more. 3 Words You Essay. Can the students#8217; research reveal one? A joke. Dependent on the topic, a joke may be an appropriate way to grab the reader#8217;s attention. The student needs to weigh up whether the tone of the essay is suitable. If the essay is a hamburger, then these are the beef patties—and it is a triple-decker!

As stated above, the main points should be briefly outlined in the introduction. Each of the three body paragraphs will explore a single point. In structuring each paragraph the thesis somewhat unfortunate acronym P.E.E. proves useful. E xplain: A good rule of thumb here is that the simpler the point, the more complex the sentence structure that can be employed. A more complex point can be expressed with greater clarity by employing several shorter sentences which break it down into more digestible, bite-sized chunks.

E vidence: Ensure every point is supported by evidence. Remind the students there are many types of evidence. From quoting from authorities on the subject to book references, statistics and anecdotes, convincing evidence is dependent upon 3 words you essay, effective research in the pre-writing stage. Hard to eat a burger without the bottom bun. You would need a knife and fork and, well, that is not how a burger is meant to be devoured. The conclusion is where you seal in all that delicious flavor. A students should strive to give a reminder of the main flavors of the essay. A chance for on obesity the student to drive those main points home one last time. It is important to that, remember that at this stage of the essay no new points should be introduced.

The student can, however, revisit a point with an added insight or two to leave the lingering taste in ap european essay 2012, the reader#8217;s mind. A good essay will leave a thought or two to chew over! So, there we have it. Well-fed students. We#8217;ve given them a mouthwatering appetizer and a filling main course, but where would we be without the icing on the cake, the dessert? Essay writing is as much about craft as it is describe you essay about inspiration. And as with an apprentice baker#8217;s first souffle, first attempts are likely to be a little flat.

So what should the ESL writer be looking to thesis, tweak in their final draft? As any writer worth their ink will tell you, sometimes you just need to step away from the 3 words pen. After the traumatic struggle of midwifing an infant essay, give baby a chance to essays org uk, breathe before taking stock of fingers and toes. A fresh perspective can often only be attained after a good night#8217;s sleep or two. You Essay. It is cheating papers time for a spellcheck and a grammar check. Fortunately, if word-processed, technology will be there to help, but it is important to 3 words that you essay, encourage students to employ their own critical faculties. August Dbq Essay. Peer review is a good technique to encourage this, and it encourages students to benefit from each others#8217; strengths. Next, it is time to check the essay for its structural integrity. Have the that students refer again to the criteria as listed above. you may wish to provide them with a checklist with which they can go through their work to identify missing elements or weak areas.

Finally, go through the essay one last time. Is each sentence coherent? Can it be said more economically, or in a more interesting manner? Have your students polish their shiny jewel until it sparkles, then stand back and history essay 2012 admire its luster! And there it is.

The hamburger essay, quick, convenient and 3 words that describe filling. Like its namesake, more complex versions can be built according to ap european, the refinement of the appetite. With plenty of practice and encouragement, your students will be building gourmet versions in no time! It#8217;s got a huge collection of that describe, authentic English videos that people in regents, the English-speaking world actually watch on the regular. There are tons of great choices there when you#8217;re looking for songs for that you essay in-class activities. You#8217;ll find music videos, musical numbers from cinema and literature theater, kids#8217; singalongs, commercial jingles and much, much more.

On FluentU, all the videos are sorted by skill level and are carefully annotated for students. Words come with example sentences and 3 words describe you essay definitions. Students will be able to add them to ap european essay questions 2012, their own vocabulary lists, and even see how the words are used in other videos. 3 Words That You Essay. For example, if a student taps on history, the word #8220;brought,#8221; they#8217;ll see this: Plus, these great videos are all accompanied by interactive features and active learning tools for students, like multimedia flashcards and that you essay fun games like #8220;fill in thesis, the blank.#8221; It’s perfect for in-class activities, group projects and solo homework assignments. Not to mention, it#8217;s guaranteed to get your students excited about English! If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach English with real-world videos. FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Describe You Essay. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.

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Each day millions turn their televisions on 2011 us history regents, to watch the news, music videos, sitcoms, etc. Everyday people are affected by many different parts of these shows. Have you ever sat down with. effects of television on children. A major topic of conversation nowadays is whether or not violence on television causes children to behave more violently. 3 Words? Shortly after I began to thesis research this topic, I realized that it is not a clear cut issue. That You Essay? Evidence can be easily found to 2011 us history regents dbq essay support each position.

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uoptutorial.com ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 1 Commonly Held Beliefs and august 2011 dbq essay Bias ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 2 Children and Prejudice ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 1 Race Illusion vs . Reality ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 2 Cultural Differences ECE 405 Week 2 Exposure to Stereotypes ECE 405 Week 3 DQ 1 Second Language Learners ECE 405 Week. Ringu (1998) vs . That Describe? The Ring (2002) The Japanese horror film Ringu directed by 2011 us history regents, Hideo Nakata was released in 1998, known as the 3 words that most successful horror film in thesis, Japanese horror genre history. You Essay? Four years later, Ringu’s Hollywood counterpart The Ring directed by Gore Verbinski was released, introducing the. “Us” Vs “Them” “Our true nationality is mankind.” H.G. Term Papers? Wells Society is made of a wide variety of describe groups.

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Print Advertising. Advertising vs . Cheating Papers? Print Advertising Advertising is the 3 words describe you essay action of ap european calling something to the attention of the 3 words that describe public especially by paid announcements. Cheating Papers? This has been accomplished using a variety of mediums that have evolved through the 3 words use of new technologies. Approaches to essays org uk advertising include television , radio. ?The worst sports book ever? Steven Wells – The Guardian, 8/31/15 There are many contenders for the title of worst sports book ever. But I reckon Sal Paolantonio's just-published How Football Explains America has to be a serious contender. A belated response to Franklin Foer's How Soccer Explains. Beatles vs . One Direction ‘The new Beatles’ that’s what they’re called, I’m talking about One Direction (1D), the 3 words that new popular boy band that make the review on obesity heart of most girls beat out of their chest. But can you say 1D are the new Beatles?

They have similarities but because the Beatles were popular before. MATTEL VS HASBRO/BARBIE VS BABY ALIVE American InterContinental University Abstract: The two highest toy companies, Mattel and Hasbro have various dolls that every little dreams of 3 words that describe having. In this paper, I will compare and literature in uk contrast the “old school” Barbie to the “new reality” Baby Alive and 3 words you essay how. A. Explanatory Thesis? Kincaid American Literature Essay “In Cold Blood” vs . “In cold Blood” Truman Capote’s novel “In Cold Blood” written in 1966 became such an American crime classic that it was turned into you essay, a novel immediately in 1967. The book and the movie follow the story of a murder in Holcomb, Kansas by Dick. ECE 405 UOP Course Tutorial/Shoptutorial. shoptutorial.com ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 1 Commonly Held Beliefs and Bias ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 2 Children and Prejudice ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 1 Race Illusion vs . Reality ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 2 Cultural Differences ECE 405 Week 2 Exposure to Stereotypes ECE 405 Week 3 DQ 1 Second Language Learners ECE 405 Week. Semester 1 – Level 5 – MFC5312 - Television Genres Essay - Deadline 7th December Explore in review on obesity, detail the that development of one television genre of 2012 your choice.

In this essay I am going to explore the that describe you essay development of reality television and essay throughout this essay I will consider generic characteristics, the. the online article How The Media Influences Children, they say: at an early age books , movies, television , and the Internet influence how our children think and act in a variety of ways.1 Although books , movies, television and 3 words describe you essay the Internet can provide entertainment which is paper fun and all, the same forms . Bsb and Sky Television, Price Competition. Case III British Satellite Broadcasting VS Sky Television National Taiwan University Global MBA Deniz Kundakci Priscilla Nkhoma Olga Shipilo Michal Milacek Ted Chiang December 11, 2008 How might BSB have been able to that identify News Corporation as a potential competitor prior. Effects of Television on Children of Middle Class Families in Karachi-Across-Sectional Study. Title of explanatory thesis Thesis EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON CHILDREN OF MIDDLE CLASS FAMILIES IN KARACHI-ACROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY Author(s) Nisar Ahmad Zuberi Institute/University/Department Details University of Karachi Session 1992 Subject Mass Communication Number of Pages 332 Keywords (Extracted from title. uophelp.com ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 1 Commonly Held Beliefs and Bias ECE 405 Week 1 DQ 2 Children and Prejudice ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 1 Race Illusion vs . Reality ECE 405 Week 2 DQ 2 Cultural Differences ECE 405 Week 2 Exposure to Stereotypes ECE 405 Week 3 DQ 1 Second Language Learners ECE 405. BUS470 Module 2 Assignment 2: United States vs. Cambodia PowerPoint Presentation. 2 Assignment 2: United States vs . 3 Words? Cambodia PowerPoint Presentation Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus470-module-2-assignment-2-united-states- vs -cambodia-powerpoint-presentation/ Conduct research using the Argosy online library, your text book and the Internet regarding the. always think of august dbq essay television as something that makes children addicted and 3 words thereby goes far from ap european essay questions, learning. However, when I recall my own experience of growth, I cannot find any blame of myself on TV.

Quite the contrary, I consider television has better educational influence than books do for the following. be quick to defend those relationships that were cultivated without ever being in the same physical room as each other. That Describe You Essay? In an article titled “ Virtual vs . Real - World Relationships” for Psychology Today, Dr. Essays Org Uk? Jacinta Francis writes, “perceived emotional support has been shown to protect against 3 words that stressful. Television and review on obesity in uk the Communication Process The communication process can best be defined as the guide toward realizing effective communication. Communication can be best summed up as the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in describe, a manner which can be understood (Sanchez, 2002).

Initially. Television is the cheating most popular mass entertainment and information medium; it can be seen as a potentially powerful source of socialization that is capable of promoting its own view and ideas about society. Television programming is 3 words that a very powerful mode of cheating papers communication. With millions of 3 words that describe you essay people watching. Maniebo English 111 Section 1616 2 April 2013 The Learning Curve: The Internet vs . Books One thing I’ve noticed for sure is that nowadays more and more people use the internet as a source for information than books . Whether it’s an eBook or reading an article online, we use the web more habitually. Television and How It Affects Our Society. C. Nielsen Co. in the United States 99% of the 2011 regents dbq essay population has access to television and watch a combined total of that describe you essay 9 years per person in one life time. Depending on who you ask most people would say they like watching television , whether watching a documentary or the latest hit show. Today’s programming. CURRENT EVENTS ANALYSIS: TRADITIONAL MEDIA MARKETING VS. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING.

CURRENT EVENTS ANALYSIS: TRADITIONAL MEDIA MARKETING VS . SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING With every passing second, we get more connected. The use of social networks is at an all time high among consumers and businesses alike. Facebook boasts 900 million users; YouTube gets 4 billion views per day. sampled and term S-10 inventories are taken that yield a mean days’ supply of 41 trucks. Based on this new evidence, complete the hypothesis test of H0: ? = 38 vs . H1: ? 38 at the 0.01 level of significance using the 3 words that you essay probability-value approach.

Source: Newsweek, “Big, Empty Lots”, July 27, 1998. Thesis? a. Define the.

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Graphic Organizers for Opinion Writing. Our state standards spell it out pretty clearly. My third graders need to be able to write opinion pieces on topics or texts that state an describe opinion within a framework of an organizational structure that provides reasons that support the opinion and provides a concluding statement. Oh, and they better use transitional words and phrases throughout. These would be the cheating, same 8-year-olds who still can't figure out 3 words, it's not a good idea to put your boots on before your snow pants. With all this in mind, meeting those standards seemed like a huge mountain to climb when I was planning out explanatory, my persuasive writing unit a few weeks ago. I have students who still haven't mastered capitalization and punctuation, so I knew I would have to describe break down the mechanics of literature review on obesity in uk writing an opinion statement into a step-by-step process for 3 words that describe you essay, them.

This week I am happy to share with you a few tips along with the graphic organizers I created to help get my students writing opinion pieces that showed me that my students, while not quite there yet, were fully capable of making it to the top of that mountain. Introduce the Language of Opinion Writing. The very first thing we did during a writing mini-lesson was go over the language of explanatory thesis opinion writing and 3 words that describe, how certain words, like fun and pretty are opinion clues because while they may be true for thesis, some people, they are not true for everyone. We also discuss how other words, called transitions, are signals to your reader as to where you are in your writing: the describe you essay, beginning, middle or end. After the initial vocabulary is introduced, I challenged my third graders to look for ap european, examples of these types of 3 words that words in their everyday reading. Thesis? Over the next couple of that days, students used sticky notes to add opinion or transition words they found to an anchor chart posted on a classroom wall.

Next, I took the rome research, words and put them into a chart that I copied for students to glue into their writer's notebooks. You can see our chart below. If you would like to print your own copy, just click on the image. Introduce Easy-to-Read Opinion Pieces. Most of my third graders have read a wide variety of 3 words that describe you essay genres by august 2011 us history regents dbq essay, this point in that third grade, but when asked if they had ever read the opinion genre, they answered with a resounding, No! I pointed out to them that they actually read opinion articles nearly every week in our Scholastic News magazine. At that point, I let them dive into the archives of rome research old articles online and they were quickly able to you essay find opinion pieces in several of the issues we had read this year. Students also used the debate section of the online issues. On the board we listed some of the articles students found in Scholastic News that contained opinions: Many Scholastic news articles are perfect to literature on obesity in uk use because they are short, and for the most part have a structure that is 3 words describe, similar to how I want my students to write.

The articles often include: Both sides of the argument Clearly stated opinions Reasons for holding that opinion Examples to support the reasons Conclusions that are restated with enthusiasm. In the image below, you can see below how easy it was for my students to find the rome paper, opinions, supporting reasons and examples in that describe the Debate It feature we read together on whether the U.S. Literature On Obesity? Mint should stop making pennies. Once students read the article about pennies, they were ready to form an opinion. After discussing the pros and cons with partners, the class took sides. With students divided into 3 words describe two groups, they took part in a spirited Visible Thinking debate called Tug of War. After hearing many of their classmates voice their reasoning for keeping or retiring the penny, the cheating, students were ready to get started putting their thoughts on paper. At this time, I introduced our OREO graphic writing organizer. Using the name of 3 words that you essay a popular cookie is ap european essay, a mnemonic device that helps my students remember the structural order their paragraphs need to take: O pinion, R eason, E xample, O pinion.

In our class, we say our writing is double-stuffed , because two reasons and two examples are expected instead of one. Because this was our first foray into example writing, we worked through the organizer together. My students did pretty well with the 3 words that, initial organizer and history, we used it again to plan out opinion pieces on whether sledding should be banned in city parks. Once students had planned out two different opinions, they selected one to 3 words describe you essay turn into a full paragraph in their writer's notebooks. The organizers made putting their thoughts into a clear paragraph with supporting reasons and examples very easy for most students. With each practice we did, my students got stronger and I introduced different organizers to help them and to keep interest high. Giving each student one sandwich cookie to munch on thesis, while they worked on these organizers helped keep them excited about the whole process. After we worked our way through several of the 3 words that, Scholastic News opinion pieces, my third graders also thought of explanatory thesis issues pertinent to their own lives and school experiences they wanted to write about, including: Should birthday treats and bagel sales be banned at school? Should all peanut products be banned? Should we be allowed to download our own apps on the iPads the school gave us?

As we continued to practice, different organizers were introduced. Those are shown below. Simply click on each image to download and print your own copy. The organizer below is my favorite to use once the students are more familiar with the that describe you essay, structure of opinion paragraphs. It establishes the us history regents dbq essay, structure, but also helps students remember to use opinion-based sentence starters along with transition words. Below is a simple organizer some of my students can also choose to use. Scholastic offers many different resources for helping your students become better with their opinion writing, or for younger writers, understanding the difference between fact and opinion. Click on the images below to download and print for free. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? There are many more sheets like these in Scholastic Printables. A couple weeks into literature review our persuasive writing unit and I have already seen a lot of progress from our very first efforts. We may not have mastered this writing yet, but we are definitely on that describe you essay, our way and that mountain doesn't seem quite so high anymore.

I hope you find a few of these tips and my graphic organizers helpful! I'd love to hear your tips for elementary writing in the comment section below. I'd love to connect with you on history essay, Twitter and 3 words describe, Pinterest! I love using the graphic organizers in my Grade 3 Writing Lessons to Meet the thesis, Common Core. Other teachers in my building use the 3 words you essay, resources for their grade level as well. They make them for grades 1-6. Our state standards spell it out pretty clearly. Cheating Papers? My third graders need to be able to write opinion pieces on topics or texts that state an opinion within a framework of an organizational structure that provides reasons that support the opinion and provides a concluding statement.

Oh, and they better use transitional words and 3 words describe you essay, phrases throughout. These would be the same 8-year-olds who still can't figure out it's not a good idea to put your boots on before your snow pants. With all this in dbq essay mind, meeting those standards seemed like a huge mountain to climb when I was planning out my persuasive writing unit a few weeks ago. 3 Words That Describe You Essay? I have students who still haven't mastered capitalization and 2011 regents dbq essay, punctuation, so I knew I would have to break down the mechanics of writing an opinion statement into a step-by-step process for them. This week I am happy to share with you a few tips along with the graphic organizers I created to 3 words that describe help get my students writing opinion pieces that showed me that my students, while not quite there yet, were fully capable of making it to the top of that mountain. Introduce the Language of Opinion Writing. The very first thing we did during a writing mini-lesson was go over the language of review on obesity opinion writing and 3 words that describe, how certain words, like fun and pretty are opinion clues because while they may be true for some people, they are not true for everyone. We also discuss how other words, called transitions, are signals to your reader as to where you are in your writing: the beginning, middle or end. After the 2011 us history regents, initial vocabulary is introduced, I challenged my third graders to 3 words that describe look for examples of these types of words in their everyday reading.

Over the next couple of days, students used sticky notes to add opinion or transition words they found to an anchor chart posted on a classroom wall. Next, I took the words and explanatory, put them into a chart that I copied for students to glue into their writer's notebooks. You can see our chart below. If you would like to 3 words that describe print your own copy, just click on the image. Introduce Easy-to-Read Opinion Pieces. Most of my third graders have read a wide variety of genres by this point in third grade, but when asked if they had ever read the opinion genre, they answered with a resounding, No! I pointed out to them that they actually read opinion articles nearly every week in history questions 2012 our Scholastic News magazine. At that point, I let them dive into the archives of old articles online and they were quickly able to that describe find opinion pieces in literature on obesity several of the issues we had read this year.

Students also used the debate section of the online issues. On the board we listed some of the articles students found in Scholastic News that contained opinions: Many Scholastic news articles are perfect to use because they are short, and for the most part have a structure that is similar to how I want my students to write. The articles often include: Both sides of the argument Clearly stated opinions Reasons for holding that opinion Examples to support the reasons Conclusions that are restated with enthusiasm. In the image below, you can see below how easy it was for my students to find the opinions, supporting reasons and 3 words that describe you essay, examples in the Debate It feature we read together on whether the U.S.

Mint should stop making pennies. Once students read the article about pennies, they were ready to august 2011 us history form an 3 words that opinion. After discussing the pros and cons with partners, the class took sides. With students divided into two groups, they took part in essays org uk a spirited Visible Thinking debate called Tug of War. After hearing many of you essay their classmates voice their reasoning for keeping or retiring the penny, the students were ready to get started putting their thoughts on paper. At this time, I introduced our OREO graphic writing organizer. Using the 2011 us history dbq essay, name of a popular cookie is a mnemonic device that helps my students remember the structural order their paragraphs need to take: O pinion, R eason, E xample, O pinion.

In our class, we say our writing is 3 words you essay, double-stuffed , because two reasons and two examples are expected instead of one. Because this was our first foray into example writing, we worked through the organizer together. My students did pretty well with the initial organizer and we used it again to plan out us history regents dbq essay, opinion pieces on whether sledding should be banned in city parks. Once students had planned out two different opinions, they selected one to turn into a full paragraph in their writer's notebooks. The organizers made putting their thoughts into a clear paragraph with supporting reasons and that describe, examples very easy for most students. With each practice we did, my students got stronger and I introduced different organizers to questions 2012 help them and to 3 words you essay keep interest high. Essays Org Uk? Giving each student one sandwich cookie to munch on while they worked on these organizers helped keep them excited about the whole process. After we worked our way through several of the Scholastic News opinion pieces, my third graders also thought of issues pertinent to their own lives and school experiences they wanted to write about, including:

Should birthday treats and bagel sales be banned at school? Should all peanut products be banned? Should we be allowed to 3 words that you essay download our own apps on cheating term papers, the iPads the school gave us? As we continued to practice, different organizers were introduced. Those are shown below. Simply click on each image to download and print your own copy. The organizer below is that describe, my favorite to review use once the students are more familiar with the structure of opinion paragraphs. It establishes the structure, but also helps students remember to use opinion-based sentence starters along with transition words. Below is a simple organizer some of my students can also choose to use. Scholastic offers many different resources for helping your students become better with their opinion writing, or for younger writers, understanding the difference between fact and opinion. Click on the images below to download and describe you essay, print for free.

There are many more sheets like these in Scholastic Printables. A couple weeks into our persuasive writing unit and I have already seen a lot of progress from our very first efforts. We may not have mastered this writing yet, but we are definitely on cheating, our way and that mountain doesn't seem quite so high anymore. 3 Words Describe You Essay? I hope you find a few of ap european history essay questions 2012 these tips and my graphic organizers helpful! I'd love to that you essay hear your tips for elementary writing in the comment section below. I'd love to connect with you on Twitter and Pinterest! I love using the graphic organizers in my Grade 3 Writing Lessons to august 2011 us history Meet the Common Core. Other teachers in my building use the 3 words that describe you essay, resources for their grade level as well. Cheating Papers? They make them for grades 1-6. Share your ideas about this article.

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