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Scientific explanation essay

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Explanation is a Genus: An Essay on the Varieties of Scientific

Scientific explanation essay

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A Guide to Writing Scientific Essays - University of St Andrews

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Aspects of Scientific Explanation - Wikipedia

resume le rouge et LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR. Stendhal a emprunté son canevas initial à l'actualité, s'inspirant de. l'histoire d'Antoine Berthet, originaire du village de Brangues, étudiant. aux séminaires de Grenoble et de Belley, guillotiné à Grenoble, le 23. février 1828, pour tentative d'assassinat sur la personne de Mme Michoud. De ce fait divers, Stendhal avait eu connaissance par les comptes rendus. proposés par _La Gazette des Tribunaux _, notamment les 28, 29, 30,

31 décembre 1827, et 29 février 1828. Scientific Essay! Ces textes sont reproduits en. appendice dans le tome II des _ Romans_, de la collection L'Intégrale , Seuil, 1969, pp. Global! 649-656. Explanation Essay! L'idée d'un roman serait venue à l'auteur en.

octobre 1829 ; le titre du roman, en mai 1830 : le Rouge pour signifier. les idées républicaines de Julien; le Noir, la soutane qu'il porta un. moment. Features Of An! A partir du mois de mai, et jusqu'en novembre, Stendhal fait. composer par l'éditeur les chapitres au fur et à mesure qu'il les écrit. L'impression est interrompue entre le 25 juillet et le 4 août 1830, pour. cause de révolution. Essay! Le 6 novembre, Stendhal part pour l'Italie, occuper. son poste de consul à Civita-Vecchia, où le nouveau régime l'a nommé.

L'édition originale, en 2 volumes, paraît au début de décembre 1830 ; Stendhal n'a pas revu les épreuves des derniers chapitres avant son départ. Une seconde édition, en 6 volumes, paraîtra en 1831. Auparavant, Stendhal avait publié son premier roman : _ Armance _, en août. 1827 ; son autre grand roman, _ La Chartreuse de Parme _ verra le jour en. avril 1839 -- deux textes accessibles sur le site de l'ABU. And Critical! Stendhal devait.

mourir à Paris le 23 mars 1842. Description de la petite ville de Verrières. Scientific! Son aisance. And Critical Thinking! Portrait du. maire, installé depuis 1815 : M. Scientific! de Rênal, propriétaire de la fabrique de.

clous. Dramaturgy! Pour agrandir ses jardins, M. Scientific! de Rênal a dû négocier ferme avec le. propriétaire de la scierie : M. Global Oil Crisis! Sorel, père de Julien. Essay! Tyrannie de. La promenade de Verrières (le Cours de la Fidélité), embellie par M. Religion! de. Rênal, enclenche une rêverie poétique de l'auteur : la vue sur la campagne. y est somptueuse, quoique l'autoritarisme du maire ordonne une taille. impitoyable des platanes tous les ans. Explanation Essay! Dans cette ville, l'utilité et.

l'argent règnent en maîtres. Global Oil Crisis Essay! Depuis peu, les notables redoutent l'arrivée. d'un Parisien, dont les dénonciations, dans les journaux libéraux, pourraient leur attirer quelques ennuis. Le Parisien en inspection est guidé par l'abbé Chélan, à qui les autorités. reprochent cette complaisance, qui pourrait lui coûter sa place. Explanation Essay! Pour.

soutenir son rang, M. College Book Template! de Rênal songe à engager Julien Sorel comme. précepteur de ses enfants. Scientific Essay! Portrait de Mme de Rênal : une âme naïve, qui ne. s'avoue pas qu'elle s'ennuie auprès de son mari. Pour négocier l'engagement de Julien, M. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! de Rênal rend visite au Père. Sorel. Essay! Au lieu de surveiller la scie, le jeune homme est en train de lire. le _ Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène _, activité odieuse à son père, qui ne sait. pas lire.

Portrait de Julien, plutôt maladif, et qui hait son entourage. Lorsque son père lui annonce son engagement, Julien fait aussitôt connaître. qu'il n'acceptera pas de manger avec les domestiques -- opinion qui lui. vient de la lecture des _ Confessions _ de Rousseau. Essay! Négociation finaude du. Père Sorel avec M. Scientific! de Rênal, au terme de laquelle il parvient à faire. monter appointements et avantages en nature. Chieftancy! L'accord conclu, Julien part. au château, occasion de dévoiler ses projets ambitieux, et la conduite. hypocrite dont il les voile : dans cette époque de Restauration, il vise la. voie royale, qu'est la prêtrise.

En passant par l'église, Julien y découvre. une coupure de journal relatant l'exécution à Besançon d'un certain Lurel, dont le nom rime avec le sien. Scientific Explanation! Chez elle, Mme de Rênal redoute, pour ses. enfants, l'arrivée d'un précepteur, sale et mal vêtu, qui les fouettera. Sa stupeur à l'arrivée de Julien, dont elle remarque la beauté. And Critical! M. Explanation Essay! de Rênal. transmet au nouvel employé ses instructions, et l'emmène chez le tailleur.

pour lui acheter un habit noir : il ne doit pas être vu en veste par les. autres domestiques. College Report Template! Présentation de Julien aux enfants. Essay! Julien s'acquiert. une gloire instantanée en récitant par coeur des pages entières du Livre. Julien commence à s'attirer la jalousie des domestiques, mais aussi de M. Valenod, directeur du dépôt de mendicité, qui courtise Mme de Rênal. Raisons pour lesquelles Mme de Rênal commence à s'attacher à Julien : inexpérience de la vie, due à son éducation de couvent.

Comme la vie de. province n'est pas guidée par les romans, tout y progresse plus lentement. La vie de Julien se passe en petites négociations, comme l'art de faire. admettre à M. Global Oil Crisis! de Rênal de prendre un abonnement chez le librairie libéral, sous le nom d'un des domestiques. Scientific Explanation! Ignorante de l'amour, Mme de Rênal vit. ces moments heureux dans l'innocence.

A la suite d'un héritage, Elisa, la femme de chambre prétend épouser. Julien, mais celui-ci fait savoir que ce mariage ne lui convient pas. Remontrances de l'abbé Chélan, surpris d'un tel refus, et joie de Mme de. Rênal lorsqu'elle l'apprend. College! C'est alors qu'elle commence à s'interroger. sur l'amour qu'elle pourrait bien porter à Julien. Explanation! Avec les beaux jours, M. de Rênal transporte sa famille dans son château de Vergy.

On y fait la. chasse aux papillons, et Mme de Rênal se surprend à faire la coquette, sans. y avoir pensé. Thesis! Bientôt, elle installe à Vergy sa cousine, Mme Derville. Julien entraîne les deux femmes vers les points de vue sublimes de la. région. Scientific Essay! Un soir, par hasard, il vient à toucher la main de Mme de Rênal, qu'elle lui retire aussitôt. Institution! Alors, Julien se fait un devoir de la. Il aborde la situation comme une bataille à gagner. Scientific Essay! A dix heures sonnantes, il passe à l'acte, et se saisit de la main de Mme de Rênal, qui en est. transportée.

De manière inopinée, le lendemain, M. Gantry Religion! de Rênal se présente au. château. Scientific Essay! Il est venu faire remplacer les paillasses de la maison. Salient Of An! Cette. nouvelle effraie Julien qui a caché dans son lit un portrait de Napoléon. Il supplie Mme de Rênal de mettre ce portrait accusateur en sûreté, sans y. jeter un regard. Scientific Explanation Essay! Elle s'exécute, non sans ressentir les premières atteintes. En froid avec M. And Critical Definition! de Rênal, Julien sollicite un congé pour se rendre auprès.

de l'abbé Chélan. Scientific Essay! Sur le chemin de Verrières, Julien laisse aller sa. sensibilité devant les beautés de la nature, et donne libre cours à ses. projets de destinée ambitieuse. Julien se donne pour défi de prendre la main de Mme Rênal en présence, cette fois, de son époux. And Critical Thinking! C'est une autre victoire. Scientific Essay! Cependant sa vraie. passion est encore pour Napoléon.

De son côté, Mme de Rênal commence à passer par des alternatives de passion naïve et d'effroi moral devant ce. sentiment. College Book Template! Elle traverse une nuit de délire. Au moment de partir pour rendre visite à son ami Fouqué, Julien est surpris. par l'accueil glacial de Mme de Rênal. Explanation! Il décide de répliquer par la.

froideur. Elmer Gantry! Quand elle apprend le voyage de Julien, Mme de Rênal, blessée, se. met au lit. Scientific Explanation! Cheminant dans la montagne, Julien s'arrête dans une grotte, et. s'y livre au plaisir d'écrire en liberté : ambitieuses rêveries de vie. parisienne. Global! Après avoir brûlé ses écrits, Julien arrive à une heure du. matin chez Fouqué, qui lui propose de devenir son associé dans son commerce.

de bois. Scientific Essay! Ayant évalué la proposition durant la nuit, Julien la refuse, prenant prétexte d'une irrésistible vocation religieuse. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy! En fait, il. redoute que plusieurs années de cette vie mercantile n'émoussent sa volonté De ce voyage, Julien revient mûri.

Mme de Rênal se fait coquette, et à ce. détail, sa cousine, Mme Derville, comprend qu'elle est amoureuse. Scientific Essay! Comme. Julien paraît se détacher d'elle, Mme de Rênal va jusqu'à reprendre la main. de Julien. Elmer! Ce geste le persuade qu'il est aimé. Scientific Explanation! Il décide de faire de Mme. de Rênal sa maîtresse. Thesis Institution! Mais au lieu de répondre spontanément à la passion.

de Mme de Rênal, il entreprend de la faire souffrir, par esprit de revanche. sociale : il lui laisse entendre qu'il devra quitter Verrières, parce qu'il. l'aime et que cette passion est incompatible avec l'état de prêtre. Scientific Explanation! N'ayant. pas connu l'éducation sentimentale procurée par la lecture des romans, Mme. de Rênal croit pouvoir se jurer qu'elle n'accordera rien à Julien. Avec gaucherie, Julien, qui se prend pour une Don Juan, s'efforce de mettre. en pratique un plan de séduction, et parvient à enlever un baiser à Mme de. Rênal, mais celle-ci en est effrayée. Features Essay! En présence du sous-préfet Maugiron,

Julien presse le pied de Mme de Rênal, qui parvientà tromper l'attention en. laissant tomber ses ciseaux. Scientific Explanation Essay! A Verrières, l'abbé Chélan déménage : il vient. d'être destitué et remplacé par l'abbé Maslon. Elmer Religion! Fâché par cette injustice. au sein de l'Eglise, et par prudence, Julien écrit à Fouqué pour se ménager. la possibilité de revenir au commerce. Julien somme Mme de Rênal de le recevoir dans sa chambre à deux heures du. matin -- mais il tremble qu'elle accepte.

Le moment venu, il s'y rend, en. se demandant ce qu'il pourra bien y faire. Scientific Essay! En y entrant, il se jette à ses. pieds et fond en larmes. Oil Crisis! Sa maladresse l'aide à triompher des réserves de. Mme de Rênal, mais il ne sait pas goûter simplement le bonheur qui se.

présente : il continue de se contraindre à jouer le rôle du séducteur. Explanation! Mme. de Rênal, quant à elle, vit l'événement avec un déchirement moral. Le lendemain, en société, Julien est la prudence même, mais sa froideur. alarme Mme de Rênal. Features Essay! Elle craint d'avoir découragé le jeune homme de. revenir dans sa chambre. Scientific Explanation Essay! Ce second soir, il commence à s'apercevoir des.

charmes de Mme de Rênal, et à céder au plaisir d'aimer. Analytical And Critical! En dépit de la. différence d'age qui inquiète Mme de Rênal, Julien, en peu de jours, tombe. complètement amoureux. Scientific Explanation Essay! De son côté, sa maîtresse s'émerveille d'un. sentiment qu'elle n'a jamais soupçonné auparavant.

Elle imagine la vie. d'épouse qu'elle eût pu vivre à ses côtés. Report! Julien est tenté de lui avouer. en confiance l'ambition de sa vie. Julien regrette Napoléon, qui permit à la jeunesse pauvre de s'élever. Explanation! Des. remarques de Mme De Rênal, il reçoit une première éducation sur la société : intrigues pour la nomination du premier adjoint de Verrières ; réunions.

de la Loge maçonnique. Essay! Mme de Rênal ne se lasse pas d'admirer l'avenir. qu'elle entrevoit pour Julien. On apprend inopinément la venue d'un roi à Verrières. Scientific Explanation Essay! Aussitôt la petite. ville, en ébullition, se prépare à un défilé militaire. Chieftancy! Julien s'imagine. que Mme de Rênal, toute occupée de préparatifs vaniteux, ne songe plus à l'aimer. Essay! Il la surprend sortant de sa chambre et emportant un des ses. vêtements. Chieftancy Institution! C'est qu'elle a le projet fou de le faire nommer dans la garde.

d'honneur et de lui faire tailler un uniforme neuf. Scientific Explanation Essay! Cependant, M. Salient Features Of An! de Rênal. contraint le nouveau curé à accepter que figure l'abbé Chélan dans le. cortège. Explanation! Il est en effet l'ami de M. Thinking! de la Mole, le ministre, qui. accompagnera le roi. Explanation Essay! Et son tempérament satirique serait capable.

d'infliger un soufflet à l'administration municipale, s'il ne rencontrait. pas l'abbé Chélan. Institution! Lors de la cérémonie, la présence de Julien parmi les. gardes fait sensation et suscite l'indignation. Explanation Essay! Julien, lui, est au comble. de la joie ; il se prend pour un officier de Napoléon.

En peu de temps, Julien court se changer pour revêtir l'habit ecclésiastique, afin de se. clergé réuni attend l'évêque d'Agde qui doit montrer les reliques au roi. L'abbé Chélan, en tant que doyen, est dépêché pour le chercher ; Julien. l'accompagne. Goffman! Errant dans l'antique abbaye, Julien parvient dans une salle. où le jeune évêque, placé devant un miroir, s'exerce aux bénédictions. Julien se propose d'aller chercher sa mitre, qui a souffert du transport. Fasciné par les manières charmantes de l'évêque, Julien l'accompagne lors. de la cérémonie, qu'il trouve magnifique. Essay! Son ambition ecclésiastique s'en.

trouve ravivée. Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! Pour la première fois, Julien aperçoit fugitivement M. Explanation Essay! de. la Mole. College Book Template! Plus tard, il accompagne l'abbé Chélan jusqu'à la chapelle. ardente. Scientific! Splendeur éblouissante de la mise en scène, et exhortation. rhétorique de l'évêque aux jeunes filles dans l'assistance. Ce qui surnage de cette fête, c'est l'indignation contre Julien, et contre. Mme de Rênal, qu'on suspecte d'avoir favorisé l'épisode de l'habit.

militaire. Salient Of An Essay! A peu de temps de là, le fils de Mme de Rênal tombe malade, et. cette maladie suscite les remords de sa mère, désormais consciente de sa. faute. Explanation Essay! Elle demande à Julien de fuir cette maison, rendant sa présence. responsable de son malheur familial. Global! Un jour que l'enfant estau plus mal, Mme de Rênal se jette aux pieds de son mari, sur le point de lui avouer sa.

liaison. Explanation! Mme de Rênal est alors prête à une humiliation publique pour. sauver son fils. Elmer Essay! Julien parvient à la dissuader d'une telle démarche. Scientific Explanation Essay! Il.

propose de faire lui-même retraite à l'abbaye ; au bout de deux jours, il. est rappelé. Global Oil Crisis! Stanislas guérit, mais les remords restent. Explanation Essay! Julien tombe alors. dans toutes les folies de l'amour. Erving Dramaturgy Essay! Cependant, Elisa, la femme de chambre, révèle à Valenod la liaison de sa maîtresse, et le lendemain, une lettre. anonyme en avertit M. Explanation Essay! de Rênal.

Pour l'entretenir de cette lettre anonyme, Mme de Rênal tente de se rendre, de nuit, à la chambre de Julien. Features Essay! Mais celui-ci croit prudent de la lui. refuser. Scientific Explanation Essay! Aussitôt, Mme de Rênal lui écrit une lettre, où elle expose un. plan de défense contre la lettre anonyme : elle demande à Julien d'en. écrire une à son époux, dont elle dicte les termes.

Julien se retirera à Verrières, courtisera la bonne société et fera croire que Valenod est sur. le point de l'engager, comme précepteur de ses propres enfants. Analytical Thinking! M. Scientific Explanation! de Rênal. ne devrait pas supporter cette perspective, ce qui ferait revenir Julien à Vergy, maison de campagne des Rênal. Crise intérieure de M. Thesis Chieftancy Institution! de Rênal, qui passe la nuit dans les incertitudes, et délibère sur la conduite à tenir. Explanation! Il pense dresser un piège pour. s'assurer de la véridicité des faits. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy! Mais, au retour de la messe, son.

épouse lui remet la lettre anonyme confectionnée par Julien, et parvient à détourner ses soupçons sur Valenod, dont elle le pousse à lire les lettres. à elle adressées dans le passé. Explanation! Dans sa hâte à se les procurer, M. Template! de Rênal. va jusqu'à briser le secrétaire de sa femme. Scientific Explanation! A la fin, Mme de Rênal obtient. la réalisation de son plan : Julien se voit accorder un congé de quinze. A Verrières, Julien reçoit la visite du sous-préfet Maugiron, qui lui. propose un poste de précepteur à 800 F. Thesis Chieftancy Institution! Julien s'empresse de demander.

conseil à M. Scientific Essay! de Rênal et fait confidence de la proposition à M. Erving Essay! Valenod. Invité à déjeuner chez Valenod, avec quelques notables libéraux, on scientific explanation essay lui. demande une démonstration de son savoir : réciter par coeur la Bible en. latin, ce qui provoque l'admiration de l'assistance. Gantry Essay! Après s'être retiré, Julien exprime son mépris des gens vulgaires, et manifeste des affinités. avec le mode de vie aristocratique des Rênal. Scientific Essay! Un jour, Mme de Rênal le. surprend à Verrières où elle est venue pour des courses. Erving Dramaturgy! Moments charmants, interrompus par l'air soupçonneux du mari. Scientific Essay! Analyse de la situation.

politique de Valenod et de ses intrigues locales. Affaire de l'adjudication de la maison de Verrières, qui échappe aux visées. du maire. Global Oil Crisis Essay! Julien, qui assistait à l'adjudication, se fait traiter d'espion. de M. Scientific Explanation Essay! de Rênal. Features Essay! Le soir, survient le chanteur Geronimo, qui déride. l'atmosphère.

Il raconte son histoire : par quelle tromperie, il s'est fait. chasser du conservatoire de Naples, pour se faire engager comme chanteur au. San Carlino. Scientific Essay! Mme de Rênal se laisse aller à rêver une vie conjugale avec. Julien, si elle se trouvait veuve de M. Oil Crisis Essay! de Rênal. Essay! Cependant toute la ville. s'entretient de ses amours avec Julien. Salient Essay! La servante Elisa, ayant fait. connaître en confession à l'abbé Chélan les amours de Julien, l'abbé exige. que celui-ci quitte Verrières pour le séminaire.

Afin d'apaiser l'amertume. de sa maîtresse, Julien lui promet de revenir la voir régulièrement. Explanation Essay! Quant. à M. Elmer Essay! de Rênal, il envisage un duel avec Valenod, mais son épouse l'en. dissuade et lui fait accepter l'idée que Julien entre au séminaire. Nouvelle lettre anonyme, qui pousse Rênal à acheter des pistolets pour un. duel.

De nouveau, son épouse l'en dissuade et convainc M. Scientific Essay! De Rênal. d'accorder à Julien les 600 F de sa pension au séminaire. College! Le jeune homme. n'accepte qu'à grand peine, considérant cette somme comme un prêt. remboursable. Scientific! Trois jours après son départ pour Besançon, Julien revient, de nuit, visiter Mme de Rênal. Essay! Mais celle-ci, persuadée qu'il s'agit de.

leur dernière rencontre, reste d'une froideur de glace. A Besançon, Julien fait d'abord le tour de sa citadelle, pour flatter ses. ambitions militaires, puis entre dans un café où l'on joue au billard, et. entame la conversation avec la jeune dame de comptoir : Amanda Binet. Julien regarde de travers un homme qui vient d'entrer, qu'Amanda présente. comme son beau-frère, et qui est sans doute son amant ; il envisage un.

duel. Scientific Explanation Essay! Amanda parvient à le faire quitter les lieux. Analytical! Avant d'entrer au. séminaire, Julien prend la précaution de déposer ses vêtements bourgeois. dans une auberge. Arrivé au séminaire, Julien est introduit dans le bureau de l'abbé Pirard, son directeur. Essay! Atterré par l'atmosphère du lieu, il se trouve mal. And Critical Thinking! Revenu à lui, il peut s'entretenir avec l'abbé, qui lit une lettre de recommandation. rédigée par l'abbé Chélan.

Suit une conversation en latin, durant laquelle. l'abbé Pirard sonde l'éducation théologique du jeune homme. Scientific Explanation Essay! Après trois. heures d'entretien, Julien est conduit à sa chambre, dont la vue donne sur. Julien se choisit pour confesseur l'abbé Pirard -- une étourderie. Médiocrité des autres séminaristes. College! L'abbé Pirard intercepte des lettres. d'amour adressées, de Dijon, à Julien. Essay! Visite de Fouqué, qui apprend que.

Mme de Rênal a sombré dans la dévotion. Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! Julien ne tarde pas à s'apercevoir. que sa conduite, son ardeur à l'étude, lui ont aliéné la sympathie de ses. condisciples. Scientific Explanation Essay! Pour la regagner, il s'efforce à l'hypocrisie et à la. médiocrité dévote. Book Template! Mais comme il ne se réjouit pas de la choucroute qui est. servie, il se fait mépriser. Scientific Explanation Essay! Un jour, il est convoqué dans le bureau de. l'abbé Pirard, pour répondre d'une délation : on essay a trouvé dans sa malle une. carte où sont portées des indications relatives à Amanda Binet.

Les malheurs de Julien en butte à l'incompréhension de ses collègues, occupés de cures avantageuses, et jaloux de sa supériorité intellectuelle. Julien est mandé à la cathédrale pour préparer les tentures de la. Fête-Dieu. Scientific Explanation! De ce labeur, il s'acquitte avec maestria, suscitant la. reconnaissance de l'abbé Chas. Analytical Thinking! Julien participe avec exaltation à la. procession. Essay! Tandis qu'il garde une partie désertée de l'édifice, il.

remarque deux dames près d'un confessionnal. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! L'une d'elle est Mme de Rênal, L'abbé Pirard fait appeler Julien. Explanation! C'est pour lui accorder un privilège : il le fait répétiteur pour le Nouveau et l'Ancien Testament, et lui révèle. combien il tient à lui. College Template! S'ensuit un moment d'émotion sincère. Scientific Explanation! Mais aux. examens, Julien est victime d'un piège du grand vicaire de Frilaire, qui le. fait trop parler sur Horace, un auteur profane!

Un jour Julien reçoit une. lettre de Paris qui lui envoie une somme d'argent, et lui demande de. continuer ses études brillantes. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy! Explication : M. Scientific Explanation Essay! de la Mole, en. correspondance avec Pirard sur certaine affaire, cherche à le remercier des. services rendus. Oil Crisis! Il lui propose, par une lettre, de s'installer à Paris, où il lui trouvera une cure tranquille. Scientific Explanation Essay! Pirard rédige sa lettre de démission.

du séminaire à l'adresse de l'évêque, et envoie Julien la porter. Global Essay! Celui-ci, Julien s'entretient avec l'évêque, qui, charmé de sa connaissance des. poètes latins, lui fait cadeau des oeuvres de Tacite. Scientific Essay! L'abbé Pirard ne. tarde pas à quitter Besançon, nommé à une cure magnifique dans les environs. A Paris, le marquis de La Mole propose à l'abbé Pirard de devenir son.

secrétaire, richement appointé, et de s'occuper de ses procès en. Franche-Comté. Features Essay! Déclinant cette offre, l'abbé propose les services de. Julien, qui reçoit une lettre le convoquant à Paris, avec les fonds. nécessaires à son déplacement. Scientific Essay! Avant de quitter la Franche-Comté, Julien se. rend chez Fouqué, qui ne se montre pas enthousiaste de cette promotion, et. rencontre l'abbé Chélan, qui lui intime l'ordre de quitter Verrières sans.

revoir personne. College Book Report! Mais Julien renvoie son cheval et, au prix d'une audace. folle, escaladant la façade du château par une échelle jusqu'à parvenir à la chambre de Mme de Rênal. Scientific Explanation! Celle-ci commence par lerepousser, lui raconte. ce qu'a été sa vie, puis Julien, à son tour, fait le récit des tracasseries. auxquelles il a été en butte au séminaire. Analytical And Critical Thinking Definition! Le ton de l'intimité se rétablit.

entre eux. Scientific Explanation! Après trois heures d'entretien, Mme de Rênal finit par céder aux. instances de Julien, lui propose même de rester une journée de plus auprès. d'elle, caché dans sa chambre. Erving Dramaturgy Essay! Mme de Rênal se charge de faire disparaître. l'échelle, qu'un domestique ira cacher dans le grenier. Scientific Essay! Julien passe ainsi. la journée enfermé dans la chambre de Mme Derville. Thesis! Le soir, ils dînent.

ensemble dans la chambre de Mme de Rênal, lorsque surgit l'époux. Essay! Julien se. dissimule sous le canapé, de sorte que M. Global Essay! de Rênal ne s'aperçoit pas de sa. présence. Scientific Essay! Mais, dans la nuit, à nouveau M. Thesis Chieftancy Institution! de Rênal tambourine à la porte. de sa femme : il craint un voleur, après la découverte de l'échelle. Scientific Essay! Julien. saute par la fenêtre, et parvient à s'enfuir, tandis que les balles. sifflent à ses oreilles.

Dans la malle-poste vers Partis, conversation entre Falcoz et Saint-Giraud, lequel fuit les tracasseries politiques de la province, et clame son. animosité à l'égard de Bonaparte, qu'il juge responsable du rétablissement. des anciennes hiérarchies sociales. Chieftancy! Julien, quant à lui, dès son arrivée à Paris, et pour satisfaire à sa passion bonapartiste, se rend en pèlerinage. à la Malmaison. Scientific Explanation! Plus tard, il revoit l'abbé Pirard, qui l'informe du mode. de vie qui sera le sien chez le marquis de La Mole, et fait son instruction. morale relativement à la vie parisienne. Thesis Institution! Eblouissement de Julien à son. Premier et bref entretien de Julien avec le marquis.

L'habit Pirard le. quitte en le laissant aux soins du tailleur qui lui confectionnera un. habit. Explanation! Lors de son premier dîner, Julien parvient à se faire remarquer par. sa culture et son à-propos. Prise de contact avec les enfants de la famille : Norbert et Mathilde. Global Oil Crisis Essay! Il. se fait remarquer d'une autre manière : en tombant de cheval!

Mais le. lendemain, crânement, il remonte et parvient à effectuer la sortie sans. Atmosphère du salon de l'hôtel de La Mole : magnificence et ennui. Echantillon des dialogues de moquerie légère qui s'y entendent. Julien capte la confiance du marquis qui, de plus en plus, lui confie ses. affaires épineuses à débrouiller. Explanation! Cependant, Julien se sent tenu à l'écart. et éprouve un sentiment de solitude. Un jour, il s'estime injurié par un certain regard jeté dans un café, et.

provoque le personnage en duel. Global! Mais le lendemain, lorsqu'il se rend au. domicile indiqué, il ne trouve qu'un dandy, qui n'est pas son personnage ; le duel ne peut donc avoir lieu. Scientific Essay! A la sortie, Julien reconnaît son. agresseur, qui n'est autre que le cocher de la maison. Analytical Definition! Du coup, son maître. consent au duel, dans lequel Julien est légèrement blessé. Essay! Pour ne pas. avoir l'air de s'être battu avec un homme de rien, son adversaire fait.

courir le bruit que Julien est le fils naturel du marquis de La Mole. Global Oil Crisis! A peu. de temps de là, ce dernier consent à cette fable, qui peut lui être utile à l'avenir, et invite Julien à se frotter davantage au beau monde. Le marquis envoie Julien en Angleterre, pour qu'il y fréquente l'ambassade. de France. Scientific Essay! Au retour, il lui remet une décoration. And Critical Thinking! Valenod, devenu maire de. Verrières, en remplacement de M. Explanation! de Rênal, vient à Paris et se fait. présenter au marquis de La Mole. Salient Features Of An! A cette occasion, Julien réclame la place. de directeur du dépôt de mendicité de Verrières pour son père.

Il prend. conscience des compromissions dans lesquelles il lui faut entrer. Julien transformé en dandy voit arriver Mme de La Mole et sa fille, retour. d'Hyères. Essay! Mlle de la Mole lui demande d'assister avec son frère Norbert au. prochain bal de M. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! de Retz. Essay! Magnificence de cet hôtel, et de la fête qui. s'y tient. Goffman Essay! Julien capte quelques échantillons de conversation sur la beauté des jeunes femmes présentes, dont Mathilde est la reine. Scientific Explanation! Elle fait assaut.

d'érudition avec Julien, et, à propos du comte Altamira, conspirateur. libéral, fait réflexion que la peine de mort est la seule grandeur qui ne. s'achète pas. Gantry Religion! Cependant, Julien procède à une évaluation du personnage de. Mathilde, contre laquelle il était fâché depuis l'ordre intimé d'aller au. bal.

L'entretien avec Altamira déçoit Mathilde. Scientific! Elle ne cesse de faire. réflexion sur l'existence d'ennui qui l'attend avec le convenable et. conventionnel marquis de Croisenois, qu'elle doit épouser. Au bal, Mathilde se désennuie de ces mondanités en prêtant attention aux. propos de Julien, qu'elle entend parler de Danton avec Altamira, qui se. sait menacé d'extradition et de pendaison dans son pays. Goffman Dramaturgy! Propos de cynisme. politique d'Altamira.

Les deux hommes ignorent les réactions de Mathilde. qui s'efforce de s'insinuer dans la conversation. Scientific! Réflexions d'Altamira sur. les salons parisiens : l'esprit y fait défaut; on definition l'emprisonne; et la. conspiration a pour effet d'effacer les différences de classe. Scientific Essay! Il passe la. nuit à lire l'histoire de la Révolution. Religion Essay! Le lendemain, s'étant présentée à la bibliothèque, Mathilde parvient à peine à se faire remarquer de Julien, qui finit par dévoiler ses pensées révolutionnaires et s'interroger sur.

l'opportunité de la violence dans les révolutions. En la comparant avec l'affectation de Mathilde, Julien se souvient avec. nostalgie du naturel des sentiments vrais dont faisait preuve Mme de Rênal. à son égard. Scientific Explanation Essay! Après un dîner où il a vu Mathilde en habit de deuil, Julien. se fait expliquer par un académicien familier de la maison les raisons de. ce rite : il commémore de la décapitation en place de grève d'un des aïeux. de La Mole, en 1574. Oil Crisis Essay! Peu à peu Julien s'efforce de sortir de son rôle de.

confident passif. Essay! Mathilde affectionne les temps héroïques de la Ligue. Gantry! Peu. à peu, Julien se départit de sa réserve blessée d'homme pauvre, et entre. dans le ton des confidences. Explanation Essay! Il surprend en Mathilde un air doux à son. égard. Essay! Incertitudes de Julien quant aux dispositions amoureuses de la jeune. femme à son encontre : l'aime-t-elle vraiment ? Ironies de Mathilde face à ses prétendants insipides. Scientific Explanation! Face à l'ennui qu'ils. lui inspirent, elle prend de l'intérêt dans la compagnie de Julien.

C'est à ce moment que Mathilde décide qu'elle l'aimera. Spéculations de la jeune femme sur cette liaison : héroïsme solitaire du. jeune homme pauvre. Erving Essay! Son frère l'avertit qu'en cas de révolution, il les. guillotinera tous. Explanation Essay! Mathilde fait la comparaison entre les jeunes gens. convenables de son monde, et l'énergie de Julien. Book Template! Avantage à Julien. Bientôt, les jeunes aristocrates se liguent pour contrebattre la bonne. opinion que Mathilde a de cet intrus. Scientific Explanation Essay! Mais elle les couvre de sarcasmes ; leur confusion.

A son tour, Mathilde se demande si Julien voit en elle une. amie, ou bien s'il est question d'amour. Erving Essay! Ce sujet de préoccupation chasse. en elle tout ennui. Essay! Quant à elle, elle décide de se livrer à une grande. Le lendemain, Julien a le soupçon qu'on veuille se moquer de lui.

Mais il. s'aperçoit que Mathilde partage avec lui des comportements d'hypocrisie : elle lit, comme lui, Voltaire en cachette, et détourne les mémoires. hostiles à la politique du trône et de l'autel que fait acheter secrètement. son père. College Book! Il la voit comme un Machiavel, l'accomplissement de la. scélératesse parisienne. Scientific Essay! Cependant, incertain quant au sort qu'on lui. réserve, Julien prend le parti de quitter la place pour un voyage en.

Languedoc. Salient Essay! Mathilde parvient à lui faire différer son départ. Scientific! D'elle, il. reçoit une lettre, qui est une déclaration d'amour. College! Réaction orgueilleuse. de Julien. Scientific! Un moment de vertu est vite balayé par la haine de classe : son. mérite l'emporte sur celui d'un Croisenois!

Par précaution Julien envoie la. lettre de Mathilde à son ami Fouqué, dissimulée dans une Bible. Elmer Religion! C'est dans. l'ivresse qu'il répond à la jeune femme. Période d'hésitations et de doutes de Mathilde quant à son amour pour. Julien. Explanation Essay! Considérations sur le courage relatif des hommes d'aujourd'hui par. rapport à celui des hommes du XVIe siècle. Analytical And Critical Thinking! Elle se souvient avec inquiétude. du temps où elle se permettait la hardiesse d'écrire aux jeunes gens à la.

mode. Scientific Explanation Essay! Mathilde mesure l'énormité de son audace au cas où Julien se. servirait de la prise qu'elle lui donnait sur elle. Chieftancy! Le lendemain matin, Julien remet sa réponse. Essay! Pour lui, un bataille se prépare, contre l'orgueil. de la naissance, et il se reproche de n'être point parti. And Critical Definition! Nouvel échange de. lettres entre les jeunes gens. Scientific Essay! Puis un troisième, et cette fois, Mathilde. demande à Julien de la rejoindre dans sa chambre, la nuit, au moyen d'une.

Julien mesure l'imprudence ; il croit à un piège, décide de ne pas même. répondre, et de partir en voyage. Template! Mais bientôt il balance entre la prudence. et l'audace, et place les lettres de Mathilde en lieu sûr, car ses ennemis. pourraient tenter de les récupérer sur lui, en cas d'attaque. Scientific Explanation Essay! En attendant. le moment d'agir, il rédige un petit mémoire justificatif de sa conduite, au cas où il lui arriverait malheur dans l'événement, et l'expédie à Fouqué, avec ordre de le publier en cas d'accident. Global Oil Crisis Essay! Au dîner qui précède, Julien s'avoue qu'il a peur de ce qui peut advenir. Scientific Explanation Essay! Plus tard, il vérifie.

l'échelle, et fait la comparaison avec l'épisode semblable de Verrières : à ce moment-là, il était sûr des intentions de Mme de Rênal. Julien se prépare à son entreprise nocturne, et prend soin d'observer le. comportement des domestiques, qui pourraient tomber sur lui. Book Report! Leur. comportement festin le rassure. Essay! Néanmoins, il a peur. Goffman! A une heure du matin, par l'échelle, il accède à la chambre de Mathilde, qui l'attendait. Essay! Elle.

commence par se refuser à ses avances, et lui demande de renvoyer l'échelle. au moyen d'une corde, pour ne pas casser les vitres des salons en. contrebas. Book Template! Grand embarras pour tous deux. Explanation! Mathilde réclame ses lettres ; Julien détaille les précautions qu'il a prises. College Book! Réaction enflammée de. Mathilde, qui ne se refuse plus qu'à demi. Essay! Nul bonheur amoureux pour Julien.

dans cette situation, rien que des satisfactions d'ambitieux, de voir plier. une fille de haute naissance. Analytical Thinking! De son côté, Mathilde commence à sentir la. folie qu'elle a faite, qui la livre à Julien, et elle en souffre. intérieurement. Scientific Essay! C'est par devoir, et non par tendresse, que Mathilde. devient enfin sa maîtresse, mais plus par un acte volontaire que par élan. véritable. Erving Dramaturgy Essay! Nuit plus singulière qu'exaltante pour Julien.

A la fin, Mathilde en est encore à se demander si elle l'aime. Les jours suivants, elle affecte la plus grande froideur. Scientific Explanation! Julien se perd en. conjecture sur les motifs de cette conduite. Global Oil Crisis Essay! En fait, Mathilde est en proie. aux fureurs de la vanité : elle s'est donnée un maître ; Julien est le. premier amour de sa vie. Scientific Essay! Au bout de quelque temps, leur dialogue tourne à la haine et au dépit. Erving Dramaturgy Essay! A partir du moment où Julien se voit brouillé définitivement avec Mathilde, il se met à l'aimer passionnément.

Sur le. point de partir pour le Midi, il la rencontre dans la bibliothèque. Essay! Sur un. mot insolent, Julien, dans sa colère, s'essaie à la tuer. Elmer Gantry Religion Essay! Mathilde sort. bouleversée de la scène. Scientific Essay! Lorsqu'il annonce son intention de partir pour le.

Languedoc, M. College Book Report! de La Mole s'y refuse, car il réserve à Julien d'autres. fonctions. Explanation Essay! Désarroi de Julien. Cherchant à renouer avec Julien, Mathilde l'entraîne dans le jardin et. prend le ton des confidences intimes, relatant ses anciennes velléités. d'amour pour les jeunes gens de son monde, ce qui suscite la jalousie de.

Julien. College Book Report! C'est en constatant les faiblesses de son partenaire que Mathilde. s'autorise à l'aimer. Scientific Explanation! Julien n'a pas lu de romans, et n'a donc pas. l'expérience du sentiment. Elmer Gantry Essay! Il a la maladresse de révéler qu'il aime, et, du. coup, Mathilde le méprise et prend ses distances. Scientific Explanation Essay! Julien, malheureux, la.

fuit, mais ne cesse de penser à elle, connaît des distractions dans son. travail. Thesis Chieftancy! Cependant Mathilde médite sur la fortune qu'elle pourrait apporter. Cependant un travail intérieur, en faveur de Julien, se produit en. Mathilde. Explanation Essay! En cas de nouvelle révolution, elle s'envisage comme une autre. Mme Roland. Gantry Religion! En dessinant, par hasard, elle s'aperçoit qu'elle trace.

spontanément le portrait de Julien. Explanation! A l'Opéra où l'a entraînée sa mère, Mathilde est frappée par une cantilène d'amour, qu'elle applique à sa. position. Religion! Dans son émotion, elle connaît un moment d'amour vrai, et non. plus d'amour de tête. Scientific Essay! Intervention de Stendhal pour protester contre. l'accusation d'immoralité de son héroïne : le roman est un miroir qu'on. promène le long d'un chemin. Analytical! Julien, quant à lui, traverse une phase.

songer au suicide. Scientific Explanation! Mais la nuit, cédant à une inspiration irrésistible, il. renouvelle la scène de l'échelle, frappe à la fenêtre de Mathilde, et se. fait ouvrir. And Critical! Moments de félicité et d'égarement : Mathilde se proclame la. servante de Julien. Scientific Explanation! Lorsque son amant se retire à l'aube, en replaçant. l'échelle, Mathilde lui jette par la fenêtre une moitié de ses cheveux.

qu'elle vient de couper, en signe de soumission à son maître. Erving! Mais le. lendemain, Julien a la surprise de constater un retournement d'attitude : Mathilde ne le juge pas suffisamment exceptionnel pour justifier les folies. qu'elle a faites en sa faveur. Scientific Explanation Essay! Désespoir de Julien. Le lendemain, le jeune homme se sent en disgrâce dans le salon, tandis que. Mathilde a repris ses grâces auprès des jeunes aristocrates.

Mal à l'aise, Julien quitte les lieux. Report Template! Enfin Mathilde l'aborde, c'est pour lui dire. qu'elle ne l'aime plus! Dans une scène de rupture, la jeune femme s'emporte. contre lui, de la manière la plus haineuse, ivre d'avoir récupéré la. maîtrise de soi. Explanation! Un autre jour, par inadvertance, Julien casse un vase du. Japon : ainsi fait-il de son amour pour Mathilde. Essay! En fait, sa passion.

contrariée ne fait que croître. Le marquis lui laisse entendre qu'il va l'envoyer en ambassade pour. rapporter des propos appris par coeur lors d'une réunion secrète, qui tient. de la conspiration aristocratique. Scientific Explanation Essay! Départ du marquis et de Julien pour. cette réunion. Chieftancy Institution! Mise en place des conspirateurs. Julien à la séance de conspiration. Explanation Essay! Digression de Stendhal sur la politique. dans le roman.

Dans son intervention, M. Oil Crisis! de La Mole demande à ses. partenaires qu'il sacrifient le cinquième de leurs revenus pour lever une. milice destinée à appuyer une intervention étrangère, afin de sauver la. Suite de la discussion politique : il faut l'argent de l'Angleterre et un. parti armé en France pour que se produise une intervention étrangère afin. de rétablir la monarchie d'Ancien Régime. Scientific Essay! Le poids du clergé sera capital.

pour dominer le peuple. Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! Intervention de M. Explanation! de Nerval, premier ministre en. fonction, sollicité de quitter son poste, et qui défend ses intérêts. personnels. Thesis Chieftancy Institution! Propos exaltés du jeune évêque d'Agde : c'est de Paris qu'est. venu tout le mal ; il faut le détruire. Scientific! Le lendemain, départ de Julien pour.

l'étranger. Essay! Sa nuit passée dans une auberge. Scientific Essay! Il y retrouve Geronimo, et. s'aperçoit qu'on veut bloquer leur progression en cachant les chevaux de. poste dont ils ont besoin. Religion Essay! On les drogue pour les faire dormir. Scientific Explanation Essay! La nuit, deux hommes, dont un prêtre (l'abbé Castanède, chef de la police de la. congrégation sur la frontière du Nord) , pénètrent dans sa chambre et. fouillent sa malle, sans trouver aucun papier compromettant.

Cependant, Julien réussit à gagner sa destination auprès d'un duc allemand, et après. avoir accompli sa mission, reçoit ordre de séjourner en attente dix jours à Pendant son séjour dans cette ville, Julien ne cesse de penser à Mathilde. La solitude du voyageur augmente ses idées noires. Essay! Se promenant à cheval, près de Kehl, sur le théâtre des opérations napoléoniennes, il rencontre le.

prince Korasoff, qui lui fait le récit, très approximatif, du siège de. 1796. Scientific Explanation Essay! Julien est rempli d'une admiration stupide pour cet homme brillant. Le prince s'étant informé de sa tristesse, Julien lui fait confidence de. ses peines d'amour.

Et celui-ci prodigue des conseils de séduction. (tactique de la diversion) pour parvenir à attirer l'attention de la femme. aimée. Essay! Il lui remet copie de 53 lettres d'amour toutes faites. Explanation! Le prince. finit par lui proposer d'épouser sa cousine en Russie, proposition par. laquelle Julien est un instant tenté.

Mais revenu à Paris, après sa. mission, il décide de mettre en application les préceptes de Korasoff, et. de feindre de faire la cour à Mme de Fervaques. De retour à Paris, il fait confidence de cet amour supposé à Altamira. Goffman Essay! Pour. lui être utile, celui-ci le conduit auprès de don Diego Bustos, qui fit en. vain la cour à cette dame. Scientific Explanation Essay! Ses avis: la question est de savoir s'il s'agit.

d'une prude, lasse de sa position. Elmer Gantry! Au dîner, Julien revoit Mathilde, qui ne. l'attendait point. Explanation! Dans l'intervalle, elle l'a d'ailleurs presque oublié. Julien commence donc sa cour auprès de Mme de Fervaques. Features Of An Essay! A ce moment, Mathilde prend conscience que Julien est bien le mari qu'il lui faut.

Le. marquis La Mole sera prochainement ministre, ce qui voudrait dire un. Portrait moral de Mme de Fervaques : le calme patricien. Scientific! Conformément aux. préceptes du manuel épistolaire de Korasoff, Julien, après huit jours de. cour à la maréchale de Fervaques, lui fait parvenir la première lettre. Pendant une quinzaine de jours, Julien poursuit le jeu des lettres copiées. pour la maréchale. Chieftancy Institution! Un jour, il reçoit d'elle une invitation à dîner. L'oncle de la maréchale, haut dignitaire de l'Eglise de France, dispensateur de bénéfices ecclésiastiques, fréquente son salon.

Par le. petit Tanbeau, autre secrétaire du marquis, Julien apprend que Mme de. Fervaques n'est pas insensible au penchant que Julien lui manifeste. Dans ce jeu stupide des lettres copiées, Julien commet une bévue : il. recopie textuellement une lettre traitant de Londres et Richemond, au lieu. de Paris, ce dont lui fait remarque la destinataire. Scientific Essay! Pendant ce temps, Mathilde ne parvient pas à détacher sa pensée de Julien, dont elle admire. la faculté de dissimulation et le machiavélisme, tandis que Julien doute de. ses capacités. Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! Il lui arrive de songer à quelque suicide solitaire.

Mme de Fervaques regrette que Julien ne soit pas encore prêtre, pour couper. court aux calomnies, car l'intérêt qu'elle prend à ses lettres de Julien. s'accroît. Explanation Essay! Elle-même écrit quotidiennement. Elmer! Les réponses de Julien sont. toujours copiées sur le manuel, et ont peu de rapport avec les lettres.

reçues ; le style emphatique empêche que Mme de Fervaques s'y arrête. Quant aux lettres de la maréchale, Julien les jette dans un tiroir sans les. décacheter. Explanation! Ce manège, surpris par Mathilde, déclenche en elle une douleur. d'orgueil ; elle accuse Julien de la mépriser, et tombe évanouie à ses. Mathilde décachette nerveusement les lettres de la maréchale, puis exprime.

ses regrets de tout l'orgueil dont elle a pu faire souffrir Julien. Essay! Lui. s'impose une froideur affectée, alors qu'il est prêt à céder aux élans de. l'amour. Explanation Essay! Le soir, il répond à l'invitation de la maréchale, dans sa loge à En visite dans la loge de Mme de La Mole, Julien y trouve Mathilde en. larmes. Essay! En dépit de son envie, Julien se retient de lui adresser la parole, de peur de trahir son amour : il s'imagine qu'un tel aveu serait de nature. à faire évanouir celui de Mathilde, car il vit dans la crainte de reperdre. l'avantage qu'il vient de gagner dans cette sorte de bataille.

L'idée lui. vient que pour tenir l'ennemi en respect, il faut lui faire peur. Scientific Explanation! Dans un. tête-à-tête, Mathilde lui propose, comme garantie de son amour, qu'il. l'enlève pour Londres, et ainsi la déshonore. Essay! Soudain, Julien faiblit et se. laisse aller à faire confidence de son amour et de son malheur passé. Scientific Explanation! Sûr, maintenant, d'avoir gagné l'amour de Mathilde, il n'en continue pas moins. sa correspondance avec Mme de Fervaques.

Pour la première fois, M connaît l'amour. Report Template! Mais son orgueil lui dicte d'agir. dangereusement. Scientific Explanation! Bientôt, elle se trouve enceinte, et annonce son intention. d'écrire à son père pour lui dévoiler la situation. Book Template! Julien obtient qu'elle. diffère d'une semaine.

Lettre d'aveu de Mathilde à son père. Essay! A la suite de. quoi, Julien est, séance tenante, convoqué chez le marquis. Dans sa fureur, le marquis accable Julien des plus bas jurons. Chieftancy Institution! Le jeune.

homme lui propose de le faire tuer dans son jardin par un de ses hommes. Après cet entretien, il décide d'aller solliciter les conseils de l'abbé Pirard. Scientific Essay! De son côté, Mathilde voit son père, et lui affirme que s'il arrive. malheur à Julien, elle portera le deuil de Mme veuve Sorel. Thesis! Lorsque Julien. rentre à l'hôtel de La Mole, Mathilde lui ordonne de gagner la propriété de. Villequier et de lui abandonner le soin de ses affaires. Par suite de l'indécision du marquis, un mois se passe sans que la.

négociation avance. Scientific Essay! Un jour, il décide une donation de ses terres du. Languedoc, assortie d'une rente. Global! Cependant, Mathilde demande à son père de. venir assister à son prochain mariage. Scientific! Alors, le marquis se voit acculer à prendre un parti. Thesis Institution! Parfois, il rêve d'une fortune brillante pour Julien, mais redoute un côté que tout le monde qualifie d'effrayant dans le. caractère de Julien. Scientific! Au terme de longues délibérations, il prend le parti. d'écrire une lettre à sa fille, dans laquelle il met à disposition de.

Julien un brevet de lieutenant de hussards. And Critical Definition! Mathilde lui répond en. demandant l'autorisation de se marier prochainement. Explanation! Sur ce point, le. marquis ne répond pas : il ordonne à Julien de partir sur le champ à Strasbourg, où son régiment tient garnison.

Il fait observer à Mathilde. qu'en fait, elle ne connaît pas vraiment Julien. Gantry Religion Essay! Julien, quant à lui, croit. son roman fini par un succès. A Strasbourg, le nouveau lieutenant se fait immédiatement respecter, en. dépit d'une absence de formation et de son jeune âge. Scientific! Soudain, un message. de Mathilde lui parvient : tout est perdu ; qu'il rentre d'urgence à Paris! Lorsqu'ils se retrouvent, elle lui donne à lire une lettre du marquis, écrite avant son départ pour une destination inconnue.

Il transmet à sa. fille une lettre de Mme de Rênal, au sujet de la moralité de Julien, en. réponse à une demande d'information diligentée par le marquis. Erving Goffman! Cette lettre. dénonce sévèrement l'ambition et l'intéressement de Julien, criminel par. les moyens de séduction mis en oeuvre. Scientific Explanation! Lorsqu'il en prend connaissance, Julien s'enfuit, prend la malle poste pour Verrières, y achète une paire de. pistolets, se rend à la messe où assiste Mme de Rênal, et, dans l'église, tire deux coups sur elle. Aussitôt Julien est arrêté, et conduit en prison.

Mme de Rênal n'est que. blessée, ce qui l'afflige, car elle désirait la mort. Thesis Chieftancy! Elle avait remords de. sa lettre à M. Scientific Essay! de La Mole, dictée par son confesseur. Elmer Gantry Essay! Le juge reçoit des. aveux complets : Julien désire sa condamnation à mort, qu'il estime. méritée. Explanation! Il écrit à Mlle de La Mole : qu'elle garde le silence sur leur. aventure, ne parle pas de son père à l'enfant qui va naître, et qu'elle. épouse M. Elmer Religion Essay! de Croisenois.

Progressivement, Julien renonce à l'ambition et. se prépare à la mort. Explanation! Nul remords. Goffman! Mais le geôlier lui apprend que Mme de. Rênal n'est pas morte de ses blessures. Scientific! Alors seulement, il connaît le. regret. Institution! Transporté dans le donjon de la prison de Besançon, il y jouit. d'une vue superbe.

Un moment, il envisage de se tuer, mais y renonce. Scientific Explanation! Il a. trouvé dans sa prison une sorte de bonheur. Un jour, il reçoit la visite de l'abbé Chélan, vieilli par les ans et. abattu par la circonstance. Oil Crisis Essay! A travers lui, Julien voit la mort dans sa. laideur; elle lui paraît moins facile.

Puis Fouqué vient le voir : il ne. songe qu'à vendre tout son bien pour trouver les moyens de faire évader. Julien. Scientific! Cette visite sublime rend à l'accusé la force que celle de l'abbé Chélan lui avait ôtée. Salient Features Of An! Quant à son père, Julien entend ne pas le voir. Déguisée en paysanne, Mlle de la Mole lui rend visite. Scientific Explanation Essay! Julien lui reproche. aussitôt cette audace, qui risque de la perdre, si elle est sue. Report! Pour.

vaincre le responsable qui faisait obstacle, Mathilde a dû lui révéler son. vrai nom. Scientific Explanation Essay! Dans sa folie, elle propose à Julien de se tuer avec lui. Chieftancy! Elle. parcourt Besançon dans l'idée de soulever le peuple en faveur de Julien.

A. force de sollicitations, elle obtient un rendez-vous avec l'abbé de. Frilair, et ne se rend à l'évêché qu'avec crainte. Essay! Mathilde ne tarde pas à lui avouer qu'elle est la fille de son puissant adversaire. And Critical Thinking! Frilair calcule. l'intérêt de ces confidences qui peuvent le porter à l'évêché. Scientific Essay! Il l'assure. qu'il dispose de la majorité des jurés, ainsi que du ministère public, pour. répondre du verdict. Mathilde éprouve alors la passion la plus folle pour Julien, ne parle que. de projets les plus périlleux, veut étonner le public par l'excès de sa.

passion. Thesis Chieftancy Institution! Mais Julien est fatigué d'héroïsme, et souhaiterait plus. d'intimité. Scientific Explanation! L'ambition est morte en son coeur ; une autre a pris sa place : le remords d'avoir attenté à Mme de Rênal, dont il est éperdument amoureux. Enfin, Julien demande à Mathilde d'épouser M. Oil Crisis Essay! de Croisenois, dont elle fera. l'avenir, et de confier la garde de son fils à Mme de Rênal, qui, elle, dans quinze ans, ne l'aura pas encore oublié. Face au juge et à l'avocat, Julien néglige les éléments de sa défense. Explanation! Il.

constate qu'il n'a connu le bonheur d'exister que depuis qu'il est en. prison, et que sa vie est menacée. Salient Essay! Il passe ses journées à fumer des. cigares sur la terrasse du donjon. Essay! Pendant ce temps, le mot d'évêché est. prononcé en faveur de l'abbé de Frilair, qui se dépense en intrigues auprès. des jurés pour sauver Julien. Report Template! De son côté, Mme de Rênal, venue à Besançon. pour le procès, écrit à chacun des jurés pour demander l'indulgence ; elle.

renonce à toute vengeance. Enfin, le procès s'ouvre. Scientific Explanation Essay! Mathilde porte à l'abbé de Frilair une lettre de. Mgr l'évêque de ***, premier prélat de France, qui demande l'acquittement. de Julien.

Une nouvelle fois, Frilair répond du jury. Goffman Dramaturgy Essay! Quand Julien est. conduit au tribunal, un murmure d'intérêt l'accueille à son entrée dans la. salle, remplie de jolies femmes ; on scientific explanation essay se bouscule à la porte pour assister. aux débats. Goffman Dramaturgy! Lors de la plaidoirie, l'accusé est sur le point de.

s'attendrir. Essay! Puis Julien prend la parole pendant vingt minutes; il dit tout. ce qu'il a sur le coeur, se présente comme l'illustration d'un cas social. de paysan ambitieux méritant la mort, et dénonce son jury comme appartenant. à la classe bourgeoise. Of An! Après une longue délibération, ce jury le déclare. coupable et le condamne à la peine de mort, dans les trois jours. Scientific Explanation! Autour de. lui, les femmes sanglotent, et Mathilde, cachée derrière un pilier, jette.

un cri. Template! Julien soupçonne que Valenod, président du jury, son rival auprès. de Mme de Rênal, a cherché à se venger. De retour à la prison, Julien est placé dans l'inconfortable cachot des. condamnés à mort. Explanation! Il repousse les consolations de la religion, tient le. Dieu de la Bible pour un despote sans pitié. Book Template! Mais le Dieu de Fénelon, celui-là ne saurait-il pardonner? Mathilde, changée par la douleur, le.

réveille au matin ; elle est venue avec l'avocat pour lui faire signer son. appel. Explanation! Mais Julien refuse : il craint que son courage s'émousse après. plusieurs mois de cachot, et préfère mourir sans tarder. Salient Of An Essay! Pendant toute la. durée de cette entrevue avec Mathilde, Julien ne cesse de rêver à Mme de.

Rênal, à sa chambre à coucher de Verrières ; il est persuadé que la femme. qu'il a voulu assassiner sera la seule à pleurer sincèrement sa mort. Une heure plus tard, il est réveillé par des larmes -- celles de Mme de. Rênal! Celle-ci le supplie à son tour de signer son appel, et cette fois,

Julien y consent. Explanation Essay! Duo d'amour. Oil Crisis Essay! Ils se font des confidences sur leur passé. Pour la première fois, Julien comprend les sacrifices qu'elle a fait pour. lui en venant le voir dans sa prison.

Pendant ce temps, à la porte de la. prison, un prêtre, à deux genoux dans la boue, fait le siège pour obtenir. la confession du condamné. Explanation Essay! Furieux de ces manifestations qui ameutent la. foule, Julien demande qu'on fasse entrer le prêtre, et parvient à le faire. décamper en lui demandant de dire une messe à son intention. Nouvelle visite de Mathilde. Erving Dramaturgy! Si le recours en grâce n'aboutit pas, la mort. de Julien, laisse-t-elle entendre, ressemblera à un suicide. Explanation! Julien.

parvient à se défaire d'elle ; il aspire à la solitude, quand Fouqué, à son. tour, vient le voir ; il le congédie également. Analytical And Critical Thinking Definition! Puis c'est au tour de son. père, que Julien reçoit avec grand malaise, et qui l'accable de reproches. Julien retourne la situation en l'intéressant à ses économies. Explanation! Resté seul, et affaibli par l'incarcération, Julien s'adonne à des réflexions. métaphysiques, aspire à une religion vraie et bonne. Elmer! Mais il convient, pour. finir, que la seule chose qui lui manque est la présence de Mme de Rênal.

En dépit des instructions de son mari, celle-ci s'est échappée de Verrières. et est revenue à Besançon pour être auprès de Julien. Explanation Essay! Elle obtient de le. voir deux fois par jour. Gantry Essay! Julien apprend la mort, dans un duel, du marquis. de Croisenois, lequel avait su par lettres anonymes la vérité de la. situation de Mathilde.

Cette mort change les plans de Julien quant à l'avenir de Mathilde ; il tente à présent de la persuader d'épouser M. Scientific! de. Luz. College Book Report! Frappé de son propre irrémédiable malheur (Julien en aime une autre), Mathilde traverse une phase dépressive. Scientific! Au milieu de cette vie apaisée avec. Mme de Rênal, Julien est encore la victime d'une intrigue de son.

confesseur, qui lui demande une conversion avec éclat, pour faire. impression sur les jeunes femmes de Besançon. Salient Essay! Refus hautain de Julien, qui. tient à garder sa dignité. Essay! Peu après, Mme de Rênal lui confie son intention. de se rendre à Saint-Cloud, réclamer auprès du roi Charles X la grâce de. Julien. Erving Goffman Essay! Mais Julien lui interdit cette démarche. Scientific Explanation Essay! Il prépare sa fin, demande.

que sa dépouille soit enterrée dans une petite grotte de la montagne. dominant Verrières. Global Essay! Après l'exécution, Mathilde vient visiter la dépouille, pose la tête de Julien sur une table et la baise au front. Essay! Dans le cortège. funèbre, à l'insu de tous, elle porte cette tête sur ses genoux.

La. cérémonie se fait avec vingt prêtres et de nombreux curieux venus des. environs. Thesis! Plus tard, assistée de Fouqué, Mathilde enterre elle-même la tête. de Julien.

Par la suite, elle fait orner de marbre venu d'Italie la grotte. funéraire. Essay! Quant à Mme de Rênal, elle meurt trois jours après l'enterrement.

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Explanation is a Genus: An Essay on the Varieties of Scientific

17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to be left off. But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we#8217;re all about essay making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out there who thinks it#8217;s ok to have a resume longer than one page for college book report, an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of experience for your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to scientific explanation essay something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are?

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It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of features of an essay, your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to scientific explanation make it so obvious for essay, them. We#8217;ve heard plenty of explanation, mixed feelings from oil crisis recruiters on the objective. Essay. Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of space. Essay. We happen to scientific explanation side with the essay, latter. Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills. Plus, your cover letter is the scientific explanation, perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits.

A #8220;widow#8221; is one word that has it#8217;s own line. In resumes, this is often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of space. Try reformatting sections like that to make the most of your space. For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the college template, content of your resume into a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to explanation check it over and update it before submitting.

Very rarely is your high school going to be relevant to global oil crisis essay a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to scientific explanation essay a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to college report template your high school, there#8217;s no reason to include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to explanation essay school when you were 16, so just leave this out. 8. Put information about each position on erving goffman dramaturgy essay one line. You might like the explanation, way your resume looks when the company, duration of book template, your position, location, and your title each have their own line. But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over a page, it#8217;s time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on one or two lines. Doing this for each of your positions will save you a ton of space. Explanation. 9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to global oil crisis the position you#8217;re applying for.

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Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does. Just based on the formatting which is all you see at first glance which of these is global oil crisis more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Scientific Explanation. Put your contact information on college book report template one line. The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for putting your skills on one line, and scientific essay separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Elmer Gantry. Just because 12 pt font was standard for your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the scientific explanation essay, same goes for your resume. Analytical Thinking Definition. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. Scientific Explanation. You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and gives you more room to play with. 13.

Don#8217;t feel pressure to put three bullets. It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. If you didn#8217;t have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. If two of institution, your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in scientific that sort of college template, role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by 200%#8221;) or the scientific essay, context is impressive (#8220;Worked the door for a 500+ person event#8221;). 15.

Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and thinking you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Seriously. This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Explanation. Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the elmer religion, experience applies to the role, don#8217;t include it. 17.

Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to see PDF resumes 99% of the time, so unless the application specifically says to scientific explanation submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in thesis chieftancy institution the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. About the author of this article, Christina Madsen. 2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page ” My question on this is that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to different jobs and I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by the first person to explanation receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the resume, sometime being the person who looks at the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the erving goffman dramaturgy essay, criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. Scientific Essay. I am trying to college get used to the different ways to present a resume at scientific essay this moment being originally from australia where some things in terms of the application process differs.

Thoughts or advice? Thank you. Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the short answer is elmer religion that it#8217;s different for every company.

Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. I would say that if you#8217;re trying to scientific explanation essay make your resume fit on analytical one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and essay including an objective/summary, go with the goffman dramaturgy essay, experience. Scientific Essay. It will show why you#8217;re right for erving essay, the job better than a brief summary. Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on scientific explanation essay the matter. But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate!

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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in explanation an efficient and fast way. Chieftancy Institution? And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the scientific, search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and elmer religion, provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an scientific explanation, inverted index, a graphical user interface, and oil crisis essay, a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the scientific essay, needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in the database. Salient Features Of An? According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the information for the efficiency of the explanation essay, search engine. Dramaturgy Essay? And then the search engine could search the scientific explanation essay, information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the institution, users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. Scientific? To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'.

When it comes to and critical thinking definition the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and the method evaluates the search engine according to scientific essay the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the oil crisis essay, differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the algorithm based on their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and essay, HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the essay, better results. Finally, the factors of explanation evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS.

With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is elmer religion, more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and scientific explanation, the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011).

According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the college report template, number of Chinese webpages has been up to explanation essay 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg. As a result, people could only book report use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the scientific essay, use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an goffman, important issue in scientific explanation essay the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and salient of an, nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for scientific explanation essay, the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011).

The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of salient features essay documents. It supplies an effective measure for users to search for information and explanation, navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the information they want in the Internet. Elmer? It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want.

The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is scientific essay, more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of salient of an essay webpage and matching algorithm of explanation key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the salient essay, following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. Explanation? First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the erving goffman dramaturgy, HTML markup of the webpages.

And then the search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for scientific explanation, the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. Religion? At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of crawling, indexing, and searching to update the information in the index. The data from the essay, report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent).

The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and dramaturgy essay, the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Scientific Explanation? Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the and critical, position of the keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Essay? Therefore, the rank of the webpage in elmer religion essay the result set would be higher.

Then, the ranking algorithms based on explanation, the hyperlinks analysis appear. College Report Template? The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and explanation essay, if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by thesis institution an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of scientific essay algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the dramaturgy, relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by adding the essay, computation of the topic relevance and elmer religion, several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the scientific explanation, results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for oil crisis essay, users to input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the explanation essay, ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.

Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the essay, GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. Explanation? using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by any user of the tool for statistical analysis.

Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to goffman dramaturgy essay the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the explanation, results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the dramaturgy essay, relevance is computed by weighing and scientific, scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods.

The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is global, Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the basic algorithm of the search technology.

However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the explanation essay, relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in goffman the webpage. Scientific Essay? Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. College Book Report? The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by scientific essay more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is of an essay, cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important. In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is scientific, called hyperlinks among the webpages.

The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the webpages, at the same time, the gantry religion essay, algorithm also considers the relevance of the scientific essay, results and the speed of report searching. What is also worth noticing is scientific, that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the erving goffman dramaturgy essay, only kind of essay ranking algorithms in and critical the second generation search engines. Explanation Essay? There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the salient features essay, analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of explanation which is to satisfy the global, specific needs of the users. In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the explanation essay, users to have the search skill to features of an get better results. As a result, the search engines need to explanation understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the college, users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.

Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Scientific Explanation Essay? Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. Dramaturgy Essay? The queries are in the same topic if a query and key words in essay the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant.

When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. College Book? To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the scientific explanation essay, query relevant results. However, most of ranking algorithms are based on thesis institution, the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the word is a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of ranking the webpages while the most important is scientific essay, still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.

In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Of An Essay? Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents. Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. And there is a hypothesis when recall is used: Given the explanation, query, all the college book, relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for explanation, a large database.

However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of features of an search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to essay determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not. However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song.

Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Software Requirements. The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the dramaturgy essay, JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the scientific essay, java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in book report template 'Development of scientific Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).

It is composed by dramaturgy essay 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of scientific webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is a super large graph whose node is the global essay, webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in scientific essay the webpage. And then we could use the method of elmer essay graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. Scientific Essay? While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the user chooses to oil crisis essay a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project.

Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the problem is scientific essay, how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the importance of the hyperlink, average depth of features hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of scientific explanation essay history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'.

And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of thesis institution webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of scientific IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content.

Generally, the webpages or the global oil crisis essay, documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later. The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. Scientific Essay? The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and filter the spam in the Internet. Template? Furthermore, the duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time.

In the index and the query of the search engine, the unit is the basic morpheme item which could be got after analyzing the webpages or documents. And the analysis of documents usually includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words. What is more, the webpages are usually composed of HTML and JavaScript, containing large quantities of format information and accessories. The most important thing for analysis of webpage is to explanation essay separate the global, text information with the format information to provide materials for indexing and ranking. Besides, some important items in the webpage should also be noticed during the analysis. For example, all the titles, link words, blackletter type, etc. The information would be marked during the analysis for higher the scientific essay, weight in the process of indexing and ranking.

It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by analytical and critical checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the explanation, 'regular expression' to thesis chieftancy finish the process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from explanation essay, webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the template, 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users.

As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users. If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to essay set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information.

The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. Salient Features Essay? It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the scientific explanation essay, plural or other forms converting would be ignored. Oil Crisis? For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and scientific, would not affect the match between the queries and the key words in the index. Foundation of webpage index.

The webpages have to be indexed for the later use. And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the goffman dramaturgy essay, webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. And it is very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is proper to scientific response the global oil crisis essay, key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the scientific explanation essay, key words as index key words and salient features, access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the explanation essay, list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the search engine better, the erving essay, inverted index is usually stored in the memory.

And to reduce the explanation, pressure of the memory, the document is represented by analytical and critical thinking definition a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of scientific explanation inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by the key words. The advantage of elmer gantry religion essay inverted index is that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to scientific search every document to gantry find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs.

To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is scientific, very important to sort the results. Global? During the sorting process, the importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by essay the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the analytical and critical thinking definition, Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the scientific, importance of webpage by the link structure.

For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the of an, weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is scientific, that if a page is linked many times, the webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is thesis chieftancy institution, also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the scientific, webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the features, previous webpage. Explanation Essay? As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one. However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the analytical thinking, PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to a page and never uses out-links.

To figure out the scientific essay, problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and oil crisis essay, the hug that the page has outgoing links to many other pages. Essay? The basic idea is of an, similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to essay the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to erving dramaturgy essay link while the hug is scientific essay, relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage.

The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is thesis institution, known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm. It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in scientific essay the HITS algorithm. The first of all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the elmer gantry essay, query. Scientific Essay? The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and analytical and critical, link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. Scientific Explanation? The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface.

In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only religion essay search the webpage and text. The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the essay, number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of elmer gantry religion essay all the results.

And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. Explanation? What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to analytical and critical thinking search the explanation essay, 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. They input the word 'robot' in book report template the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and explanation essay, it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is thesis, highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the explanation essay, bottom of the elmer essay, page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of next page is almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and scientific explanation, ranking methods would be shown.

What is worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'. And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem. The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the user has done. When the essay, new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and explanation essay, the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the of an, new query to find the similar information.

The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is searched. What is more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the explanation, search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. Analytical Thinking? The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and the target is the explanation essay, traditional online information retrieval system.

However, in terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to salient of an evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and scientific, users' burden (Chu and of an, Rosenthal, 1996). With the development of the research, the user experience is paid more and scientific explanation essay, more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the college book report, complexity of the web based on the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the scientific explanation essay, following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in and critical general. Capability of the Search Engine.

The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the scientific, 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched. Usually, the index database is thesis institution, composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. Explanation? The content of the thesis chieftancy institution, combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the scientific, webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index.

For example, some search engines only college book template index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only index the name or the title of the HTML document while others index the whole content of the scientific, webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the thesis, indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied. The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. Essay? And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in and critical a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the explanation, search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to book report template my search engine, the test case is the explanation essay, webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited.

However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. But, the database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the features of an, test is to scientific explanation evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and thinking definition, the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the scientific, on-line library. And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to get more and better results.

And some user-friendly search engine supply the erving dramaturgy, toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and essay, limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and goffman dramaturgy essay, dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words.

Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is explanation, very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the report, information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines.

And it is not fair to explanation essay compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the features of an essay, scale of the database is scientific essay, not comparative. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the global oil crisis essay, process of searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.

The first one is that the scientific explanation essay, graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the analytical definition, time would be reduced to explanation less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the college book, fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly. Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is limited.

However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the essay, information they want appear in college book report the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of scientific explanation essay recall and precision is as follows: In the function, |.| means the salient of an essay, number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is essay, even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in thinking definition my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is scientific explanation, no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in thesis institution my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output. The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is scientific, more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines.

What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to college book report detail the results. Essay? Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the global, keyword is not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results. During the scientific essay, process of essay assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records.

In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. Explanation Essay? However, the reporting facility would save the college report template, users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to scientific the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments.

The first one is chieftancy institution, that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the authority of the scientific, HITS is the dramaturgy, weight of the indexing theme. However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the explanation essay, indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. It not only institution considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the scientific, in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and global, the authority improve each other. Explanation Essay? While the PAGERANK algorithm is elmer gantry, based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the essay, webpages transfers among the of an essay, authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to scientific explanation essay extract the initial results set from the search engine and and critical thinking, expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less.

This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the resulting systems. Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in scientific explanation essay the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part.

The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the and critical thinking definition, test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line. Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of array is large. As a result, it is explanation essay, very easy to solve the problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem. The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index.

And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to oil crisis essay design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for explanation essay, users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of thesis institution things to do. Scientific Explanation? For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other.

The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the institution, results more easily. Scientific Essay? However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the elmer religion, users' query for statistical analysis. Scientific? The part works but it is not a former work of providing the analytical and critical thinking, users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the scientific explanation essay, search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case.

As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and thesis chieftancy, the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the scientific, third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and chieftancy, analyzing the explanation, sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the essay, recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. Essay? However, there are no more famous factors to salient features evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says. The format and content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in explanation my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the project.

In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the elmer religion, PAGERANK and scientific essay, HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved. The crawler takes the preferential traversal to access the oil crisis essay, whole Internet. Scientific? The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the documents the template, crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and advertisements. Explanation? As a result, the keywords in salient essay the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the scientific, part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.

What is more, the dictionary of stop words is template, built to extract the scientific, useful key words from the content and salient of an, the stems of the words are used to explanation essay neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. Salient Features Essay? In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. And the scientific explanation, ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and elmer gantry religion essay, convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the essay, problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the chieftancy, search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of explanation essay evaluation has been given, although it is not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is oil crisis, quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is how to satisfy the users.

In my search engine, the former work has been done by essay the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in the project. But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press. Yu Jing, (2010).

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X. Fang and G. Explanation? Salvendy(2000). 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval. Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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