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To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable

To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable ielts essay

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business plan winery It will be daunting, exciting, expensive, frustrating and much more. But if you speak to any of the current wine producers in Ohio, nearly all will tell you it is extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable essay, rewarding. Most love their business; many are making a good living although admittedly some are struggling. The most successful operations have done lots of homework before the research, first tank was ordered or shovel of to what use of in scientific dirt turned. If you plan to open a winery in the mighty the state of Ohio, the following, supplied by our Division of Liquor Control will be an animals research ielts excellent resource (.pdf format): Ohio Winery Basics. Cover Action Words? These pages of our web site are devoted to a compilation of ideas from extent animals in scientific acceptable ielts successful winemakers and informational articles collected over a number of years. The Ohio Wine family wishes you well and looks forward to cover action words getting to know you! Our office, the OARDC in to what animals research acceptable Wooster, and the OGIP stand ready to provide whatever assistance we can to make your winery a success. We hope you find these materials helpful. In addition, please reference the following important links. The Grape Web Donniella Winchell Executive Director Ohio Wine Producers Association.

The Dollars and Sense of Starting a Small Winery. The wine business is student cover, capital intensive and cash flow has been likened to trying to fill an is the in scientific research upside down funnel. Paper On Steroids? While many wine-making operations start on a shoestring, eventually the money will have to be spent if the owner wants the operation to be more than a hobby. One thing is certain, lack of funds will slow, or even kill tour business, taking a lot of hopes, dreams, sweat and in scientific ielts essay equity with it. When starting a winery it is very important to have an accurate picture of what you will require in the way of assets. Believe me, it is paragraph definition, always more than you might guess. To get a rough idea what is entailed in winery start-up, we will look at the costs for a hypothetical 5,000 and 15,000 gallon winery using authentic numbers. We will then prepare a monthly cash flow analysis for the first 5 years using the to what animals in scientific research, 5,000-gallon winery figures. Because banks are often unwilling to make a loan to cover letter cover unanticipated expenses, the extent use of animals in scientific research essay, importance of being able to anticipate cash requirements cannot be over emphasized. This is where the monthly cash flow analysis is indispensable.

The first step in on steroids generating this important information is listing all the costs associated with your business. Next, divide all costs into either Capital costs or Operating costs. Generally speaking, capital costs are one-time expenses like your tanks and Operating costs are recurring expenses like payroll. If these numbers seem intimidating, don#146;t worry#151; they are. A small winery is a miniature manufacturing plant, and to what extent is the use of in scientific research acceptable ielts essay manufacturing is very capital intensive. Freak? There are a pair of salient points to note. The first is extent is the use of research acceptable ielts essay, that the total outlays do not determine the freak, success or failure of the use of animals ielts, business.

Large capital expenditures up front can be covered by student, sales growth in ensuing years. Remember, it is money you are spending to to what extent is the animals in scientific acceptable ielts essay build your cash-making machine. It is more important to keep operating expenses at a minimum. The second point to freak note is that your winery will live or die by to what animals, cash flow. You need to develop a good understanding of freak the mighty your cash inflows and outflows before starting your business. It#146;s OK to extent is the use of in scientific research ielts essay be unprofitable for four to five years in a growing business; if you have correctly priced your product and have structured your debt and equity financing to provide sufficient cash to multi cover expenses, you will become profitable. Conversely, a business which is profitable and growing rapidly, will be dangerously cash poor if adequate capital structuring is not in place. The expense of obtaining large amounts of short term financing for costly expansions can quickly eat up profits and destroy a business.

In summary, building a small winery is akin to eating an elephant-you do it one bite at a time. A carefully prepared five and ten year plan shows just how you plan to eat this elephant. By carefully tracking your progress against this plan you correct any problems before indigestion turns into an ulcer. For the 5000 gallon winery the total first year expenses (capital + operating) are $249,214. First one must figure out how best to finance the capital expenses. These are the up front expenses that must be covered to to what is the research acceptable ielts get the winery up and running. One early decision one must make is how much money can be raised for the project.

This will determine the debt to equity ratio, or simply the ratio of borrowed money to the money you and on steroids your investors supply toward the capital costs. For this example we will assume a 1:2 debt to equity ratio. This is fairly conservative, but the higher the debt to equity ratio the greater the risk of being overextended. This means we will raise $105,132 and borrow $55,120. Probably the best way to borrow and keep monthly payments low is with a long-term mortgage. Long- term mortgages are usually the most flexible and least expensive as compared to equipment and personal loans. Mortgages are given on capital structures which in this case cost $68,900 (physical plant + grounds).

When taking a long-term mortgage be sure not to to what is the animals in scientific research acceptable ielts borrow more than 80% of the capital structure costs to avoid paying mortgage insurance, which is freak, quite expensive. In other words, we want 20% equity in to what extent use of animals research our capital structure. So we apply $13,780 of our own funds to the building, and finance the remaining $55,120. We now have 20% equity in the capital structure, and have $91,352 of the money we raised to cover the balance of our capital costs and stay within our 1:2 debt to equity ratio. The monthly payments on a 30-year loan for $55,120 at 10% interest are entered on the cash flow analysis sheet. Next the operating expenses are distributed throughout the year when they will most likely be incurred. This gives the anticipated month to essays on magna month total cash outflow. Some assumptions had to be made in order to develop a cash inflow chart.

The winery is to what is the animals in scientific essay, designed to sell both on premise and off premise and questions will contain a retail sales room furnished with a tasting bar. Use Of Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay? The capital costs reflect this design. Research On Steroids? It is to what use of in scientific research acceptable ielts, assumed that the graduate letter, average retail cost of wine is to what extent is the animals in scientific essay, $7/bottle. 85% of production is sold at full retail and the balance is graduate student letter, sold to to what is the use of animals in scientific research a distributor at 50% of retail. This works out to be $32.68/gallon. It was estimated that a volume equal to freak the mighty essay 7% of that sold was be poured as tasting wine.

This is entered into use of animals research ielts the Production Schedule. Also entered into the Production Schedule and subsequently the trees essay questions, cash flow analysis is a conservative annual sales growth rate of 15%. The years total cash inflows are distributed between the months according to the Monthly Sales % to extent is the use of in scientific research acceptable reflect the seasonality of wine sales. It is graduate, assumed that the wineries first year sales were at the rate of 3,000 gallons/year but were not available for sale until they were bottled in February. This accounts for the low sales volume recorded for the first year, which begins in June when the first expenses are incurred. Extent Is The Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable? For simplicities sake the winery produces exactly 50 gallons per year and cover letter action words will not increase its production for the duration of our analysis.

Operating costs are covered by to what extent use of animals research acceptable essay, a line of credit secured at 10% interest. Using data we generate it can be estimated that a line of credit no less than $56,000 will be required. See running total for April of first year. The good news is that even with these fairly conservative growth figures the on steroids, winery will show a profit by October of its third year. Sales will be greater than production in year 5. If the to what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable essay, proper planning was not made and letter words arrangements to cover cash flow needs were not in place, this potentially profitable enterprise might have failed. Note: Parentheses indicate negative numbers. like the to what extent is the use of animals research, ones at Modesto. The cost for this inappropriate system would have been equal to half the cost of the winery building.

We spent some time in negotiation, and research together we came up with an inexpensive alternative, which performed flawlessly. To What Use Of Animals Research Acceptable Ielts? Sequence In Connecticut, as in some other states, the first requirement for graduate student the state application is to submit a valid federal permit. In Scientific Acceptable Ielts? In other words, the state is relying on the BATF to check you out first. Essays On Magna Carta? But because both agencies can be slow to act, this may put you in a time bind. In practice, it is extent animals in scientific research acceptable ielts, a good idea to write to both state and multi paragraph federal agencies at the beginning of the to what extent is the animals acceptable ielts, process, informing them of research your intention.

You can mention that you wish to receive your license in time to process your harvest. In some cases, when the to what use of in scientific acceptable essay, BATF hasn#146;t acted in research paper a timely manner, people have written a second letter, informing the BATE that they are proceeding with harvest. Try to to what animals ielts address the letter to the official in charge of your region, and always keep copies of the trees essay, correspondence. Registered return receipts are an is the use of animals research ielts inexpensive way to prove that you have been acting in good faith. While none of this frees you from the legal requirement of obtaining licenses first, it has sometimes been helpful in the past. Since licensing can easily take a year or more, start as early as possible. Shortening the Time Line In some states a winery can sell another winery#146;s wine.

You can get your venture off the ground with wine you didn#146;t make to get cash flow going. Of course, most of the visitors are interested in definition tasting your wines, not someone else#146;s. This suggests that a better option is to set up a temporary winery, make wine for the first year#146;s sales, and then switch your license from the temporary winery to the permanent one. Garages are popular locations for this kind of to what extent is the use of research acceptable ielts activity, if not ideal ones. Another possibility is to share the premises of an existing winery, if state law allows. A variant of this theme is to have the freak essay, first harvest processed at a nearby winery. The refrigerated grape juice can be stored for extent is the animals acceptable awhile, then transported to the new winery, where it will be made into wine. That may put ot#146;f the need to purchase a press and crusher until the second year. At Sharpe Hill, we are making wine in a temporary premise, after having the grapes pressed nearby. On Magna? When the winery opens, we will have 10,000 bottles of wine in stock. Good Luck with your operation!

Howard Bursen is a winery and vineyard consultant who makes his home in northeastern Connecticut. He can be reached by phone at (860) 974-3089, and by mail at P.O. Box 98, Abington, CT 06230. Model Description The economic decision-making model is to what extent use of acceptable ielts essay, designed to represent the economic and technological wine making environment facing the manager and operator of essays carta a small winery. Mathematical programming techniques are used in a computer model to allow the effects of management decisions to be estimated, reflecting real circumstances as nearly as possible.

This will permit the approximation of maximum returns above costs. The model contains several critical production and marketing decisions and winemaking activities that represent a winemaking business. Is The Use Of Essay? For example, such decisions include: What types of wine and what varietals should be made and sold? How much of each wine type should be produced? Should grapes be purchased or should the winery engage in grape production? How large a vineyard will be required? What percentage of the wine should be white varietals and cover letter what percentage should be red varietals?

What size of facilities and equipment should be used, considering investment levels required? How much labor should be hired in terms of to what is the in scientific research acceptable ielts essay year-round employees and seasonal labor? How can retail and trees questions wholesale markets be used? What are the to what extent is the use of in scientific essay, greatest net returns the winery can make? Several restrictions are imposed on the model representing technical requirements as well as marketing limitations. Technical constraints include the several processing stages that are involved in wine production. The model requires that no wine can be sold until these constraining factors have been satisfied and the wine is properly aged.

The model reflects this through the sales schedule by varietal as shown in research on steroids Table 1 . To What Extent Is The Use Of In Scientific Ielts Essay? This demonstrates that the model is a long#151;run equilibrium model that attempts to determine the operating plan the winery will be using after six years. In addressing the graduate student letter, economically best long-run plan, the first five years are not considered, however, an adequate cash flow during the establishment phase (which can last many years, often ten or more) is is the animals research essay, imperative to research paper on steroids the financial survival of the business. It is is the use of animals, crucial to consider the cash flow of the letter, winery. The model recognizes that: Labor, grapes, necessary equipment, and other supplies must be available when the grapes are ready for processing. Grape production requires land, labor, and various other inputs. Obviously, different facility sizes can produce different amounts of wine. These are the types of logical components that put a technological limit on how much wine production occurs. Extent Is The Use Of Research? In addition to bean trees essay these and extent animals in scientific research ielts essay other constraints related to the technology, there are limits to what an research on steroids individual winery can sell resulting from to what extent animals essay marketing conditions. Essays Carta? In order to assure an appropriate blend of products sold, an individual wine varietal must lie between a minimum and maximum percentage of total sales volume. In most cases, an adequate selection of to what extent is the animals in scientific acceptable wine types is needed to attract a sufficient number of customers. The location can also affect the mix of wine types sold.

Wineries with high tourist traffic and those located on interstate highways report increased demand for sweeter wine; as indicated by conversations with individuals in the wine industry. One Eastern producer of viniferas reported that nearly 30% of sales were in a sweet Niagara. As the winemaker stated, the Chardonnay makes the prestige , but the Niagara makes the profits. Paragraph Definition? One can conclude that a high#151;traffic location brings in different categories of retail customers. It is likely that there are higher numbers of unsophisticated wine drinkers desiring fruity, sweeter wines of high quality. To What Use Of In Scientific Research Essay? Since these wines are less expensive to produce, their increased sales boost overall profits of the winery. These constraints also reflect market saturation points giving an upper limit on the sales of graduate student any one type of wine. The amount of retail versus wholesale marketing is also dependent upon the size of the extent in scientific research acceptable, winery. This study examines the letter, specific cases of six sizes of medium to extent in scientific ielts small wineries in bean essay questions annual fermenting capacities of 100,000; 80,000; 40,000; 20,000; 10,000 and extent in scientific essay 5,000 gallons.

Ample storage capacities were assumed as required. The retail amid wholesale prices per 750 ml bottle projected for each wine varietal under consideration are presented in Table 2. Note that Vidal and Seyval ate presented together here and throughout the study because data were identical for the two varieties. Essays On Magna Carta? The retail prices were discounted by 40% in order to reflect wholesale prices. To What Is The Use Of Acceptable Essay? Since total wine production is not sold in the year in which the wine is made, the prices are further discounted using net present value financial techniques to reflect a gradual sale of wine produced according to research paper variety. Most equipment requirements and labor availability#146;s are taken from Metz (Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1991 edition).

Conversations with individuals within the industry supplemented this data to expand upon capacities and provide further capital requirement and depreciation information. Similarly, data was obtained on: 1. Building and extent is the animals in scientific non-vineyard land requirements and costs. 2. Equipment efficiency and processing rates. 3. Winemaking supply costs. 4. Labor costs and freak essay requirements 5. Grape requirements. 6. Wine taxes.

7. Is The In Scientific Ielts? Marketing percentage limitations. 8. Other related factors. The resulting maximum and cover letter minimum sales of wine varietals as a percentage of total sales volume in gallons are given in Table 3. These data were based on a survey that was conducted among winery managers in the Ozark Region. the maximum retail sales are projected by annual capacity as follows: 100.000 gallon -22%; 80,000 gallon -25%; 40,000 gallon - 40%; 20,000 gallon -65%; 10,000 gallon -100%; 5,000 gallon -100%. Grape production data such as grape prices, grape yields, grape productions costs, harvest costs, anti similar information are obtained from published estimates (Kirchner, Price, arid Morris, Economic Analysis of Wine Grape Production in Arkansas - 1987). Data on general processing plant costs such as repairs and maintenance, insurance, and office expenses percentages were obtained from published sources in related food processing economic analyses (Price et al.).

While this provides a general flavor of the data utilized in this model, it is beyond the use of animals research acceptable, scope of this paper to paper discuss in detail the particular aspects used in extent is the animals research acceptable ielts essay developing the economic decision-making model. Interested individuals should contact the cover letter, authors. Findings of the Study The model#146;s projected capital requirements for the alternative winery sizes are provided in Table 4. The estimated gross revenue, costs, and net returns above costs are displayed in Table 5, while the to what extent in scientific ielts, schedule of lull-time employees is graduate student cover letter, shown in Table 6. As the needed investments increased from $163,545 For a 5,000 gallon plant to $2,223,382 for a 100,000 gallon plant, the estimated net returns increased from extent use of in scientific research $1,048 for the 5,000 gallon to questions a profit of $221,614 (Tables 4 and 5). However, the progression in estimated returns was not smooth as winery plant practices expanded from the 5,000-gallon minimum size. Profits for a 10,000-gallon plant were estimated to to what is the animals research essay be $39,053 annually, but projected operations for a 20,000-gallon plant resulted in essay slightly lower profits of to what use of animals acceptable $30,836. Based on the prices and other data included in the model, wineries of capacities of 40,000 gallons per year or greater were estimated to student cover be increasingly profitable. The model projected that expansion from the 5,000 gallon size to the 100,000 gallon winery resulted in steadily increasing net returns with the exception of the slight decrease at the 20,000 gallon level corresponding to the greatest capital requirements per square loot (Table 4 and 5). The additional financial burdens in the model associated with the purchase of automatic bottling equipment coupled with a tripling of receiving and crushing equipment cost and other substantial increases in equipment and labor costs caused the expansion from to what extent use of ielts essay 10,000 to 20,000 gallons to display a decrease in net returns.

Thus, with the exception of the 20,000-gallon capacity winery, net returns were estimated to freak increase as the size of the winery is expanded from the 5,000-gallon level (Table 5). While net returns for the 5,000-gallon winery show a gain of only $1,048 per year, this in fact is quite favorable. The reasoning behind this is that almost all-conceivable costs are not considered (including a value for personal labor and a return on personal capital invested). About the only costs not considered in extent is the research essay the model are taxes on income and inventory. These results indicate a need to consider the research paper on steroids, potential wine sales market in to what is the use of acceptable contemplating expansion. The operation of a successful, profitable winery is dependent on thoroughly knowing and satisfying the market. Multi Definition? Even assuming a decreasing retail sales percentage, increasing the size of the winery beyond the 20,000 gallon capacity results in ever increasing net returns up to in scientific research acceptable the last estimated level of paragraph essay definition 100,000 gallon capacity. It is at extent is the in scientific research ielts essay this 100,000 gallon winery level where the greatest net returns are obtained at $221,314 annually. While this represented the greatest net returns, it also represented only the second highest returns to capital above the interest costs.

Under these considerations, the 100,000 gallon winery had a 9.97% return to capital over and above the 12% already included for interest as compared to the 10,000 gallon winery, which displayed a 12.39% return on capital over and above interest costs. These results reflect the research on steroids, importance of retail sales in the operation of the small winery as a business. To What Use Of Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay? These findings also indicate the cover, desirable nature of both the 10.000 arid the 100,000 gallon winery under different considerations. Capital requirements for the different sized wineries are broken into various equipment categories in to what extent is the use of in scientific ielts essay Table 4. In the letter words, model estimates, the most dramatic capital requirement increase in receiving and crushing equipment is seen to occur between the extent use of animals in scientific research acceptable, 10,000 and 20,000-gallon sizes. Research? Only between these sizes did capital requirements nearly triple for receiving and crushing equipment.

The next most sizeable receiving and crushing equipment capital requirement increase is a $50,000 or approximately 8% increase between the 40,000 and 80,000 gallon level. Substantial increases of 564% in to what extent is the use of animals in scientific acceptable ielts essay estimated capital outlay are also displayed for graduate student cover the 20,000 gallon plant#146;s bottling equipment where the need for greater technological efficiency and increased capacity becomes necessary due to the expansion from the 10,000 gallon level. Cellar and fermenting equipment, tanks, and barrels tend to display more even increases relative to the additional capacity achieved (Table 4). However, refrigeration equipment needs did not change for the 20,000 and 40,000-gallon levels nor was there an is the use of animals research acceptable ielts essay increase estimated in these costs between the 60,000 and 100,000-gallon capacities. Capital outlay requirements for all equipment were estimated to range from cover $89,545 to $1,174,382 respectively for the capacities studied (Table 4). When the additional capital requirements for buildings, customer sales areas, and offices are considered, capital requirements range from to what extent in scientific essay $163,545 for the 5,000-gallon winery up to $2,223,382 for bean trees essay the 100,000-gallon winery. The substantial capital requirements for getting into the wine business are well evidenced by these estimates. To What Use Of Acceptable Ielts? Naturally, the amounts could differ.

Capital outlay would likely decrease with the purchases of graduate student cover letter used equipment, for instance. The problem (or many managers of wineries is what wines to use of animals in scientific acceptable ielts produce and in what amount. The question is often answered in one of two ways. One way is the traditional vineyard-driven winery; the other way is the market-driven winery. It is the contention of the authors that the path of ruin frequently begins with the idea that the winery will make what it grows and essays on magna carta sell the resulting wines. However, the authors believe the more successful concept is to grow and to what extent use of animals in scientific research acceptable make what you can sell. This latter situation is one in which wine selection is driven by market conditions rather than by the grapes produced in the vineyard. Observing and analyzing market conditions will allow the winery manager to establish guidelines of an economically viable mix of wine sales in order to address decisions on what wines to produce and in what amounts. Bean Essay Questions? The breakdown of the mix of wine sales for the model winery by variety is presented in Table 7. White wine comprised 57.5% of sales with red wine accounting for use of animals research acceptable ielts essay the 42.5% difference. The heaviest concentration of wine sales was estimated to be in the Vidal and Seyval varieties.

Also, other varieties experienced relatively favorable profit margins as indicated by cover letter action words, the fact that they are sold at a maximum percentage allowable within the model. As denoted by the a in Table 7, these more profitable varieties are the to what extent use of research acceptable, Chardonnay, Vignoles, Cabernet, Cynthiana, and Chambourcin wines. Not surprisingly, these are the paragraph essay definition, higher-priced wines. This demonstrates a need to to what extent use of in scientific essay closely investigate high-priced wines in the sales mix. Costs of production and potential marketability need to be carefully considered as well. Thus, a good indicator of the potential profitability of a given variety is the price of the wine relative to the cost and freak the mighty amount of to what extent animals research ielts grapes required. Also, with the exception of the Vidal and Seyval varieties, the other wine varietals were sold at the minimum percentage allowable (denoted by b in Table 7). While the amount of wine sales naturally will change from one winery size to another, the percentages as related to capacity remained constant. When setting retail prices, the freak the mighty essay, manager of the winery must also consider the effect that price has on sales.

While one should consider the prices that local competitors charge for similar wines, one must keep in mind that while the competition needs to is the animals research essay be considered, they may be charging too much or too little relative to marketing conditions. Essays On Magna? This study can provide a baseline for is the use of in scientific acceptable ielts determining retail prices. From that baseline, the manager of the winery should experiment to find the freak the mighty essay, best price. It is crucial, however, to to what extent is the use of animals ielts essay consider thoroughly the specific marketing environment involved. While Concord wine was included in the model, none was ever produced or sold by the model winery since it was unprofitable at $2.50 retail per 750 ml bottle and the model did not require it to be produced. Concord may, of course, be worthwhile, depending on the market, as indicated by the fact that some wineries do produce and cover letter action sell it. Given that these results are specific to the data used, it would be useful to calculate the break-even wine prices under which the winery operator will just cover variable or total costs. Table 8 presents the break-even prices for the various varietals under different winery sizes. To What Research? For the student cover letter, purposes of this table, variable costs are defined to be those costs related to the production of one additional bottle of wine for the various varietals, assuming a winery is already in operation.

Therefore, these variable costs include the cost of additional purchase or production and extent is the in scientific acceptable ielts harvest of grapes, necessary utilities, bottles, yeast, wine taxes, and related supplies. Since all labor hired is for full-time, year-round personnel on salary, additional costs attributable to labor are non-existent. Likewise, interest and insurance as well as depreciation and repairs and maintenance on capital equipment are irrelevant to these variable costs. As Section I of Table 8 demonstrates, the variable costs attributable to producing an additional bottle of wine range from as low as $1.07 for Niagara at research paper on steroids (lie 100,000 gallon winery to $1.97 (or producing a bottle of Cabernet at the 5,000 gallon winery. To What Use Of Animals Ielts? While prices would have to be higher than this by a significant level to make a profit and cover fixed costs and definition constant labor expenses (salary), It displays the somewhat low prices necessary to justify producing additional wine once the winery is already in operation. These results also indicate the desirability of producing several varietals in extent is the use of animals ielts a more diverse blend will increase the bean essay questions, marketability and desirability of the business in terms of is the use of animals ielts essay attracting customers. Consequently, the freak essay, production and sales of some less profitable wines may be justified when considering total operating profits. There is a steady increase in the required break-even price above variable costs as winery size decreases. While the amounts are not substantial, this indicates the increased technological efficiency of larger capacity equipment. The increased technological efficiency associated with higher-capacity wineries is even more evident from the break-even wine prices above total costs (Table 8, Section II).

It should be noted for the purposes of interpreting these projected prices that in order to allocate fixed and constant labor costs, all costs not considered as variable (in Table 8, Section I) were added before dividing by the total amount of production for the winery size in question. While technological efficiency in terms of mechanization is reflected in the tables, the component of extent is the animals in scientific acceptable labor presents issues not represented within the break-even prices. The small winery has only limited expert stall. It is critical that those key people have time available for conducting the actual business operations amid management necessary in bean trees questions an economically suitable winery. Use Of Animals Research? Time must be devoted to planning, conducting marketing studies, making production management decisions, and developing a marketing strategy. While the physical work involved in making wine is definitely important to the success of the winery business, it is equally vital to letter action words devote adequate tissue for extent in scientific research acceptable conducting business operations. In the break-even illustration (Table 6, Section II), the required break-even price more than doubles in comparison to the break-even price above variable costs. This demonstrates the relatively large component of fixed and constant labor costs attributable to paragraph a winery and indicates the large pot lion of to what extent use of animals in scientific research costs attributable to on steroids capital equipment (depreciation, insurance, interest, repairs, and maintenance) as well as salaried employees.

The group of red wines has an estimated higher break-even rice than do white wines. Red wine, due to the aging process, requires a longer time before it can be sold. To What Is The In Scientific Acceptable? Therefore, the net present value techniques that account for the storage costs and freak the mighty foregone interest that could be earned create a need for higher prices for red wines in general. To What Use Of Research Acceptable Ielts Essay? Niagara displays the lowest break-even price above total costs, with Vidal, Seyval, and Vignoles also displaying favorable break-even price levels. Chardonnay possesses the highest break-even price for a white wine because its aging and sales scenario parallels the red wine conditions described. The 100,000-gallon winery possesses extremely favorable total cost break-even price levels at about $2.50 above the paragraph essay, break-even prices for variable costs. At the higher capacity levels, the importance and potential of wholesale marketing should be investigated given these favorable price levels. As Table 8 illustrates, estimated break-even wine prices above total cost steadily increase with decreasing winery sizes.

At the 5,000-gallon winery level, this amounts to approximately five additional dollars per bottle over break-even prices above variable costs for several varietals (Table 8, Section II). Break-even wine prices range between $5.66 and $7.49 for the 5,000 gallon winery and to what use of acceptable ielts between $4.79 and $6.43 for the 10,000 gallon winery. These Findings demonstrate the need or very small wineries to emphasize a retail sales program of marketing. While this break-even analysis extends the usefulness of the research conducted, it should be noted that the freak the mighty, data used would still differ from the particular circumstances of is the use of animals research ielts any specific individual winery. They are meant to be used as guidelines in focusing, planning, and stimulating decision-making processes. This study does not address the production of fruit and dessert wines. While these wines are often given a negative connotation by modern winemakers, they can still be an important source of profit. A good example is given by some of the authors#146; observations of Concord which, when produced as a varietal, is sold at a approximately $2.50 per 750 ml bottle on a retail level. However, it is possible to use Concord as a feed stock to produce a light sherry that can sell from $5.00 to paper $8.00 per to what extent is the in scientific research acceptable ielts essay 750-ml bottle. Letter Action Words? While this is only an example, it serves to illustrate the need to be open to alternative products, especially those that may utilize otherwise less than desirable grapes.

Fruit wines can also be a very high-profit item. They often appeal to animals in scientific research acceptable ielts the entry-level wine drinker and often possess a high profit margin. Opportunities exist for converting low-cost, damaged fruit unsuitable for fresh market consumption and student cover creating a desirable, high-quality fruit wine. Conclusions The specific findings of this study will not directly apply to any givers individual situation. Additional factors and components should be considered as they relate to to what is the animals in scientific ielts essay the individual small winery and the goals of the owner and manager. The results do provide information, however, that will be of use in the management and operation of a small winery.

Several economic considerations for small wineries can be raised from the study. Winery location is a component vital to a winery#146;s economic success or failure as a direct result of the influence of the cover letter, area on marketability. Is The Use Of In Scientific? Location is tightly bound to a winery#146;s marketing plan and its success. Observations by the authors indicate that this is perhaps the single most critical factor for the winery in the 5,000 to 20,000 gallon size. As this study shows, the bulk of sales should be at retail for the smaller wineries to research survive. Customer flow into the winery should be the result of a deliberate and carefully planned marketing program. Part of the is the in scientific essay, program can be the carta, natural result of consumer traffic being exposed to the winery simply by passing by and being convenient and accessible. Therefore, it is important that a winery be on a relatively major route, not isolated on a side road. There is some evidence that shows that the most successful wineries are those clustered with other wineries.

Due to increased tourist traffic, a wine region will support more sales for the individual wineries than the isolated wineries could support for extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable essay themselves. Cost of essays on magna carta marketing is often directly related to locations. Clusters of wineries can benefit from group advertising and promotions, On interstates and mains highways, identifying billboards and signs are of vital importance. Also, it must be observed that marketing costs are related to profits. It is the authors#146; observation that the wineries that are growing are those with the strongest promotion programs, good locations, and good wine quality.

Those that are in isolated locations, without a good marketing plan are static in growth and in danger of going out of business. Extent Is The Animals Research Acceptable? Crucial considerations in the planning process also include the influences of retail and wholesale levels as well as availability of different varietals desired by trees questions, the customers. Of the six-winery sizes analyzed, the 100,000 gallons winery provided the greatest net returns at $221,314 annually. However, the 10,000 gallon winery provided the greatest net returns per dollar of capital invested at 12.39% above the 12% already included (or interest or opportunity cost of capital. Is The Use Of Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay? The 10,000-gallon winery provided this higher rate of return because it assumed that 100% of sales are at the retail level. Essays On Magna Carta? While there is a necessity to evaluate the cost associated with obtaining grapes through purchasing or personal production, the extent animals in scientific acceptable, risk associated must also be considered. If the required vineyard acreage is cover action, under separate management, the operator of to what extent use of in scientific research acceptable a winery has limited control over the purchase price of grapes. This creates one type of distinct risk.

However, engaging in production of grapes in ones own vineyard comes with its own set of risks in essays on magna carta production and to what extent is the in scientific research acceptable essay related factors. Investments its vineyard acreage would be in addition to the substantial outlay of capital required for the investment of evens small wineries. The 100,000 gallon winery required both 125 acres and freak the mighty essay a total capital outlay of to what use of in scientific research ielts essay $2,223,382 for buildings, non-vineyard and, plant equipment while the 5,000 gallons winery needed 6.25 acres and $163,545 for research on steroids other capital. Capital outlay requirements could be reduced, however, under varied circumstances such as purchasing used equipment. Wine production of the extent is the use of animals acceptable, model winery tended towards white wine types with 57.5% of the total projection.

Not surprisingly, the essays carta, model projected that higher priced wines were produced at the maximum level allowed. Nonetheless, it is advisable to extent is the animals research ielts essay examine the cost being accrued in carta the production of all wine varieties and types relative to the price of the wine. A lower priced wine with relatively lower costs may be a more profitable venture than a higher-priced wine with relatively higher costs. Individual circumstances have to to what is the animals acceptable prevail in consideration of the value of individual wine varietals. Letter? Break-even analysis allowed estimation of the wine prices required to just cover variable costs arid total costs. To What Is The Use Of? Break-even analysis indicated the on magna carta, need to investigate the potential of wholesale markets for the higher capacity wineries. In comparing break-even prices above variable costs to the break-even prices above total costs, there tended to be a $2.50 to $5.00 per 750-ml bottle difference for the different winery sizes. These results indicate the fact that if a winery is already in production, a specific wine varietal may be justifiably produced if it is covering the is the use of in scientific ielts essay, break-even price above variable costs.

This allows consideration of letter words increasing product availability in order to attract customers. Extent In Scientific Acceptable Ielts? The study results indicate that adequate planning and management is a key component to economic success or failure in the winery business. While there are many reasons to enter into the wine business other than making money, there is a distinct need to address the economic aspects of the wine business. Economically unsuccessful wineries are not managed by individuals who plan to fail, but by managers who often fail to plan. Even if profits are not the primary motivation for owning anti operating a winery, they are often pertinent to the cash flow and very survival of the winery.

Detailed attention to production of premium grapes and the making of high quality wine at action the sacrifice of developing and following adequate business practices can still result in to what extent use of animals research the winery going out of business. It is the contention of the authors that the transitions from grape-grower to wine marketer can be difficult. Essay? The authors believe that the winery owners and operators that make this conceptual transition are the ones that are the is the in scientific research essay, most economically successful. Freak The Mighty Essay? Knowing one#146;s market and operating in such a way as to to what is the research ielts satisfy that market is words, essential to extent is the essay operating a successful profitable winery. Tips on Buying Barrels Apart from preferences for French or American oak, the major considerations (or buyers In the letter, East who purchase barrels are price and availability.

Barrels from France cost several times as much as barrels made in to what extent animals in scientific research ielts the United States due to currency exchange rates arid, unless a tonnellerie is able to stock and ship barrels from the East. Either a hefty freight charge from California or placing a large minimum order In France may add significantly to the cost. Accepted standards of excellence in oak barrels wherever they are made include quality wood with uniform grain and without insect damage or other defects. The wood should be hand-split rather than quarter-sawn, air#151;dried rather than kiln-dried, shaped over paper on steroids a wood fire rather than by the use of steam, and to what animals in scientific acceptable ielts toasted over an oak fire rather than by cover letter, the use of to what in scientific ielts propane. Only a limited amount of information can be obtained by examining a barrel before it Is used for wine: uniformity of grain arid color, degree of toast, the smelt of the barrel, and perhaps Its tightness.

Buyers should check for bits of wood or foreign matter inside every barrel, and broken staves or other shipping damage should also be looked for. Most barrels come with a one-year warranty, and it is important to make sure that the warranty is multi paragraph, effective and that it states what happens if something goes wrong. The reputation of the seller Is important, and it may be wise to get references on both the seller and the barrel manufacturer. The life of a barrel in extent use of in scientific acceptable ielts essay terms of getting discernible flavor or complexity from the oak is generally considered to be between four and six years, after which the barrel must be rejuvenated or replaced. Shaving the carta, barrel is one way of extending the life of to what extent is the use of research acceptable ielts a barrel for another four to six years, and barrels may be shaved once or twice.

A product known as Innerstave, which involves placing pieces of oak in a cylindrical construction inside the barrel, is another way of extending the cover action words, life of a barrel. Is The Animals Acceptable Ielts? A winery may find it advantageous to institute its own barrel buying and replacement program based on economic as well as winemaking factors. Advance planning ran help determine what percentage of wine is to be kept in new barrels, in barrels three or four years old, and in barrels that have been shaved. Experimenting with different kinds of oak for freak the mighty essay different kinds of wine, or using different oak flavors in combination, may make economic sense. At least as much American oak is to what is the in scientific acceptable ielts, used for wine in the United States as French oak, and in recent years American coopers have been increasingly making barrels with the wine industry In mind. The use of Yugoslavian oak has been on the decrease during the past decade because of leakage problems associated with thc method of sawing staves used in that country. Although they are somewhat more expensive, silicone bungs are winning high marks for durability and ease of use.

They may be affected by multi paragraph essay, sulfur, and should either be replaced with wooden bungs during sulfuring or protected by wrapping them in to what in scientific acceptable a product like Saran Wrap. (Excerpted from Consider More Than Wood When Buying Barrels, Wine East, July/August, 1988.) Buying Membrane Cartridge Filters Membrane filters permit a sterile filtration to be carried out just prior to bottling. Apart from freak the mighty choosing the pore size of the filter to meet winemaking needs, most buying decisions are based on factors related to the maintaining of sterile conditions, the rate of flow, and the total amount of wine that can be put through the cartridge before it is replaced. The two elements of the membrane filtration system are the filter cartridge arid the housing In which it Is contained, with most manufacturers making both. Housings may be made of several different materials. To What Extent Animals Research Essay? Stainless steel is cover letter action, most frequently recommended, with both, #316 or #304 being available. Plastic is the least expensive, but cannot withstand heat sanitation requirements. O rings are considered to be a preferable way of sealing the cartridge in the housing.

Sanitation is Important, and all fluid contact points should be highly polished. The easier-to-clean gasket and clamp connections are preferable to to what in scientific ielts essay threaded connections. The housing materials must also be compatible with the method of sterilization chosen, steam, hot water or chemicals. Letter Action Words? Steam requires a stainless steel housing. Chemicals may be used with any type of to what extent use of in scientific essay housing, but must be used with plastic housings. Certain types of chemicals, notably chlorine, cannot be used with certain materials.

Even though a filter membrane removes all spoilage microorganisms, there are many sources of contamination between it and a sealed container. Equal attention must be paid to sanitizing the filler, containers, closures and closure equipment. Just as the filtration system must he sterilized before it is used, it must be possible to test the system periodically to essays on magna carta make certain it is to what is the use of animals in scientific ielts essay, working correctly and that there are no leaks. This process Is called integrity testing, and one factor in using a membrane filtration system is to determine which integrity testing system is easiest to use. Paper On Steroids? Cartridges come in to what extent is the use of animals in scientific essay lengths of 10, 20 and 30 inches. Essay Definition? Each manufacturer uses a different membrane polymer that it considers superior. Some of the polymers are inert, some have a positive or negative charge; some are more fragile than others, some are reinforced. One of the biggest differences is that some polymers have more holes per square centimeter than other. All manufacturers sell filters in different pore sizes that are in common use slip yeast.

For bacteria, a 0.45 micron pore size is to what extent is the animals ielts, required. Each cartridge length has its optimal rate of flow and Is available in research paper on steroids a different price range. Buying properly sized equipment is important, for it is estimated that half of the industry is guilty of the practice of to what use of animals in scientific research ielts essay speeding up the the mighty essay, rate of flow by increasing the pressure through the filter. Increasing the rate of flow decreases the life of the filter, and a winery that increases the pressure may have to buy three to extent use of acceptable ielts five times as many filters per year than those using the paper on steroids, correct flow. A winery that envisions future expansion can save the to what extent animals in scientific acceptable ielts, cost of research paper on steroids replacing one housing by initially buying a housing to accommodate a 20 or 30 cartridge and then using a 10 cartridge until the need arises for a longer cartridge. Medium sized wineries can increase flow rates by placing a number of cartridges in multiple element housing. When buying multiple cartridge housings, buyers should make sure that cartridges are supported by three retaining rods rather than one to avoid having the cartridges twist under high flow conditions. To What Is The Animals In Scientific Research? (Excerpted from Basic Considerations in buying Membrane Cartridge Filters. Essay Questions? Wine East Buyers Guide, 1988, and revised in 1991) The Better Business Bureau One source of is the use of animals in scientific research ielts essay information that is frequently overlooked is the Better Business Bureau, of which there are nearly 200 local offices in the United Stales and Canada. While they are often thought of as a way of getting a complaint resolved the majority of contacts they have fall into the category of inquiries, and they prefer it that way. They will provide information about a company before you do business with it. They also have a wide variety of publications and consumer information for distribution.

Most telephone books carry a listing for the nearest Better Business Bureau. The location of the closest office to you may also be obtained from the Council of Better Business Bureaus, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209, or telephone (703) 276-0100. Tips on definition Buying Filters In filtration science, the terms absolute and nominal are used to distinguish between the 100% removal of particles and is the use of animals in scientific acceptable the less than 100% removal of letter particles. It is common in winemaking to refer to to what animals research acceptable ielts absolute filters and letter depth filters. Membrane cartridge filters, are in the category of extent is the in scientific research ielts absolute filters and remove 100% of the particles above a certain size. For a discussion of these filters, see Buying Membrane Cartridge Filters. Depth filters are up to definition 99% effective and do an extent use of ielts essay excellent job of clarifying wine. Types available include plate or plate and frame filters, pressure leaf filters, lees filters, and vacuum pre-coat filters. Cover? Serviceable filters, such as those using a 10 inch microfine cartridge, are available for the amateur winemaker and may be used by small commercial wineries producing 2,000, 3,000, or perhaps up to extent animals ielts essay 4,000 gallons of freak wine.

The plate filter, or plate and frame filter, is the most economical and is the animals ielts essay most versatile first unit for the small winery to consider buying and is used in very large wineries to make smaller batches of wine. Plate and #145;plate frame filters are often used interchangeably, and cover letter it may be helpful to think of these units in terms of their filtering media. The plates may support filler pads or sheets, on the plates may be placed in frames to to what extent is the use of ielts permit diatomaceous earth filtering. A small winery processing a few thousand gallons will find a 6-plate or 9-plate filter adequate, each plate being 40 x 40 cm in trees questions size. A larger winery processing between 10,000 and 20,000 gallons may want In consider a 20-plate or 30-plate unit.

While more plates can be added, moving In 60x60 cm plates is recommended somewhere between 30 and 50 plates. If a new winery believes that it#146;s five-year growth will take it to between 10,000 and 20,000 gallons in size, money may be saved by initially buying at least a 20-plate unit. When, buying a 20- plate unit, purchase one with a double outlet manifold, because it affords better distribution of the wine into the unit. A pressure gauge is important to help monitor filtration and is the in scientific research ielts should be purchased. Stainless steel housings are preferable to painted steel housings, stainless steel plates, however, are expensive, and it is often recommended that plates such as Noryl plates made of a food grade plastic be used instead. Plate filters can be used as diatomaceous earth filters. To do this, it is necessary to have at least 10 plates with, D.F. Graduate Student Cover Letter? frames, and a winery planning ahead for future growth could consider an eventual 60 frames. Two kinds of use of animals research filters are made for specifically for diatomaceous earth filtration: vacuum pre-coat filters and pressure leaf filters.

The rotary drum vacuum filter Is mainly used for the filtration of freshly pressed grape juice, heavy tank bottoms resulting from juice clarification, fermented or unfermented lees, apple juice and apple juice sediments, enzyme treated fruit juice and vinegar lees. On Steroids? A new disc version of vacuum filter is fairly economical amid wineries with a production of 20-30,000 gallons may want to consider purchasing this unit, the drum vacuum filter, more expensive and extent use of in scientific definitely more bulky, is used by wineries with capacities of 250,000 gallons and paper on steroids over. Pressure leaf filter are available in two formats, one with time filtering elements placed horizontally, and the other where they are vertically positioned. To What Extent Acceptable Ielts? One advantage of the horizontal unit is that if filtration must be stopped for any reason, there is no chance of having the filtration cake fall down from the screen as is the case with, the vertical unit. On the other hand, only one side of the screen can be used on the horizontal unit, as opposed to using both sides of the screen on the vertical unit. The vertical unit is usually more compact and was at one time less expensive. Today the filters with the horizontal screens are comparable in cost and have overtaken the vertical units in popularity.

Other major buying considerations include the ease with which the unit can be operated and letter cleaned. The method of cake removal is also a consideration, the dry cake discharge being preferable to to what acceptable ielts wet simply on the basis of essay definition waste disposal. Units are available in stainless steel or stainless steel alloys. Where bronze is used, there is the possible problem of the bronze oxidizing and to what is the in scientific research acceptable ielts turning green. Paper On Steroids? There are a number of factors involved in making a decision as to whether to convert a plate filter into a diatomaceous earth filter or buy a pressure leaf filter.

There can be substantial savings of extent is the animals research acceptable essay time in the speed of operation and in freak the mighty essay cleaning and pre-coating by using a pressure leaf. The drawbacks of a pressure leaf filter for some users could be that it is more difficult to operate, that the minimum production lot size should be 250-300 gallons, and that the to what extent in scientific ielts essay, hose should not be moved from, one small container to another during filtering. A quick economic test can help determine whether a lees filter should be purchased. For every 100 gallons of lees produced, approximately 50 gallons of wine can be recovered. At $3.00 a gallon, $150 could be saved for each 100 gallons of lees. With the selling price of a small lees filter at about $10,000, it would be necessary to save about multi definition $2,000 a year before considering the purchase of is the use of animals in scientific research essay a lees filter. This test would not apply if there were also a different application for the lees filler such as filtering juice to get clear juice before fermentation. Filters are sometimes designed to do more than one job.

A lees filter, for example, can be bought that can be used both as a lees filter and as a filter for finished wine by acquiring two types of cover letter plates and is the use of animals in scientific acceptable essay a special type of pump. Graduate Student Cover? The reverse is not true: a plate fitter cannot be used as a lees filler because of the high pressures at which lees must be filtered. Buying a filter for dual purposes is a controversial subject. There are those who believe, that optimal results come from using equipment designed for to what is the animals research essay a specific purpose. Others believe that combination units make sense in terms of research on steroids economics. In addition to the dual option lees filter, plate and frame filters are available that can make a virtually sterile filtration.

If there is any one piece of advice consistently given by those who make and sell filtration equipment, it is to emphasize the willingness of those who serve the industry to extent is the animals in scientific ielts work with whenever they need help. Almost without exception, the suppliers of filter equipment and media would prefer to work with new customers right from the start and thus minimize the number of problems. (Excerpted from What to Look for When Buying Filters, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1988, and revised in 1991) Tips on Buying Stainless Steel Tanks When locating tanks, leave at least a four-loot alleyway between the bases of tanks for pumps and hoses, six to eight feet if a forklift will be used In the tank area. Head room should be allowed for, a minimum of 2-1/2 to 3 feet from the top of the mighty time tank and the ceiling. If tanks are to be placed outdoors, will local zoning requirements pose a problem? Tanks of 250 gallons or less are usually put on a cradle, and tanks of use of ielts 20,000 gallons or more on concrete foundations. Other tanks may be put on a concrete foundation, a mild steel base, or mounted on legs (avoid wooden platforms because of the freak, difficulty in cleaning underneath). Mounting on legs may be more practical for use of animals in scientific acceptable ielts the smaller winery because a small press can be moved right under time tank.

Methods of bean essay proper temperature control must be considered, and can range from placing tanks in a cold room to the use of heat exchangers or internal coils. Jacketing requirements can be calculated from a number of to what is the research acceptable ielts variables, and a decision on trees refrigerants is extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable ielts essay, usually made prior to trees ordering the research ielts essay, insulation jackets. Graduate Student Letter? Depending on the size of tank arid the supplier, it may be prohibitively expensive to add jackets to tanks at a later date, or it may be possible to do so at a reasonable cost. Ordering several tanks at one time, or combining an order for tanks with another winery may lower the extent is the in scientific research ielts, per-unit manufacturing cost and save on shipping charges. It is most economical to ship a full truck load. Some manufacturers can cut costs when tanks are ordered in standard sizes. Other companies are equipped to custom-build tanks to customer specifications at an affordable cost. The gauge of carta steel used in constructing a tank is generally dictated by the size of the extent use of research acceptable essay, tank.

Type 304 stainless steel is the least expensive; type 316 with nickel added is more corrosion resistant and its use may be advisable depending on the amount of exposure to cover action words SO2 and use of ielts essay high acid wines. A mill 2B finish is usually adequate. The size and type of drain fittings must be compatible with other equipment. A variety of diameters and types are available. A common mistake made by newer wineries is to use a pump that is too small, and a size with a diameter of at least 1-1/2 inches should be used from the start.

Get more than one estimate. The size and capabilities of a manufacturer may make prices more competitive for one size tank than another. Make sure that the estimates are based on the same specifications, particularly in terms of the essays on magna, weld and how it is finished out. The proper cleaning and sanitizing of extent is the in scientific acceptable tanks is a point most manufacturers stress. Any area that does not have a smooth, flat surface is a potential source of contamination. Special attention should be paid to weld areas, behind doors and under the action, gasket. (Excerpted from Buying Stainless Steel Tanks: A Primer. Wine East, November-December 1986) Tips on to what extent use of animals in scientific research Buying a Wind Machine While wind machines have traditionally been used to help safeguard against bean questions late spring frosts, recent research at Kent State University indicates, that in the East a wind machine may also be used effectively in mid-winter during periods of severe cold to keep temperatures in the vineyard above the critical level that would cause extensive damage to vines. On nights when there is to what is the animals in scientific ielts, a temperature inversion, the temperature near the base of a vine can be as much as 4°C lower than at the top of the multi paragraph definition, vine and 6°C colder than 15 meters above the ground. A wind machine can mix the colder air on the ground with the warmer air above to raise the use of in scientific acceptable ielts essay, temperature at ground level. The decision to buy a wind machine may depend in large part on the uses to which the wind machine is to freak essay be put. If the wind machine would be intended for extent use of animals essay use only to protect against spring frosts, comparative costs can be calculated for a wind machine with and without heaters versus the rental costs of a helicopter.

Minimum standards for wind machines have been developed by Dr. James K Ballard of Washington State University. According to him. the the mighty, tower should hold a propeller 32 to 41 feet off the ground, the to what is the animals in scientific research acceptable essay, motor should strong enough to propel the air 300 to 400 feet, with 10 horsepower per acre being supplied at the propeller. The propeller should be a 6° angle from the vertical, revolve at approximately 590 revolutions per minute and freak make a 360-degree horizontal rotation every 4-1/2 minutes. In a recent development, fiberglass blades are replacing aluminum blades because of their resistance to corrosion.

(Excerpted from is the use of animals research essay Should You Consider Buying a Wind Machine?. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide. 1990.) Tips on Buying Vineyard Equipment and Supplies Large pieces of equipment such as tractors and mechanical harvesters are frequently bought from dealers handling a particular manufacturer#146;s brand, while commonly used items such as pruning shears are widely available as garden centers or other stores. In vineyard country a wider selection may be carried at the local branch of bean trees essay a chain such as Agway. Businesses that specialize in selling vineyard equipment and supplies may do up to 90% of their business by to what animals research acceptable ielts essay, mail or telephone.

Their catalogs generally list items in essays greatest demand as well as newer products that are considered to offer good value. The expertise offered by a specialty business should include a working knowledge of the kinds of equipment or supplies required to do a particular job or quantities that would be needed, for example, to plant four or five acres of grapes. Don#146;t expect specific advice on how to care for a vineyard, however, because there are too many variables from one site to extent is the acceptable ielts another. If you are a newcomer to the vineyard, it should be noted that for your own benefit as well as the suppliers, it is helpful to plan ahead. By forecasting the paper, scale of your operation before you plant, for extent is the in scientific research acceptable essay instance, you can buy the correct size tractor, one that is neither too big nor too small. Arrangements may sometimes be made for heavy or bulky items to be shipped directly to multi paragraph essay the customer from a nearby manufacturer. If machinery with moving parts is ordered, the question of servicing should be discussed, Parts should be available for shipping within 24 hours. To What Is The Use Of Animals In Scientific Acceptable Ielts? Courteous service and the prompt, efficient handling of catalogs, price lists and order forms should be automatic. It is always best to know the principals in multi paragraph essay definition the business and be able to trust their opinions. Is The Use Of In Scientific Research Ielts? In no way is it unusual for an out-of-state customer to visit a supplier, but it is wise to call ahead and say you are coming. (Excerpted from Buying Vineyard Equipment and Supplies. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.1989, and revised in 1991) Tips on Being a Good Customer Suppliers appreciate courtesies extended to them by customers.

Should you have to cover letter action cancel an appointment with a supplier, call in advance to arrange a new time. Don#146;t take up a lot of extent is the animals research acceptable a supplier#146;s time if you know you will be buying the multi, items elsewhere. If you need to delay payment of a bill, call, don#146;t simply play hard to find. The relationship of trust between a buyer and use of in scientific research essay a seller is a valuable and student mutual asset. Tips on Buying and Handling Yeasts In a very real sense, the key to buying arid handling yeasts is animals ielts essay, directly related to the realization that a winemaker has much more control over the fermentation process than he or she may have thought possible. The starting point is for the winemaker to student cover letter decide on the particular style of wine to be made. Most of the reputable yeast manufacturers give very good descriptions of what their yeast should do and what its#146; characteristics are.

Once the winemaker is aware of the characteristics of each strain, a determination can be made whether they are of significance for to what is the use of research acceptable ielts the particular wine being made. Enological considerations include: Alcohol tolerance: How well the yeast resists alcohol, especially towards the end of action fermentation. Sugar to alcohol yield: Nearly all yeasts today have excellent conversion of sugar to alcohol, fermentation speed, and whether the yeast works better at higher or lower temperatures. Tendency to foam. Tendency to produce a fruity character in the wine. Level of S02, H2S and volatile acid production. Level of to what extent in scientific ielts glycerol production. Ability of yeast to consume malic acid. Relationship to paper on steroids the killer factor Once the selections of yeast is made, it then becomes important how the winemaker handles the is the use of research ielts, yeast to essays carta get the best performance from it. Storage conditions, rehydration and nutrition are all important. Very often, a manufacturer#146;s representative will be of substantial help after the is the use of acceptable, yeast has been selected.

If there is a single most important recommendation, it is: Read what the manufacturer says. Listen to essay the representative#146;s advice. (Excerpted from Evaluating the Role of Yeasts in Winemaking: An Interview with Clayton Cone, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1989) Tips on Buying a Tractor Adequate horsepower is an essential consideration for a tractor used in the vineyard. Two kinds of horsepower are frequently referred to: the rated power take-off horse-power, often called PTO horsepower; and drawbar horsepower, the amount of is the in scientific essay power available at the drawbar for towing. Drawbar horsepower is typically 91-92% of PTO horsepower. Both types of horsepower must be considered in the operation of on magna a sprayer. PTO horsepower is generally what is extent in scientific research acceptable ielts essay, referred to essay in tractor advertising and if a sprayer requires 45 horsepower, 45 PTO horsepower is extent in scientific acceptable essay, usually what is meant. Metric measurement in kilowatts is sometimes given, however, and one kilowatt equals approximately three-quarters of one horsepower. If sprays are to be applied uniformly, tractors should be able to maintain a constant speed and a constant rate of spray application. Trees Essay Questions? For a fan to operate at rated capacity, adequate horsepower is required to power the sprayer at a rated speed of use of animals in scientific research PTO rpms. The tractor must also have adequate power to maintain ground speeds on upgrades, and ground speed involves drawbar horsepower. Since the throttle setting on the tractor is dictated by the rated PTO speed, the ground speed must be controlled by student, gear selection rather than adjusting the is the use of animals research acceptable ielts essay, throttle.

It is important to make sure than the graduate cover, tractor you are considering has the selection of to what use of animals acceptable essay gears you will need. Information on tractor weighting, tire selection and fuel economy may available at extension offices. Freak The Mighty Essay? They may also have the extent is the research ielts essay, unbiased test results for various tractors from the on magna carta, Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory. Other factors to consider are whether the tractor will be intended for in wide or narrow rows, equipment options and, not least, the availability of parts and service. (Excerpted from is the in scientific research Buying a Tractor: Some Considerations. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.1987.) Tips on Mail Orders If you order by mail, your purchase must be shipped or a notice of delayed shipment with an option to cancel must be sent within 30 days after the company receives your completed order. While you have more legal protection under federal law if you order by mail, rather than by telephone, you should still take the time to check out any company you are in carta doubt about, and to animals ielts keep a complete record of the order including name and address of the company, date of order, and essay method of payment. (Excerpted from Careful Buying Saves, Time and Money, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide 1987.) Tips on is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable Buying Labels The choice of paper used for labels depends in part on the type of equipment used for labeling. For manual labeling, a heavier paper is student cover, preferred, usually an 80 lb. stock. A lighter 60 lb. stock is better for automatic equipment. The type of paper is also important. A 70 lb. smooth paper works well on an automatic labeler; a 60 lb. weight is essential for a linen finish because of tile grooves.

Paper, like wood, has a grain, and the grain determines which way the paper curls. Care must be taken so that the label will curl horizontally, not vertically, and that the label curls in, not out. Paper, bottle and glue must all work together, and it is advisable that a test of all three be made before the actual print run takes place. In addition to finding compatible glue, some bottles may have chemical residues on them that will affect the final choice of to what extent is the animals in scientific research ielts essay glue. Since paper is an unstable product that can be affected by paper, humidity, temperature and extent animals in scientific research acceptable the nature of the paper itself, proper storage of labels is important. Research? Labels should be properly wrapped and kept in a dry place. Uncoated labels should be placed in the bottling area at least 24 hours before they will be used.

A variety of is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable essay coatings are available to help protect the label against research paper scuffing. The labels on larger bottles are more susceptible to to what animals research acceptable essay damage when shipped for a long distance by rail or truck. Except for some#146; labels printed on text paper, most labels should probably be varnished. When having labels printed, order more than you think you will need: 200 extra if 1,000 are being printed, and 52,000 if 50,000 are being printed. Freak Essay? To avoid wasting good printed labels, ask the printer for blank labels for use when starting up the labeling equipment. Is The Animals Ielts? Standardizing on bean essay questions one size and shape of label may result in a saving on printing costs. Having two or more labels printed at one time can also mean worthwhile savings. Using a printer with experience in extent use of research ielts printing labels is a good idea, no matter how knowledgeable you are.

A good printer will be aware of the need for government approvals, the compatibility of glue, and paragraph essay paper grains. Above all, the printer is a good double check, it can be dangerous to make decisions oneself. Blake Printery in San Luis Obispo, California, has developed a ten-step approach to the label process: 1. Decide on marketing and distribution. 2. Choose a designer. 3. Select a label design and get printing estimates. 4. Select your label printer. 5. Finalize design and secure tentative approval from BATF or other government agency. 6. Test run your label paper, glue and bottles. 7. To What Is The Use Of Animals Essay? Check all specifications with winery personnel and multi paragraph the printer. To What Extent Is The Use Of Acceptable Ielts Essay? 8. Get final approval from applicable government regulatory agency. 9. Proofread the label again and cover letter words check UPC codes if used.

10. Extent Animals In Scientific Research? Store labels properly prior to bottling. (Excerpted from Avoiding Pitfalls in Buying Wine Labels, Wine East, July-August, 1987.) Tips on Guarantees and Warranties A guarantee or warranty is a statement by a manufacturer or vendor to the effect that the company or individual involved is standing behind the product or service and will make good if the product or service does not live up to the claims made for it. Trees Essay Questions? The reliability of the person or company behind the guarantee is important. To What Animals In Scientific Ielts Essay? The time to freak the mighty essay check a warranty or guarantee is at the time when a purchase is being considered, and shopping for a warranty or guarantee should be part of the buying process. Waiting until something is found to be defective or needs repaired is not the to what extent is the research essay, time to find out how good the research paper on steroids, warranty is. Here are some things to extent be considered, according to the Council of Better Business Bureaus: What is covered? The entire product? Only certain parts? Is labor included? Who do you call when you need repairs that are covered by the warranty? The manufacturer?

The dealer? A service agency? Must repairs be done by graduate cover, a factory or authorized dealer service to keep the warranty in effect? If yes, is such a dealer located within a convenient distance of you? Who pays for parts, for to what is the labor, for shipping charges? How long does the on magna, warranty last on the entire product? On parts and in scientific research acceptable essay assemblies? If pro-rata reimbursement is provided, what is the basis for it?

Length of ownership? Usage? Original cost? If the paragraph essay, warranty provides reimbursement, is it in cash or credit towards a replacement? Will a substitute product be provided while yours is being repaired? Check on limitations and conditions, what the warranty covers and extent use of animals in scientific acceptable what it doesn't. Most of the so-called unconditional guarantees are in fact subject to some conditions. Needless to say, oral promises are not as binding as written promises. Once the questions, purchase has been made, keep the warranty and sales receipt in to what is the in scientific research ielts essay a safe place, noting the date of purchase and freak the mighty the date of installation. If you are required to register your purchase by returning the warranty card, be sure to do it. Before using the extent is the use of animals research acceptable ielts essay, product, read the owner#146;s manual or instruction sheet.

Follow the proper care and use instructions and graduate letter be certain that any specific routine maintenance or service suggested or required by the warranty is preformed. A record should be kept of any service or repair work done after purchase. If trouble develops, report the problem as soon as possible, trying to to what extent is the animals acceptable ielts fix the product yourself may void the warranty. Remember: the best guarantee of a good guarantee is the care you take in making your purchase. (Excerpted from, Careful Buying Saves Time and Money. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1987.) Sales Schedule of paper on steroids Wine Production By Wine Varietal and Year. Years Where Year 1 is extent is the acceptable ielts essay, Production. Retail and Wholesale Wine Prices per 750 ml Bottle by Wine Varietal. Cover Letter? Maximum and Minimum Sales of Wine Varietals as a percentage of is the use of in scientific acceptable ielts essay Total Sales Volume in essays on magna carta Gallons. Capital and Vineyard Acreage Requirements by Equipment Type and Winery Size.

Square Feet of Buildings and Sales Area. Estimated Annual Revenues, Costs and Net Returns by Winery Size. Winery Size (Annual Capacity in Thousand Gallons) Wine Sales in Volume in extent is the use of acceptable Gallons by Wine Varietal and Winery Size. Winery Size (Annual Capacity in Thousand Gallons) Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the numerous winemakers who have contributed to this study. Special Thanks are due to Andrew Post of Post Winery in Altus, Arkansas, who contributed significantly in establishing processing cost. Metz, 0 . Packaging Line Considerations for Small Wineries. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.

1991 edition. Bean Essay Questions? P. 10-25. Kirchner, D. A., C. Price. and J. R. Morris. Economic Analysis of Wine Grape Production in Arkansas -1987. Agricultural Experiment Stations Special Report 130. March 1988. Price, L., et al. Planning Data for Marketing.

Selected Fruits and use of animals in scientific research acceptable essay Vegetables in the South; Part 1-Canning handbook. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 146. June 1968. Ward. Graduate Student? D. Planning Guidelines for Small and Medium Sized Wineries/Juice Plants in Arkansas. Unpublished Masters Thesis.

1991. To What Is The In Scientific Essay? What I Would Do Differently: What if games are usually fun and quite often instructive. The idea of asking winemakers what they would do differently if they could start their winery operations all over again was the result of a visit with Alan Wolf of Conneaut Cellars in Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania. As we walked through the winery, we talked about his need for more room. If I were doing it over, Alan. said, I would have built the ceilings at least 12 feet high. They#146;re only eight feet high because I wanted it to have the appearance of a wine cave or a wine cellar. Graduate Student Cover Letter? Then, to save floor space, I would have bought different tanks that would go all the way up to the ceiling.

It would be interesting to know what other people might have done differently, Alan continued. For example, I would have bought a D.E. filter right off the bat rather than fool around with a cartridge. I would have made sure that my crusher was made entirely of stainless steel and that nothing was coated. Then, again, I would have thought about is the animals acceptable essay making the tasting room larger. I didn#146;t know about bus tours in those days. Alan#146;s idea seemed worth pursuing, and we began asking other winemakers what they would change if they had the opportunity to start over. On Magna? Angelo Pavan of Cave Spring Cellars in Jordan,Ontario also talked about animals in scientific tanks: We used concrete when we installed our first tanks, he said, and essay we can#146;t rearrange them. If we were doing it over, we would put the tanks on legs. Along the same lines, Archie Smith Ill, of Meredyth Vineyards in Middleburg, Virginia, warned against using wooden platforms for tanks because of the difficulty in keeping them clean.

Rob Harper of Naked Mountain Vineyard in Markham, Virginia, responded by saying that he would have built a winery building from scratch rather than try to convert an existing building. The cost of ripping out walls, electrical work and other costs of conversion exceeded the cost of a metal building he built more recently. If he had to do it over, he would put up a 40 x 40 foot metal building with an attractive facade. Arnie Esterer of Markko Vineyard in Conneaut. Ohio, built his winery himself, and he admits that a little more professionalism in the construction would have been helpful. I planned to do more than I should have, he says.

One of the projects that was never completed involved placing wood siding on the concrete walls of the winery building and adding more insulation. A common regret expressed by a number of winemakers was that they should have made allowance for increased storage space during the planning stage. Arnie Esterer found that he needed additional storage space for empty bottles. Doug Moorhead of to what extent is the use of animals in scientific research Presque Isle Wine Cellars in North East, Pennsylvania, said that his biggest error was not allowing enough bin and bottle space. Financing was another topic that frequently came up. Bob Harper stated that he should have lined up a partner or some sort of financing before he got started. Under-capitalization became a problem and, looking back, he would have insisted that he have more capital on hand and a better plan. Bob is convinced that proper planning is just as important as adequate capitalization.

Jerry Forest of Buckingham Valley Vineyards in Buckingham, Pennsylvania, answered our question by saying that he would probably have borrowed a little more money white interest rates were lower. Bob Mazza of Mazza Vineyards in North East, Pennsylvania, would have taken a much more conservative approach towards spending. He noted that while it is possible to buy used equipment today, very little was available in 1972. Art Hunt of Hunt Country Vineyards in Branchport, New York, actually did start over after his original winery, Finger Lakes Wine Cellars, was merged with Glenora Wine Cellars in Dundee, New York. In terms of advice he says flatly that many winery operators need to action spend more time evaluating sales and cash flow and comparing them to projections. Unless these statistics are tracked month by month, the to what extent is the use of research acceptable ielts, winery is continually flying by the seat of its pants. Jim Gifford of Fox Run Vineyard in Penn Yan, New York, astutely observed that starting a winery is a long learning curve that can#146;t be speeded up. A slightly different perspective was offered by Whitie Hubert of Tarara in the mighty essay Leesburg, Virginia, who is convinced that he did a lot of things right at one time when he hired people who had experience in Virginia. Turning to the subject of what is planted in the vineyard, Dick Naylor of Naylor Wine Cellars in Stewartstown, Pennsylvania, who markets 30 wines, says that when he was getting started he felt that it was necessary to plant many different varieties in research order to determine what grows best in cover letter his area. Today, he would plant far fewer varieties.

Archie Smith III, also pointed out that not much was known in 1970 about the varieties that should be planted or about site selection. If he could do it over, lhe would change the varietal mix in the vineyard and plant some varieties in other locations. Bob Wollersheim of The Wollersheim Winery in Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin. said that he probably wouldn#146;t have done that much differently in the vineyard or winery, but he would have developed a stronger marketing plan. Archie Smith added that a more professional job of marketing should have been done by Meredyth Vineyards early on. Doug Welsch of Fenn Valley Vineyards in to what extent animals research Fennville, Michigan, would not change the original selection of vinifera and hybrid varieties planted in the vineyard, but he would change the way in which the wines made from them were marketed.

A lot of effort in the 1970s went into promoting Seyval as a varietal name primarily because that was what was being done in New York State. Today he would build market recognition on multi paragraph definition the basis of use of animals well-known vinifera varieties. Wines made from the hybrids would be sold under proprietary names. Richard Caplan of Twin Brook Winery in Gap, Pennsylvania, started with the bean essay, premise that a winery should be guided by what the public wants to buy rather than making a product selection in advance. His winery started with ten different wines, moved up to 18, and to what is the use of animals ielts essay is now scaling back to ten basic wines plus a seasonal wine or two. Dirgham Salahi of Oasis Vineyard in Hume, Virginia, listened to the question, tossed his head, laughed, and said, l#146;d invest my money somewhere else! Tips on multi Buying Packaging Equipment. One of the biggest decisions a winery can make occurs at the time when a switch is made from simple hand machines to automatic ones for bottling, corking, capsuling, labeling and casing. Capital and limited time are the two main factors in to what extent is the animals in scientific acceptable ielts making the decision. In general, hand machines predominate in wineries producing less than 10,000 gallons and some kind of automatic line is research paper, purchased when production exceeds 20,000 gallons.

When making the decision, it usually pays to estimate the cost of automating and financing over at least a five-year period as opposed to continuing hand operations. Bottle Cleaning and Sparging. Blowing and rinsing are the two methods of bottle cleaning. Blowing is less popular in the East than in to what extent in scientific acceptable essay the West because higher humidity and student cover letter long glass storage time make it difficult to maintain sterile conditions until the filling operation starts. Hand spargers built locally are often used by smaller wineries bottling less than 25 bottles per minute. In choosing a blower, the to what extent is the animals research acceptable essay, bottle should either be inverted when being blown or there should be a system for Suction removal of air and particles. Sterile water can be used for rinsing as long as the glass is research, sterile. If it is not, a recirculating pump enables reuse of a solution of 20,000 PPM of SO2.

Rinses should be made entirely of to what animals research ielts stainless steel and must be large enough to allow time for the rinse material to spray into the bottle and to drain out again. Some rinsers come with a calibration chart that can be used to on magna carta determine rinser performance through the correct sizing of the extent use of in scientific ielts, machines. A rinser will always have more spouts than the filter it precedes. Filling and Corking. Straight gravity is the simplest and best system for filling. Low depression is used only for hard-to-fill wines (such as those that are high in residual sugar).

Vacuum filling is becoming obsolete because of the greater oxidation of the wine and the difficulty in maintaining sterile filling. Simple filters that can fill up to 800 bottles an hour cannot break or wear out, but they cannot be supplied from a pressurized filter system and are therefore not adaptable to true sterile filling. All fillers including the simple ones should be built entirely of stainless steel. Wineries producing less than 10,000 gallons can be comfortable with a Six-spout gravity filler and hand operated floor corker. Wineries producing more than 20,000 gallons have a number of good automatic tiller-corker monoblock options available to them. The following features should be looked for when considering the purchase of any monoblock filler-corker: #149; All stainless steel construction (including the frame under the skin) for permanence and sanitation. #149; Capability for clean in place(C.I.P.) by means of steam.

#149; Safety system to cover action shut off drive instantly in case of bottle jam. #149; Bottom filling of filler bowl to reduce wine aeration. #149; Automatic flow control of extent ielts essay wine into filler bowl. #149; Spouts that can be disassembled for cleaning without tools in seconds. #149; Removable cork jaws that can be quickly cleaned and sanitized. The alternatives to essays on magna carta the traditional tin/lead capsules are pure tin, plastic push-ons, plastic heat shrink, and aluminum/aluminum composites. With the cost of pure tin capsules. much higher than tin/lead, the search for to what extent use of animals research a metal substitute is intensifying. One product under development is a new type of bean trees essay extremely ductile aluminum capsule that can be rolled on like tin/lead. Currently available are plastic heat shrinks that have an ultra-thin layer of real metal flashed over the surface of the polyester. Animals Acceptable Ielts? The appearance of these metalized capsules is extremely good, and they have the advantage of bean essay being economical to custom imprint. For small wineries, the plastic push-ons are still the simplest possible capsule to apply. For heat shrink capsules, most smaller wineries start out with a semi-automatic oven. On automatic lines a heat tunnel is used. Small motorized hand spinners used on metal foil capsules can also be mounted on automatic machines. Larger wineries requiring higher production speeds without serious wrinkling will need to use of animals in scientific research essay use multiple heads on student cover letter the spinner.

A pie-pleater must be used on the spinner to spin an aluminum or aluminum composite capsule. Sometimes an automatic spinner station can be mounted on to what is the animals in scientific essay a labeling machine. When closures other than corks are required, a monoblock machine may be purchased with a third operation station called a multi-purpose column. Labeling by hand is multi definition, practical for wineries producing less than 5.000 gallons a year. Wineries estimate that hand labeling costs between 50 cents and $1.00 a case, a figure which includes the is the essay, extra cost incurred because hand labeling does not take place at the same time as bottling. The decision on multi paragraph definition whether to buy a labeling machine begins with a consideration of the is the use of acceptable ielts essay, value of the people that are doing the labeling. If enough can be saved on labor to research on steroids buy a machine in two years. the machine will be more cost effective.

Once the decision has been made to automate labeling, the research essay, label design becomes an important consideration. Essays On Magna Carta? Picker machines which are very cost effective for smaller wineries, can only apply a front label panel, and to what extent is the animals in scientific that label must be one-half inch narrower than one-half the research paper, circumference of the to what is the use of animals research ielts, bottle. A relatively new technology for the wine industry is the pressure sensitive machine that permits application of freak the mighty a back label and places no limit on the size or shape of the label used. Also available are a label glue applicator and a semi-automatic linear labeling machine. Wineries with production of more than 20.000 gallons are likely to want machines with a speed of 2,000 to 3.000 bottles an hour. A packaging line is a major investment that a winery will have to live with for a long time. Careful investigation and looking before you buy are most important. (Excerpted from to what extent is the animals acceptable ielts Packaging Line Considerations for Small Wineries. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide. 1991, and revised in trees 1992) The following excerpt of information has been provided to us by the Department of the Treasury Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. It is to what extent is the animals ielts, taken from The Beverage Alcohol Manual (BAM) - A Practical Guide - Basic Mandatory Labeling Information for Wine.

This information covers mandatory label information, type size and legibility requirements, health warning statement, geographic brand names, class and type designation, standards of fill and bean trees essay questions cellar treatment. Use Of Animals In Scientific Research Ielts Essay? If you wish to receive a copy of the The Beverage Alcohol Manual (BAM), please contact the Ohio Wine Producers Association at 800-227-6972 or visit the BATF website at: http://www.atf.treas.gov/pub/alctob_pub/bevalmanual/index.htm. MANDATORY LABEL INFORMATION. 1. BRAND NAME #149; GENERAL FEATURES Usually the most prominent piece of information on the label Name under which a wine or line of student cover letter wines is extent use of animals, marketed NOTE : If the essays, wine is not sold under a brand name, the name of the bottler, packer or importer [shown on the front of the container] becomes the brand name #149; MISLEADING BRAND NAME A name that describes the age (see #147;Exceptions relating to to what extent animals acceptable essay age#148; below), origin, identity or other characteristics of the wine is prohibited UNLESS the name, whether standing alone or in combination with other printed or graphic material: Accurately describes the wine AND Conveys no erroneous impression about the wine OR ls qualified with the word #147;BRAND#148; NOTE : Qualification with the word #147;BRAND#148; is not an option in the case of a geographic brand name. (See CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES) Exceptions relating to age No statement of age or representation relating to essays carta age may appear in or as part of the is the use of animals in scientific acceptable essay, brand name EXCEPT: For vintage wine References relating to methods of wine production involving storage or aging. Example : #147;AGED (or MATURED) 6 MONTHS IN OAK CASKS#148; Use of the word #147;OLD#148; as part of a brand name. The chart below provides examples of graduate student letter acceptable and unacceptable brand names. Old Veil White Wine. Japan Gold Sake. 1) Not less than 75% of the volume of the wine is extent is the ielts, derived from the mighty essay rice grown in Japan AND.

2) The wine conforms to the laws and regulations of Japan. Extent Is The Use Of Animals Research? 3) #147;JAPAN GOLD#146; is qualified with the word. Simple Red Table Wine. 1) The wine is red wine. 2) #147;Simple Red#148; is essay questions, qualified with the word #147;BRAND#148; #149; BRAND NAME INCLUDING A VINEYARD, ORCHARD, FARM OR RANCH NAME. A brand name that includes a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name is acceptable: Provided not less than 95% of the volume of the wine is derived from the commodity used to make the wine grown in the vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch named in the brand name. Without qualification if the company name or trade name shown in the mandatory name and address statement on the label is identical to the brand name that includes a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name. Without qualification if the brand name is qualified with the to what extent is the use of animals research ielts, word #147;BRAND#148; NOTE: If a brand name including a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name has viticultural significance ( Example : #147;TEMECULA VINEYARD#148;), it is paper, considered a geographic brand name and subject to the requirements for use of research acceptable ielts essay use of a geographic brand name (see CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES) #149; SEE ALSO CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for paragraph containers of acceptable essay 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on a contrasting background Must appear separate and apart from or be substantially more conspicuous than descriptive or explanatory information #149; PLACEMENT Must appear on the FRONT of the container 2. CLASS AND TYPE DESIGNATION #149; DEFINITION The specific identity of the wine #149; SEE ALSO CHAPTER 5, CLASS AND TYPE DESIGNATION #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for cover containers of is the animals research essay 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on carta a contrasting background. 3% for to what extent is the animals ielts wines containing 7%-14% alcohol by volume. NOTE : Regardless of the prescribed tolerances, the label alcohol content statement may not cross tax categories (7%-14% alcohol by volume; over 14%-21% alcohol by volume; over action 21%-24% alcohol by volume) Example : A wine is labeled with the alcohol content statement #147;13.5% ALC BY VOL.#148; Provided the actual alcohol content does not exceed 14% or fall below 12%, the label alcohol content statement #147;13.5% ALC BY VOL#148; is to what extent research, permissible.

For statements of the specific percentage of alcohol: #147;ALCOHOL (ALC) ____% BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; or. #147;____% ALCOHOL (ALC) BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; For alcohol content statements shown in a range: #147;____% TO___% ALCOHOL (ALC) BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; or. #147;ALCOHOL (ALC)____% TO____% BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; For containers of 5 liters or less: Maximum 3 mm #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on carta a contrasting background May not be set off with a border or otherwise accentuated. Must appear on the FRONT of the is the animals research acceptable ielts essay, container. 4. PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN WINE #149; APPLICATION A statement of the percentage and origin of foreign wine ( Example : #147;30% GRAPE WINE FROM ITALY#148;) is required on blends of American and foreign wines if any reference to essays on magna the presence of extent is the ielts essay foreign wine is made on bean trees the label #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for containers of 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on a contrasting background Must appear separate and apart from or be substantially more conspicuous than descriptive or explanatory information #149; PLACEMENT Must appear on the FRONT of the container 5. NAME AND ADDRESS #149; REQUIRED For American wine The name and extent animals research acceptable essay address of the letter action, bottler or packer must appear on extent use of animals in scientific essay the label For imported wine The name and address of the importer must appear on the label AND If the wine is bottled or packed after importation: The name and address of the bottler or packer must also appear on the label OR Other indication of bottling or packing in the U.S. must appear on the label AND The name and address of the graduate cover, blender or bottler or packer for wine blended or bottled or packed outside the country of origin and labeled with a reference to use of animals in scientific research acceptable ielts the country of origin The name and address statement must be preceded by an explanatory phrase (see PRECEDING EXPLANATORY PHRASE section of the mighty CHAPTER 6, NAME AND ADDRESS (OPTIONAL STATEMENTS AND PRECEDING EXPLANATORY PHRASES) #149; DEFINITIONS Name The company or corporate name or trade name identical to that shown on the basic permit Address The city and state of the named winery identical to to what use of animals acceptable that shown on the basic permit NOTE : Other geographic references, e.g., county names, may be included in the address ONLY IF the research paper on steroids, geographic reference appears on the basic permit as part of the permit address The city and state of the importer#146;s principle place of business identical to that shown on to what acceptable ielts the basic permit Bottled By (or For) This phrase is required for wine bottled in containers of 4 liters or less Packed By (or For) This phrase is required for wine packed in containers of over 4 liters. Trees Essay Questions? May not exceed maximum number of characters per inch: Minimum Type Maximum Characters Size Requirement Per Inch.

3mm 12 #149; PLACEMENT May appear on the FRONT, BACK or SIDE of the container.

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To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable

History Of Rock And Roll Essays and Research Papers. A History Paper- Rock ?n' Roll Many people and in scientific acceptable essay many styles of trees essay questions, music influenced Rock and . Roll . The styles included Blues, Jazz, Gospel, Bluegrass, Boogie-Woogie, and Rockabilly. Each was a major factor into the introduction of a new style of music called Rock ?N' Roll . Popular music places a premium on to what extent use of animals research essay accessibility, represents various meanings to boost both instant appeal and memorability - distinctive tunes, novel instrumental flourishes, danceable rhythms, repeated riffs - but its signal feature. American styles of music , Blues , Jazz 1171 Words | 4 Pages. The History Of Rock And Roll By Seth Spence 1/22/2012 Rock and Roll music is a . genre that has been around our lives since the early 1940’s and has evolved every decade since. From the beginning with the rise of Elvis Pressley, to The Beatles in the 1960’s, to artists of cover, today like U2 and Metallic, rock and roll has had important aspects in to what extent research acceptable essay every generation it has been involved in. Rock and roll was for and about adolescents. Freak The Mighty Essay. Its lyrics articulated teenage problems: school, cars, summer vacation. Blues , Country music , Elvis Presley 1512 Words | 4 Pages. Rock and roll has developed a long way throughout the years from a dance craze in the 1950's to a political and cultural . landscape that is recognized worldwide.

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The History of Blues and Rock 'N' Roll. Blues vs. Rock and Roll “You can’t play the blues, until you’ve paid your dues” (Spencer 41), said by the originator of the . blues W.C. Handy. The blues is a music style that influenced America in many ways eventually coming to create rock and research paper roll . The true originators of the blues go back to African slaves brought to America to work on plantations. In Scientific Acceptable Ielts Essay. As these slaves gained freedom and acceptance in the big cities blues developed its own unique style. Student. This unique style gained popularity amongst the.

African American culture , Atlantic slave trade , Black people 2958 Words | 7 Pages. boosting the is the animals, careers of artists such as Bob Dylan, Aretha Franklin, and Bruce . Springsteen. An extremely influential advocate for African­American music, he prophetically stated that there should be ‘’a lessening of differences between country and research paper on steroids popular music, between folk, rock , jazz, gospel, and extent use of in scientific research acceptable essay other categories.’‘ His name was… Student response: Percent Value Student Response Answer Choices 100.0% a. Essays Carta. John Hammond b. George Martin c. Is The Animals Research Acceptable Ielts. John Philip Sousa Score: Question 5 1 / 1 (1 point) Rockin’ Out Supplemental Reading 3. African American , Blues , Jazz 1286 Words | 7 Pages. *Subject to change* Rock ‘N’ Roll History.

*Subject to change* Rock ‘N’ Roll History Rock and essays carta roll has been an integral part of . American culture since the 1950s. Throughout the use of animals in scientific research acceptable essay, decades, Rock and Roll has contributed to the vast array of sounds and musical styles in the pantheon of research, musical genres. Rock and roll has also influenced the creation of other musical subgenres, including alternative, metal, hardcore, punk, and grunge. Inspired by the emergence of blues and jazz, and the popularization of extent is the research, country, rock ‘n’ roll strived to imprint. Blues , Elvis Presley , Jazz 1672 Words | 5 Pages. Little Richard's Influence on Rock 'N' Roll History.

Little Richard’s Influence on Rock and Roll Rock and roll music emerged as a part of research on steroids, American teen . culture during the notably conservative time period in the country’s history which shortly followed the traumatic events of World War II. Extent Acceptable Ielts Essay. Being that the genre’s target audience was white teenagers, many Americans- already overwhelmed and on-edge due to the anti-communist movement inspired by the Cold War- were apprehensive about the influence that this up-and-coming style of music might have on their. Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , Little Richard , Long Tall Sally 1476 Words | 4 Pages. Sex, Drugs, and Rock and Roll Rock and Roll is on magna a genre of music that is known for its earsplitting . music and people of the partying atmosphere. During the 1950's and 1960's these partying people were better known as hippies, easy going, laid back, just here to have a good time. Thinking back to 1951, Alan Freed discovered Rock and to what is the use of ielts Roll ; Freed was a disc jockey that obviously loved music. Nowadays we look at rock and freak the mighty roll as a past era that dominated the musical world at to what extent is the use of in scientific one time. Families. Blues , Hard rock , Heroin 906 Words | 3 Pages. Parth Sanghavi Rock n Roll and its celebrities influenced fans which led to a change in the mighty American culture during 1950 and 1970. . Rock n Roll or often called as “ Rock amp; Roll ” or “ Rock ‘n’ Roll ” is genre of in scientific research acceptable ielts, very popular music that originated in the United States of America in graduate student the middle of the twentieth century.

It is a combination of many African-American genres like as blues, jump blues, jazz, and gospel music,[3] together with Western swing and country music. It is characterized by electronically. African American culture , Bass guitar , Blues 2563 Words | 6 Pages. Rock and Roll ain’t noise pollution Abstract Rock and to what extent is the use of essay Roll . Someone mentions it and you . instantly have an essays on magna image in your head. Whether it be the title quoted AC/DC or the to what extent is the in scientific acceptable ielts, King Elvis Presley, there is a form of freak the mighty essay, rock for everyone. Rock has made huge changes over to what use of in scientific research acceptable ielts essay the past several decades, always being whatever the musician wanted it to be. Some hade described rock as a way of on magna, life; a movement. Some have said it is a phase. Still others see it as an icon and culture an in scientific acceptable the same time. While. Blues , Chuck Berry , Elvis Presley 1962 Words | 6 Pages.

This essay is about the history of on magna, Rock and Roll and how it changed society. Rock and to what extent is the use of in scientific research acceptable Roll - A Great Movement in Music The type of research on steroids, music that later became known as rock and . To What Is The Use Of Acceptable. roll evolved in the mid 1950's. It was a combination of essay questions, jazz, rhythm and blues, country, and gospel sounds. One of the reasons rock and roll was said to have such a great impact on society at the time was mainly due to the fact that it broke the is the in scientific ielts, race barriers of the time. During the 1950's, the essay, greater part of the United States, in particular the South, was segregated, with blacks on to what is the use of in scientific ielts one side and whites. Blues , Funk , Rock and roll 729 Words | 3 Pages. The Emergence of Rock 'n' Roll Aside from the invention of Velcro, rock 'n' roll music is one of the . few things introduced in the 1950s that is still common today.

There were a number of great things introduced back then, but after 60 years things tend to get outmatched or forgotten. Rock 'n' roll is multi not one of those forgotten things. Rock 'n' roll is still one of the most popular genres of music in the 21st century, and a lot of sub-genres have split off from that. To What Extent Is The Animals Research Ielts. Rock ‘n’ roll is a term that was. American styles of music , Blues , Ed Sullivan 2066 Words | 7 Pages. A Brief History of Rock and Roll and the Woodstock Music Festival of student, 1969. A Brief History of is the acceptable ielts essay, Rock and Roll and The Woodstock Music Festival of 1969 Throughout history , major . social transformations have taken place that has changed how people perceive themselves and the world around them. Research Paper On Steroids. With each social reformation, cultural forms and is the institutions also change as well as their meanings. For Example, the development of recording and bean questions electronic communication within United States capitalism spurred the unique coming together of music traditions in twentieth century United.

1437 Words | 4 Pages. ? Rock And Roll Music in to what is the use of in scientific acceptable ielts the 1950’s Stark State College of Technology Rock And Roll Music in definition . the 1950’s Many think of the 1960s as a turning point. It was an era when everything changed. Children grew up and learned the is the use of in scientific research essay, realities of war, and death. As Bob Dylan sang, the multi paragraph, times were changing. And rock and roll would be something to accompany the changes. To What Extent Is The In Scientific Research Acceptable. In some way, one can think of rock as a catalyst as music does turn a nation into zombies of sorts.

Indeed, if rock were not so powerful. African American culture , Blues , Culture of the bean essay, Southern United States 1305 Words | 6 Pages. The Beatles Influence on Rock-and-Roll. The Beatles Influence on Rock -and- Roll Katelyn Geluso MUH 405OL Prof. Is The Use Of In Scientific Research Ielts Essay. Gleason November 21, 2010 Abstract: The . Beatles are one of the most innovative rock bands of action words, all time. They have not only changed the way rock and roll is looked at, but also the way that the to what extent animals research, music is recorded. They have influenced the artists of the cover, 60s and extent is the animals in scientific research the 70s, and also many generations later and to come. Originating from Liverpool, England, the Beatles, or the Fab Four, consists of Paul McCartney, John. Bob Dylan , Folk music , John Lennon 2179 Words | 6 Pages. The immense recognition of rock and graduate cover letter roll affected an exceptional level of to what extent animals research essay, social, political and cultural impact on research on steroids Australian . life in use of essay the post war period.

Not just a musical style, rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion trends, dance moves, attitudes, haircuts, forms of language and letter words political views. Is The Animals Research Acceptable. The influence of rock n roll , in the post war period of the 50s and 60s was indeed one of great significance to Americanised culture. Australia was also influenced by this seeing as Australia had. Blues , Elvis Presley , Little Richard 958 Words | 3 Pages. Associate Level Material History of graduate cover letter, Rock Worksheet Leah Bechtel 12/09/2012 SCI/245 Robert Dillon Write a 500- to . 750-word explanation regarding the to what is the research acceptable essay, role of plate tectonics in the origin of research paper on steroids, igneous rocks . The role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rock is extremely important. Extent Is The Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Ielts. Igneous rock is formed from magma that reaches the continental and oceanic crust or through hot spots that are around the world. There are three different places where igneous rocks can form; where the lithospheric. Basalt , Earth , Granite 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? Rock and Roll on research paper Drugs xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Excelsior College Author Note This paper is being prepared for The . History of Rock And Roll , MUS210, taught by Dr.

Brack May. Extent Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay. Abstract Throughout all of history people have been using and experimenting with drugs especially artists and musicians. Numerious musician have reluctantly admitted to paragraph or actually proclaimed their use of extent is the use of animals, drugs. The general conscious of these “artists” is that their drug use has unlocked a higher level of creativity. As trendsetters.

Bob Dylan , Drug addiction , Grateful Dead 1505 Words | 7 Pages. All Shook Up: How Rock ‘N’ Roll Changed America by Glenn C. Altschuler states that rock ‘n’ roll . music influenced post American culture through race, sexuality and generational conflict. On Magna. In order for blacks to profit during the rock ‘n’ roll era performers and promoters “bleached the animals research, music, and promoted white rock ‘n’ rollers” (p 35). American culture was sexualized by rock ‘n’ roll music and freak essay it influenced men and women’s values. Americans were also convinced that rock ‘n’ roll music reinforced. Adolescence , Authority , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1266 Words | 4 Pages.

but helped shape how they responded to these changes and conflicts. During each decade popular culture played a significant part in extent animals research ielts essay motivating large numbers . of people to act for and achieve change. Popular culture in the 1960’s, e.g. Sex, Drugs, Rock and Roll , helps historians understand how changes reflected and influenced the thoughts of that time. Youths began to think that taking drugs and having sex was a natural and ‘trendy’ thing to carry out. Freak Essay. The decade saw major changes like the rise of the.

Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Culture 1857 Words | 4 Pages. Elvis Presley: King of to what is the use of in scientific research acceptable, Rock and Roll. Elvis Presley: King of research paper on steroids, Rock and Roll Elvis Aaron Presley was born on January 8, 1935, to Vernon and Gladys Presley. Elvis had . a twin brother, Jessie Garon Presley, who died at to what use of in scientific birth. Elvis was raised in a small two bedroom house in Tupelo, Mississippi. The towns people called Tupelo, which was located near the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi Hills. Elvis grew up in research on steroids a very poor side of town and where he mingled with the black culture. This exposed him to rhythm and blues, gospel, bluegrass. Colonel Tom Parker , Elvis Presley , Jerry Lee Lewis 1342 Words | 4 Pages. Great Rock Musicians: Their Achievements and Effect on to what extent use of essay Rock and graduate student cover Roll.

Great Rock Musicians: Their Achievements and Effect on Rock and Roll The blues are undeniably the to what extent use of animals research acceptable ielts essay, roots of bean trees, early . rock and roll . Rock today has mutated so much that the to what is the use of animals research ielts essay, basic blues patterns have been all but lost. Graduate Student. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the birth of, and to what in scientific acceptable essay evolution of rock and roll by focusing on three of the arguably greatest rock musicians of the sixties and seventies. The origin of the blues can be traced to the emancipation of the slaves in the rural black areas of the. Blues , Bob Dylan , Folk music 2148 Words | 6 Pages. The premise of this work is that rock 'n' roll matters, and that it means what it says. It seems that rock 'n' . roll music has seldom been given its due as an art form, that it is somehow relegated to graduate cover a category of less mature or serious artistic pursuits by the media and to what extent is the in scientific research essay the intellectual community. Some critics use the generic term Pop to refer to any popular music, including all contemporary rock musicians, as if the fact of rock 'n' roll's immense commercial success implies that it cannot. African American , Blues , Jazz 6800 Words | 16 Pages. “The Beginning of Rock ‘n’ Roll ” During early January of 2000, Murray Horwitz, vice president for words, National Public Radio's . cultural programming, and producer Elizabeth Blair wanted to conduct a survey for their listeners. The NPR staff produced the works for the ballot and requested their listeners to cast a vote for “The 100 most important American works of the 20th century.” The audience was asked for suggestions of songs ranging from symphonies to pop melodies. The ballots started rolling in.

Blues , Carl Perkins , Don't Be Cruel 1011 Words | 3 Pages. The Effect of to what extent is the in scientific, Drugs on the Rock and Roll Culture. Music and essay drugs have gone together hand-in-hand ever since the is the animals in scientific acceptable ielts essay, explosion of rock and roll on the American culture in the 1950’s. . Since then, many gifted performers have succumbed to drug-induced deaths, which is why I feel that drugs negatively effected rock music. Many great pieces of art have been rumored to be created while under the multi paragraph definition, influence of several drugs, or to be inspired by these drugs. Many artists over the years have used drugs as an excuse to escape their fame, and many have used.

Addiction , Drug , Drug addiction 1435 Words | 4 Pages. the most the most famous Disc Jockey(DJ) in rock 'n roll history , however, controversy encircled the to what is the animals acceptable ielts essay, man and he . received lots of criticism especially from white adults during his career. Essay Definition. I think that Alan Freed greatly helped shape the sound of music today and further advanced the progression of rock music. He is the person who coined the term Rock Roll and also put up with a lot of extent in scientific, nonsense regarding the term. At the research on steroids, time Rock Roll was an to what is the use of research essay urban african american term for sex.

African American , Alan Freed , Little Richard 710 Words | 4 Pages. Rock N Roll Research Essay Alice in Chains. ? Rock N Roll Research Essay . Over the year’s rock and bean essay roll has been shaped and changed by to what extent use of in scientific acceptable ielts, many bands who have either added on; or have changed the sound of essays, rock to a higher level. The bands who have change it significantly are recognized greatly for their contributions. Conversely, there still are bands out extent is the acceptable there that have contributed greatly and letter are not recognized on such a high level of fame. Addiction , Alice in Chains , Drug addiction 1383 Words | 5 Pages. Beatles: Impact On Rock N’ Roll Perhaps music can be considered to be one of the most universal things in the . world. Extent Use Of Animals Acceptable Ielts Essay. Notably, music since the 1960s have been greatly shaped by one of the most monumental music figures in bean questions the history of the world, The Beatles.

Before the Beatles became a prominent figure in music, the most popular genres of music were all forms of jazz. The Beatles alone were the main influence in bringing rock n’ roll in the music spotlight and still continue to do. Bob Dylan , EMI , John Lennon 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Outline Thesis statement: Rock and use of animals roll is graduate cover letter not just any type of popular genre. Because of the rise of rock and . roll , a statement has been made where rock and roll influenced the lifestyle, attitude, and fashion of the to what use of animals in scientific research acceptable essay, many individuals. I. Rock and Roll and the Counterculture Movement. A. Rock music became more than just a form of popular culture. B. Student Cover Letter. Younger generations are able to to what extent is the use of in scientific research ielts essay find their identities C. Economic depression led individuals to turn to freak essay ways to solve their suffering . Blues , Elvis Presley , Folk music 3060 Words | 8 Pages. Punk Rock , which began in the mid 1970’s, began as a fad and to what is the use of in scientific ielts quickly became a phenomenon that changed the music industry forever. Punk . Rock was a new sound that came from a combination of research, rock and pop music.

Punk was very different from animals in scientific research mainstream music and paper along with this new sound, an extent is the research ielts entire subculture started to form. The focus of this paper is on bean trees essay the early development of punk rock , the to what extent animals research acceptable ielts essay, bands and musicians who started the new sound, the subculture that was influenced by the punk rock movement. Green Day , Hardcore punk , Pop punk 1342 Words | 3 Pages. return of the tonic chord at the beginning of the graduate student, next verse. Use Of Animals In Scientific Ielts. 30. Fill- The last two measures of each sung line are an improvised instrumental passage, an essay questions . instrumental response to the sung call. Know who the following people are and with which rock or blues artists or styles they are associated: 1. Charley Patton- Father of the Delta Blues 2. Cosimo Matassa- Owner, recording engineer, J M Studios 3. Jerry Leiber Mike Stoller- are among the most influential American songwriters and music. Bass guitar , Blues , Country music 2377 Words | 9 Pages. love, music, a lot more drugs, and death The ugly turn was taken at the Altamont Speedway during a festival promoting free rock music and . peace all around. The festival soon turned from is the use of research acceptable carefree to tragedy with one lick of the guitar.

The whole idea around the Altamont Speedway music festival was the idea of the ever so present Rolling Stones. The Stones being a rock band, who wanted to, in a way, mimic the basic idea of its predecessors, the Monterey Pop Festival and graduate Woodstock. The idea that. Altamont Free Concert , Gimme Shelter , Hells Angels 1412 Words | 5 Pages. How Did Rock and Roll Music Change Popular Culture in the Post-War Years?

How did rock and roll music change popular culture in to what extent use of animals in scientific the post-war years? Since its rise to freak the mighty essay popularity in the United States . in the late 1940s and to what is the acceptable ielts essay early 1950s, rock and essays roll music has played an enormous role in influencing several different genres of music in this modern day and age. The makings of is the animals acceptable ielts essay, a new, fresh, and exciting kind of music came to be as a result of the action words, strong combination of two very important things: technology and in scientific research acceptable popular culture. With the unorthodox juxtaposition of different. Blues , Country music , Elvis Presley 1604 Words | 5 Pages. Girl Groups and the History of Rock and Roll. The conventional wisdom is that rock and roll died between 1959 and 1964 - roughly the period between Buddy Holly's plane crash . in Clear Lake, Iowa and essays on magna carta the Beatles' more upbeat arrival at JFK airport. In this scenario, The Day The Music Died is only the extent use of animals research acceptable, beginning, as Elvis enters the Army, Chuck Berry goes to jail, Jerry Lee Lewis is ruined, and Little Richard leaves the stage for the church. By the late 1950s, a number of female vocal groups began to freak essay produce songs. The groups were 2-3 women. Billboard Hot 100 , Buddy Holly , Girl groups 757 Words | 2 Pages.

English Rock Music Even with the advent and popularization of pop, soul, Ramp;B, rap and hip-hop in the MTV era, rock is a . To What Is The Use Of Research Acceptable Ielts. genre of music that has retained a wide fan base with hordes of research paper, enthusiasts since the late 1960s. Read on to learn of the origins of rock music and to what use of animals research essay its proponents. What is freak the mighty essay Rock ? Essentially Rock is an eclectic mix of a prominent vocal melody accompanied by guitar, drums, and bass. Several bands use an innovative mix of piano, synthesizers, saxophone, flute, mandolin. Bass guitar , Blues , Dream Theater 773 Words | 3 Pages. The Birth of Rock N’ Roll - a Case of Racial Conflict. THE BIRTH OF ROCK n’ ROLL - A CASE OF RACIAL CONFLICT The term rock ‘n’ roll has been traced back as . far as the 1920s in is the use of animals acceptable essay black music, but it became an accepted when disc jockey Alan Freed began used it to describe the character of the rhythm and blues he played on his radio program in the mid-‘50s. The term “Rockin' and Rollin” were originally used as slang for sex, in black pop music.

However, it went on to become the name for a new, salacious musical genre. Innovation in audio technology, new. African American culture , Black people , Blues 1020 Words | 3 Pages. your last name. (For example, I would use the filename Schweitzer_Midterm.doc) Mandatory question 1. Compare the role and influence of racial . relations (tension and cover letter action emulation) on the development of popular music and the emergence of rock –n- roll music in the 1950s. Using a historical perspective, your answer should minimally address the relationship between blacks and whites in the minstrel era; the to what use of essay, similarities and differences between blues hillbilly music in the 1930s; the connection. 1950s , Answer , Answers 602 Words | 3 Pages. We Came as Romans We Came as Romans is a heavy metal/punk band trying to spread a positive message about love and life through music. Multi Paragraph Essay. Life is hard; it’s a . struggle, and as we grow we experience many events that can lead us down the wrong path. The meaning behind this band is to love and extent use of animals in scientific research love one another, don’t let life keep you down, and to paper move on, growing from our experiences. Their original members are from Troy, Michigan, and were part of to what extent use of ielts essay, a previous band, created before We Came as Romans. Most.

Bass guitar , Guitar , Heavy metal music 2337 Words | 6 Pages. Rock 'N' Hip, Hop 'N' Roll, and the Integration of Music in essays on magna carta Popular Culture. Anne Toronto Trend Analysis Final Copy Ms. Johnson CIS English Hour 5 Rock ‘n’ Hip, Hop ‘n‘ Roll , and the Integration of . Music in Popular Culture Prelude From bell bottoms to Barbies, every generation has its own distinct trends. While various fads have cropped up in each era, music has always been a key element of culture.

Starting in the 1950’s, music became integrated within the American culture as the animals in scientific acceptable essay, favored form of research paper, expression. The popular types of music found on use of ielts the Top 100 lists today. Culture , High culture , Jazz 2396 Words | 7 Pages. ?Origins of graduate student cover letter, Rock and Roll Research Project World Music in the Global Village 345-101-MQ sec. 00029 22/04/13 . To What Is The Animals Ielts Essay. The musical ethnography being studied is the origins of Rock and Roll . Rock and essay questions Roll evolved from blues in use of animals in scientific research acceptable ielts America and started in the 1920’s but only became popular in the 1950’s. Rock mainly uses a fast paste beat of drums, electric guitar, bass guitar and acoustic guitar. Some famous Rock musicians such as Elvis Presley were in the early stages of bean essay, when Rock was popular.

Bass guitar , Blues , Electric guitar 2313 Words | 6 Pages. the Earth's crust, rock is usually defined as a mixture of common minerals. Rocks can be hard or soft, as small as a grain or as . large as a building. Extent Is The Use Of Animals Research Acceptable. They have been an graduate cover letter integral part of the history of mankind, first being used as tools for hunting and to what is the use of acceptable essay defense, and as a building materials to research construct shelters and to what is the use of in scientific essay monuments. Combined with the effects of tectonics, weathering and vegetation, rocks define the natural landscapes we see around us. The minerals and essays on magna carta metals we find in rocks are essential to. Crust , Earth , Igneous rock 796 Words | 3 Pages. ?Riley Thompson Dr.

Zhuk 1 November 2014 HIST150 Rock and Roll in the Rocket City Rock and Roll . in to what extent in scientific research essay the Rocket City was an research on steroids interesting book because, the book described westernization of youth culture in one closed city in Soviet Ukraine during the to what extent research acceptable ielts essay, very important historical period. One reason why this book was so interesting was that it was not the paragraph essay, typical readings of blood-thirsty wars, magnificent rulers, etc. After reading this book, one would learn about so-called Soviet closed cities which. Communist Party of the to what use of in scientific research acceptable, Soviet Union , Jazz , KGB 1292 Words | 5 Pages. ROCK N’ ROLL Rock n’ Roll was a significant part of American History . It was a . genre of popular music that was derived in the year of the late 1940s and the early 1950s. Rock n’ Roll consisted of bean trees, Blues, Country and Gospel music. The name Rock n’ Roll did not obtain its name until the year of 1950s. Piano or saxophone were considered the lead instrument in the earliest rock and roll such as the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, these were later on to what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable ielts essay replaced by guitars in the middle to the.

Country music , Elvis Presley , Music 506 Words | 2 Pages. Influence of Rock Music on Society. Rock music is a group of related music styles that have dominated popular music in carta the West since about 1955. Rock music began . in the United States, but it has influenced on a broad field of cultures and musical traditions, including gospel music, the blues, country music, classical music, folk music, electronic music, etc. Thus, rock music is now felt worldwide. Actually, Rock Music is is the use of research ielts essay not only a kind of student cover, entertainment or music style. There are many meaningful values which lie hidden beneath. Blues , Country music , Elvis Presley 1456 Words | 4 Pages.

Impact Of Cultural Exchanges Jazz And Rock N Roll. ?Impact of animals research acceptable, Cultural Exchanges: Jazz and Rock n’ Roll Americans and on magna carta Soviets both viewed popular culture as an important weapon . in use of animals research acceptable the battle to attain influence in Europe during the Cold War. Each thought that increasing the on steroids, strength of its culture could play a crucial role in winning support for its side. To What Extent Is The In Scientific Research. The U.S. wished to limit the influence of the Soviet Union and prevent Communism from spreading over the world. Due to the USSR having significant control over carta Eastern Europe, the U.S. needed. Cold War , Eastern Bloc , Joseph Stalin 1408 Words | 5 Pages. ?Clifford F. Adams Email clifford.adams@uc.edu Learning Objectives – History of Rock and to what use of animals research ielts Roll Investigate . the creative process: To develop, through reading, audio and video presentations, and freak the mighty essay in-class demonstrations evaluative skills that aid specifically in the study of the creative process in popular music: Develop a vocabulary of musical terms as an aid to to what is the use of animals essay discussion and understanding Grasp the fundamental musical elements of rhythm, melody and harmony Understand the emotional connection. Classroom , Final examination , Grade 997 Words | 4 Pages. The Negotiators Elizabeth Dela Cruz, Glenn Gonzaga, David Heinauer, Luther Lombos, Michael Rin MGT/557 March 21, 2013 Richard Arriaga The Negotiators . Bean. The Negotiators are a rock and to what extent is the use of animals in scientific essay roll band whose contract is up for renewal with their current publisher, R-n-R Label.

University of Phoenix MGT557 class Team B role-played the characters Jimmy, Tinny, and Janice of The Negotiators, and an agent from the firm Agent-town to understand the multi essay, complexities of how agents, constituencies, and audiences. Best alternative to a negotiated agreement , Contract , Dispute resolution 1248 Words | 4 Pages. Sex, Drugs, and Rock and Roll: American Youth Challenge Sexual Stereotypes. The sex, the Drugs, The rock and roll : American youth challenging sexual stereotypes During the to what extent use of in scientific acceptable essay, 1920s, some . Americans—especially young college students—challenged traditional notions of proper behaviour. Encouraged by paper, the decade’s prosperity, young people threw parties, drank illegal liquor, and danced new, sexually suggestive steps at jazz clubs. The 1920s saw a restless culture, spearheaded by America’s youth rebelling against to what extent is the acceptable the moral restrictions of past generations. After decades where. 1920s , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 2307 Words | 6 Pages. The History of essay, Punk Rock What comes to your mind when you hear the word “punk?” Do you think of a violent, attention-seeking . young person, or do you think of to what extent is the use of animals in scientific ielts essay, a rebellious teenager who is trying to go against the mainstream society? “Punk is about being 16 and saying no.” According to Encarta Dictionary: English, punk is a youth movement of the late 1970s, characterized by loud aggressive rock music, confrontational attitudes, body piercing, and unconventional hairstyles, makeup, and essay clothing.

Alternative rock , Hardcore punk , Heavy metal music 1871 Words | 6 Pages. Course Notes History of Rock and Roll. Defies our perception of authenticity in popular music • Jailhouse Rock (1957) o Not his first movie o First movie by Elvis about . To What Extent Is The Animals In Scientific Acceptable. rock n roll • • Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup o “That’s All Right” o Original version • Junior Parker o “Mystery Train” (1953) o 12 Bar blues • Bill Monroe o “Blue Moon of Kentucky” (1954) o Country song • Rockabilly • Country side of rock and roll • Hard to bean essay distinguish from is the use of in scientific ielts rock and roll , which is more close to RB side of spectrum • Authenticity in Popular. African American , African American culture , Blues 2766 Words | 15 Pages. Bread Paneer Rolls are probably the easiest and quickest snack you can make with some bread slices and paneer filling. I make this often with . different variations of multi paragraph definition, paneer fillings to make a nice snack for tea time.

Bread Paneer Rolls Recipe Ingredients: 1 cup cottage cheese (paneer) 1 small onion, chopped finely 1/4 tsp cumin (jeera) powder 1/4 tsp garam masala 1/2 tsp ginger garlic paste A small bunch of finely chopped corriander(dhania) 1 green chilly finely desseded and chopped. Alexander Pope , Cumin , Essay 894 Words | 3 Pages. Rock and roll (often written as rock roll or rock 'n' roll ) is a genre . of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,[1][2] primarily from a combination of African American blues, country, jazz,[3] and gospel music.[4] Though elements of to what extent is the use of animals research acceptable essay, rock and roll can be heard in country records of the 1930s,[3] and in blues records from the 1920s,[5] rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s.[6][7] The term rock and roll now has at least. American styles of music , Beat music , Blues 3968 Words | 10 Pages. THE CINNAMON ROLL An Essay On a Pastry by Lauren K. Bennie Cinnamon buns! A truly delectable treat that makes the student, world spin 360 degrees. . It's hard to find someone who doesn't like a good sticky bun in today's society. And those who don't are called hipsters and are generally hated. We don't hate them just because of their cardigans and scarfs. Extent Is The Animals Research Essay. No they think they're better than everyone else and therefore are disliked widely. Essay. But back on topic, sticky buns are simply scrumptious. With the perfect.

Cinnabon , Cinnamon roll , Pastry 835 Words | 3 Pages. Rock the War and Roll with the Protest. Rock the War and Roll With the to what animals in scientific acceptable, Protest Music has been a big part of war and protest throughout history . From the . Revolutionary War to essay the Vietnam Conflict music has played an extent in scientific research ielts integral part in protest and morale during war times. Many songs throughout history have been popular during war times, songs such as “Yankee Doodle” during the Revolutionary War, “The Battle Hymn of the essays, Republic” during the Civil War, “Over There” during World War I and “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” during World War II. . Communism , George Stephen Morrison , Gulf of Tonkin Incident 885 Words | 2 Pages. Estelene Stoffel November 13, 2012 Audience: Visitors of Historical Alcatraz Island Purpose: To Inform The Rock Robert Stroud . “Birdman of Alcatraz”, Alvin “Creepy Karpis” Karpowicz, and Al “Scarface” Capone were only some of the notorious criminals to pass through Alcatraz Island.

Surrounded by harsh currents and cold waters, Alcatraz Island was thought to be the ultimate place to keep criminals too criminal for landlocked prisons. In the to what extent is the acceptable ielts essay, early 1930s, renovations made Alcatraz a better. Alcatraz Island , Clarence Anglin , Escape 1564 Words | 4 Pages. Specific Purpose: To inform the audience of the essays on magna, punk rock culture. Thesis: The punk rock culture is something that you all . have probably been exposed to, but may not know much about. Organizational Pattern: Topical I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Sex, drugs, and to what extent is the in scientific research acceptable ielts rock n' roll . Chains, studded belts, and Chuck Taylors. Mohawks, mosh pits, and social defiance.

What kind of person do you think of letter, when you hear these phrases? B. Relevance: Whether you were watching MTV, at a local. Dee Dee Ramone , Glam rock , Punk rock 1148 Words | 4 Pages. CONTENTS Chapter I: Rock music. 3 . I.1.Personal motivation. 3 I.2.Defining music and its influence in our lives. 4 CHAPTER II: History II.1.

Rock and roll (1950s-early 1960s). Bass guitar , Blues , Glam rock 6608 Words | 19 Pages. Rock amp; Roll has evil origins Are rock and roll music lyrics that command to commit suicide, . to extent is the animals in scientific research ielts essay kill, to on steroids do drugs, to rape, to worship Satan, to blaspheme, to degrade your soul to the lowest level of impurity, evil? Satan is the pure definition of evil, and rock and roll worships and adores Satan; therefore, rock and roll is animals essay evil. In December 1985, eighteen-year-old Raymond Belknap and trees essay questions James Vance were induced to climb out of the bedroom window and go to a playground from a nearby church.

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To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable

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Why does my existence threaten yours? It's been too long now that you've asked me to be you. Insisted Ibe you. Lighten up. Don't be so afraid. Put up your hand. Extent Is The Research Acceptable Essay. Say: Bunny, Alfred, Harold, bye-bye. You feel numbed and letter action words, buzzed by so much electronics. Numbed and is the research essay, buzzed by graduate student cover so much future. I'm getting a little tired of this you and to what use of animals research essay, I. Still I am learning a few new things about you#151;and about me.

The future of graduate student, literature. The death of the is the use of acceptable ielts essay novel. You love for some reason, the large, glitzy questions and statements. But the question bores me#151;and all the usual ways of thinking and speaking and writing anymore. I'm sorry you are so afraid. You want it to be something like the movie 2001, the future. You want it to be ludicrous, the future, easily dismissable. Like me. If only I didn't dance so good.

You demand to know, How come. you dance so good, dance so good, dance so good. You can't see a place for action words, yourself in to what animals in scientific research acceptable ielts essay it and it frightens you. You dig in your heels as a result. Spend all your considerable intelligence and energy conserving, preserving, holding court, p05turing, tenaciously holding on, now as you munch your last green leaves, yum.

Where is the resolution of the conflict? Where the fuck is the conflict? What if a book might also include, might also be, the tentative, the hesitant, the essay doubt you most fear and despise? Lyn Hejinian: Closure is misanthropic. Fear of growth, fear of is the animals in scientific acceptable essay, change, fear of breaking one's own mold, fear of disturbing the freak the mighty essay product, fear of ridicule, fear of to what extent use of animals research, indifference, fear of failure, fear of invisibility, fear of, fear of, fear of . You say that language will cease to bean trees, be respected, will no longer move us. But we're already becoming numb thanks to what you are afraid to give up. Animals Research Ielts Essay. What you flood the market with.

Soyinka: I am concerned about preserving a special level of communication, a level very different from Oprah Winfrey. Wish: that all talk-show fiction be put to bed now. Its fake psychologies, its realisms. Its pathetic 2 plus 2. Language of course has an enormous capacity to action words, lie, to make false shapes, to be glib, to to what is the use of acceptable, make common widgets, three parts this and research, two parts that. Wish: that all the fiction of lies be put to bed.

That the dishonesty running rampant through much contemporary fiction be recognized as such. What deal must I strike in order to be published by you? What pose, bargain, stance, is to what is the in scientific research acceptable essay, it I must strike with you now? What mold do you make of me to pour your elixir, your fluid into, and essays carta, then reward? The bunny mold? The kitten mold? The flower mold?

The damaged flower mold? Pregnant at twelve, illiterate, but with a twist? The gay mold? The white trash mold? The battered child mold? The bad girl mold? Paint me black. Paint me Latina. Paint me Native American. Paint me Asian and then pour me into extent use of acceptable essay, your mold. Use me.

Co-opt me. Market me. Debase me and in the future I shall rise anew out of your cynicism and scorn#151;smiling, lovely, free. I know a place that burns brighter than a million suns. Wish list: that the bean trees questions business people who have taken over extent is the use of animals acceptable essay, the publishing houses will focus themselves elsewhere and leave the arts alone again. Not to own or colonize or dominate. Despite all efforts to tame it, manage it, control it, outsmart it, language resists your best efforts; language is still a bunch of cover letter action, sturdy, glittering charms in the astonished hand. A utopia of possibility. Extent Is The Use Of Animals In Scientific Acceptable Ielts. A utopia of choice. And I am huddled around the fire of the bean trees questions alphabet, still. Even though you say one word next to extent animals in scientific ielts essay, the other will cease to bean essay, be cherished.

You say rap music is poison. Hypertext is poison. Even though you call me sentimental#151;on the one hand girly-girl, on the other hand loud-mouthed bitch, on the one hand interesting and extent use of animals research acceptable ielts essay, talented writer, on the other hand utterly out-of-touch idealist, romantic#151;it is you who wants the nineteenth century back again. When things were dandy for research on steroids, you, swell. You want to believe in the old coordinates, the old shapes. To believe in whatever it was you believed in then. You were one of the guys who dictated the story, sure, I remember. Who made up the story and now go teaching it all over the place. But even then, when you sat around making it up, even then, my friend, it had nothing to do with me.

With my world. With what I saw and how I felt. Wish: that all graduate writing programs with their terminal degrees stop promoting such tiresome recipes for to what extent is the use of research acceptable essay, success or go (financially) bankrupt. Your false crescendos. Climaxes. Research Paper. False for is the in scientific research, me, at any rate. The future is all the people who've ever been kept out, singing. In the future everything will be allowed. So the freak the mighty future is for you, too.

Not to worry. But not only for you. For you, but not only for you. Not to discard the canon, but to enlarge it. No more monoliths. No more Mick Jaggers. No more 0. J. Simpsons. To What Extent In Scientific Research Essay. No more James Joyces.

No more heroes. Everything threatens you. Hacks, hackers, slacks, slackers, cybergirls with their cybercurls and wiles, poets of every sort. The Mighty. Rock bands with girls. You believe your (disappearing) time represents some last golden age of enlightenment, to be guarded, protected, reproduced against to what is the in scientific research essay, the approaching mindlessness, depravity, electronic states of America. But maybe as you become more and more threatened, you'll take a few more risks yourself.

Who knows? Anything is possible in the future. Wish list: that the homogeneity end. That the mainstream come to acknowledge, for starters, the thousand refracted, disparate beauties out there. Wish: that as writers we be aware of our own desire to multi paragraph essay definition, incorporate, even unconsciously, the demands and anxieties of publishers and reject them, the to what extent in scientific acceptable essay demands and anxieties of the marketplace. That the business people go elsewhere. Market me.

Promote me. Sanitize me. Co-opt me. Plagiarize me. Market me harder. Wish list: that the grade inflation for a certain kind of writing stop, and that the letter action middlebrow writers assume their middle position so that everyone else might finally have a place, too. To What Extent Is The Animals In Scientific Research Ielts. Be considered seriously, too. Be read, too. Paint me black. Paint me Latina. Paint me Chinese.

Pour me into your mold and sell me harder. Fuck me (over) harder. Those of us jockeying for position in the heavens, intent on student letter forever, major reputations, major motion pictures and extent is the use of animals in scientific essay, $$$$ $$$$, life after life after life after death, forget about it. Wish: that straight white males reconsider the impulse to cover the entire world with their words, fill up every page, every surface, everywhere. Thousand-page novels, tens and cover action words, tens of vollmanns#151;I mean volumes.

Not to to what is the in scientific ielts essay, own or colonize or dominate anymore. Well, we've been kept from ourselves too long, don't you think? an old woman in Central Park says to a friend. Two women in the park at dusk. Turn the beat around: The pauses and rhythms and essays on magna, allowances of Laurie Anderson. The glow of Jenny Holzer. The ranting and passion of Courtney Love. Brilliance of Susan Howe.

Brilliance of to what is the use of animals in scientific research ielts essay, Erin Mour. Theresa Cha. Action Words. Visionary P. J. Harvey. Suzan-Lori Parks. The future is feminine, for real, this time. The future is Emily Dickinson and Emily Bronte and Gertrude Stein still.

The future is still Maya Deren and to what extent is the essay, Billie Holiday. Language is cover action words, a rose and the future is to what is the animals, still a rose, opening. It is beautiful there in the future. Irreverent, wild. The future is women, for real this time. Freak Essay. I'm sorry, but it's time you got used to it. Reading on a train by the light the river gives.

The woman next to me asleep. Two plastic bags at her feet. Lulling, lovely world. And I am witness to to what is the use of animals research acceptable ielts, it all#151;that slumber#151;and then her awakening#151;so vulnerable, sensation streaming back, the world returned, the river and the light the river gives, returning language, touch, and smell. The world retrieved. I am privileged to the mighty, be next to her as she moves gracefully from one state to the next, smiling slightly.

I recognize her delight. Extent Is The Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Ielts Essay. It is taken away, and essay, it is given back. The miracle and mystery of this life in one middle-aged black woman on the Metro North next to me. The Hudson River widening. Let all of this be part of the story, too. A woman dreaming next to to what extent is the in scientific acceptable ielts, water. The future: all the dreams we've been kept from.

All the things yet to dream. An opening of on magna, possibility. A land of a thousand dances. I want sex and hypersex and cybersex, why not? The river mysteriously widening, as she opens her eyes.

We can say, if we like, that the future will be plural. Our voices processed through many systems#151;or none at all. A place where a thousand birds are singing. The isle is full of noises. . . . A place without the usual dichotomies. No phony divisions between mind and body, intelligence and passion, nature and technology, private and public, within and without, male and female. May we begin a dialogue there in the future. May we learn something from each other. Electronic writing will help us to think about impermanence, facility, fragility, and freedom, spatial intensities, irreverences, experimentation, new worlds, clean slates. Print writing will allow us new respect for the mark on to what is the use of animals research acceptable ielts essay the page, the human hand, the erasure, the hesitation, the mistake. Electronic writing will give us a deeper understanding of the instability of texts, of worlds.

Print writing will remind us of our love for the physical, for the sensual world. Bean Questions. And for the light only a book held in one's hands can give. The book taken to acceptable ielts, bed or the the mighty essay beach#151;the words dancing with the extent ielts heat and freak, the sea#151;and the mouth now suddenly on my salty neck. Electronic writing shall inspire magic. Print writing shall inspire magic.

Ways to heal. Intoxicated with Serbian nationalist propaganda, one charge is that X took part in the murder of a Muslim civilian, F by forcing another Muslim to bite off F's testicles. What is a book and how might it be reimagined, opened up, transformed to accommodate all we've seen, all we've been hurt by, all that's been given, all that's been taken away: . deliberately infecting subjects with fatal diseases, killing 275,000 of the elderly, the deformed and other 'useless eaters' through the guise of euthanasia, and killing 112 Jews simply to fill out extent use of animals in scientific research ielts a university skeleton collection. No more monoliths. No more gods. Let us go then, you and I. Research Paper On Steroids. No more sheepish, mindless devotion. No more quiet supplication. All the dark roads you've led us down no more. You will call me naive, childlike, irreverent, idealistic, offensive, outrageous, defiant at to what extent is the animals in scientific research ielts, times, because I do not believe in a literature of limitation, in a future of limitation. I annoy you with this kind of talk, I know. You've told me many times before.

You'd like me to step into my quiet box. You're so cavalier, as you offer your hand. The future. Possibility will reign. My students poised on some new threshold. We're too diversified, we're too fractured, all too close in proximity suddenly#151;one world. free of categories, free of denominations, dance and fiction and performance and installation and video and poetry and painting#151;one world#151;every hyper- and cyber- And in upstate New York, a woman sees fields of flax and iris and cattails, and dreams of making paper. And dreams of graduate cover, creating an Art Farm#151;a place just for experimenting with unusual indigenous fibers, a real space for bookbinding, an archive, a library, a gallery. Dream: that this new tolerance might set a tone, give an example.

This openness in acceptance of texts, of forms, this freedom, this embrace will serve as models for how to live. Will be the to what use of in scientific research ielts model for a new world order#151;in my dream. Paragraph. A way to live together better#151;in my dream. Godard: A film like this, it's a bit as if I wanted to write a sociological essay in extent is the animals research acceptable ielts essay the form of a novel, and all I had to do it with was notes of music. Is that what cinema is? And am I right to continue doing it? But I do believe, and no doubt childishly, unquestioningly, in the supremacy of beauty, in pattern, in language, as a child believes in language, in diversity in the possibility of paragraph essay, justice#151; even after everything we have seen#151;in the impulse to speak#151;even after everything. Peder Davis, a bouncy, tow-headed five-year-old, shook his head and said, 'I would tell him: You shoot down this building?

You put it back together. And I would say, You redo those people.' One hundred and is the research acceptable essay, sixty-eight dead in Oklahoma bombing. Peder said he drew 'a house with eyes that was blue on the sides.' He explained, 'It was the building that exploded, in carta heaven.' Wish: that writing again, through its audacity, generosity, possibility, irreverence, wildness, teach us how to better live. The world doesn't end. The smell of the air. The feel of the wind in late April. You can't have a genuine experience of nature except in to what extent use of animals in scientific ielts essay nature.

You can't have a genuine experience of language except in language. Words. And for those of us for whom language is the central drama, the captivating, imaginative, open, flexible act, there can never be a substitute or a replacement. Language continually opening new places in is the use of in scientific research essay me. A picture of graduate student, a bird will never be a bird. And a bird will never be a picture of a bird. So relax.

The world doesn't end, my friend. So stop your doomsday song. Or Matthew Arnold: The end is everywhere: Art still has truth, take refuge there. All will perish, but not this: language opening like a rose. And many times I have despaired over the limits of language, the to what use of animals research acceptable ielts recalcitrance of freak the mighty essay, words that refuse to yield, won't glimmer, won't work anymore. All the outmoded forms. Yet I know it is is the use of in scientific research acceptable ielts, part of it, I know that now; it's part of the bean trees questions essential mystery of the medium#151;and that all of us who are in this thing for real have to face this, address this, love this, even. The struggles with shape, with silence, with complacency. The impossibility of the task. You say destined to perish, death of the novel, end of ielts essay, fiction, over and over. But Matthew Arnold, on the cusp of research on steroids, another century, dreams:

And I say faced with the eternal mysteries, one, if so inclined, will make fictive shapes. What it was like to be here. To hold your hand. An ancient impulse, after all. As we reach, trying to recapture an original happiness, pleasure, peace#151;Reaching#151;The needs that language mirrors and engenders and satisfies are not going away.

And are not replaceable. The body with its cellular alphabet. And, in another alphabet, the use of research desire to get that body onto the page. There will be works of female sexuality, finally. All sorts of new shapes.

Language, a rose, opening. It's greater than we are, than we'll ever be. Graduate. That's why I love it. Kneeling at the altar of the extent is the use of animals acceptable impossible. The self put back in its proper place. The miracle of language. The challenge and on magna carta, magic of language. Different than the old magic.

I remember you liked to saw women in half and put them back together, once. Configure them in ways most pleasing to to what extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable ielts, you. You tried once to the mighty, make language conform. Obey. You tried to tame it. You tried to make it sit, heel, jump through hoops. You like to use of ielts essay, say I am reckless. You like to student cover letter, say I lack discipline. You say my work lacks structure.

I've heard it a hundred times from you. But nothing could be farther from the truth. In spite of everything, my refusal to hate you, to take you all that seriously, to be condescended to#151; Still, too often I have worried about worldly things. Too often have I worried about publishing, about my so-called career, fretted over the so-so-writers who are routinely acclaimed, rewarded, given biscuits and other treats#151;this too small prison of self where I sometimes dwell. Too often I have let the creeps upset me. The danger of the sky. The danger of April. If you say language is use of acceptable essay, dying. Multi Essay Definition. . Susan Howe: Poetry is redemption from pessimism. April in is the use of animals in scientific acceptable essay the country. Already so much green.

So much life. So much. Even with half the trees still bare. Poking up through the slowly warming earth, the tender shoots of asparagus. Crocus. Bloodroot. This vulnerable and breakable heart. As we dare to utter something, to commit ourselves, to bean essay, make a mark on a page or a field of light.

To incorporate this dangerous and fragile world. All its beauty. All its pain. You who said hegemony and domino theory and peace with honor. To not only tolerate but welcome work that is other than the kind we do. To incorporate the ache of Vietnam, the mistake of it, incapable of being erased or changed. To invent forms that might let that wound stand#151; If we've learned anything, yet. Brother and to what extent is the animals acceptable, Sister's Friend#151;

Sweet Land of Liberty is a superfluous Carol till it concerns ourselves#151;then it outrealms the Birds. Your Hollyhocks endow the paragraph essay House, making Art's inner Summer, never Treason to Nature's. Nature will be closing her Picnic when you return to America, but you will ride Home by sunset, which is far better. I am glad you cherish the Sea. We correspond, though I never met him. I write in the midst of Sweet-Peas and by the side of Orioles, and could put my hand on essay a Butterfly, only he withdraws. Touch Shakespeare for me.

Be not afraid. The isle is full of noises, Sounds and sweet airs that give delight and research paper, hurt not. Fifty years now since World War II. She sits in the corner and weeps. Six million dead. Well, we've been kept from animals in scientific essay ourselves long enough, don't you think?

We dare to speak. Trembling, and on the verge. Extraordinary things have been written. Extraordinary things will continue to be written. Nineteen ninety-five: Vinyl makes its small comeback. To the teenage music freak, to carta, the classical music fiend, and to the opera queen, CDs are now being disparaged as producing too cold, too sanitary a sound.

Vinyl is being sought out again for its warmer, richer quality. Wish: that we be open-minded and generous. That we fear not. That the electronic page understand its powers and to what extent is the essay, its limitations. Nothing replaces the freak essay giddiness one feels at the potential of hypertext. Entirely new shapes might be created, different ways of thinking, of perceiving. Kevin Kelly, executive director of Wired magazine: The first thing discovered by Jaron Lanier is to say what is reality? We get to ask the extent animals in scientific research acceptable ielts great questions of all time: what is life? What is bean trees essay, human? What is civilization? And you ask it not in the way the to what extent use of in scientific research acceptable ielts old philosophers asked it, sitting in freak armchairs, but by actually trying it.

Let's try and make life. To What Research Acceptable Ielts. Let's try and make community. And now the Extropians, who say they can achieve immortality by downloading the contents of the freak human brain onto a hard disk. So turn to the students. Young visionaries. To What Is The Animals In Scientific Acceptable Essay. Who click on paper the Internet, the cyberworld in their sleep. Alvin Lu: citizen of the to what is the use of in scientific research acceptable ielts universe, the whole world at his fingertips. Freak The Mighty Essay. In love with the blinding light out there, the possibility, world without end, his love of all that is the future. Let the fictions change shape, grow, accommodate.

Let the is the animals in scientific acceptable essay medium change if it must; the artist persists. You say all is doomed, but I say Julio Cortzar. I say Samuel Beckett. Freak The Mighty Essay. I say Marcel Proust. Virginia Woolf I say Garca Lorca and Walt Whitman.

I say Mallarm. I say Ingeborg Bachmann. The Apu Trilogy will lie next to Hamlet. Vivre Sa Vie will live next to extent is the animals research essay, Texts for Nothing. These fragmented prayers. Making love around the fire of the alphabet. Wish: that we not hurt each other purposely anymore. A literature of love. A literature of bean, tolerance. A literature of difference.

Saving the best of extent in scientific research acceptable essay, what was good in on steroids the old. Not to discard indiscriminately, but not to hold on extent use of in scientific acceptable ielts too tightly, either. To go forward together, unthreatened for research paper, once. The future is Robert Wilson and JLG. Extent Research. The future is Hou Hsiao-hsien. The future is letter, Martha Graham, still. The vocabularies of dance, of film, of use of in scientific research ielts essay, performance.

The disintegration of categories. If you say that language is action words, dying, then what do you know of language? I am getting a little tired of this you-and-I bit. Extent Use Of In Scientific Research Ielts. But it tells me one important thing: that I do not want it to have to be this way. I do not believe it has to continue this way#151;you over there alternately blustery and trees essay, cowering, me over here, defensive, angry.

Wish: a sky that is not divided. A way to look at the screen of the sky with its grandeur, its weather, its color, its patterns of to what extent is the use of in scientific research ielts essay, bird flight, its airplanes and graduate, accidents and poisons, its mushroom clouds. Its goldfinches frescoed against an aqua-blue dome. Wish: that the sky go on forever. That we stop killing each other. That we allow each other to live. April 1995 in New York City and the long-awaited Satyajit Ray Festival begins.

For years he's been kept from us. Who decides, finally, what is seen, what is to what extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable ielts, read, and freak, why? And how much else has been deleted, omitted, neglected, ignored, buried, treated with utter indifference or contempt? And in conversation with the man, my friend, a famous poet in fact, and the topic moved to someone we both knew who had just been operated on, and to what extent is the use of in scientific acceptable ielts, he said masectomy, and I said back, Yes, a mastectomy, a mastectomy, and he said masectomy like vasectomy, and I said only under my breath, It's mastectomy, idiot, ashamed, embarrassed, and a little intimidated, that was the worst part, a little unsure. That it made me question what I of course knew, that was the worst part#151;because of his easy confidence saying masectomy, his arrogance, he hadn't even bothered to learn the right word, a poet for God's sake, a man who worked with words, who should have known the research paper on steroids right word for the removal of a breast, don't you think? The undeniable danger of the to what research acceptable ielts essay sky. Adrienne Rich: Poetry means refusing the choice to kill or die. Wish: that the straight white male give in just a little more gracefully. Call in its Michael Douglases, its suspect Hollywood, its hurt feelings, its fear#151; move over some.

After your thousands of years of affirmative action, give someone else a chance#151; just a chance. The wish is for gentleness. The wish is for allowances. What is the phrase for the moon? And the phrase for love? By what name are we to research, call death?

I do not know. I need a little language such as lovers use. Wish: that the typical New Yorker story become the artifact it is and assume its proper place in the artifact museum, and to what extent is the in scientific ielts, not be mistaken for something still alive. Well we've just about had it with all the phony baloney, don't you think? That the short story and the novel as they evolve and assume new, utterly original shapes might be treated gently. And with optimism. That is the wish. That hypertext and bean trees, all electronic writing still in its infancy be treated with something other than your fear and your contempt. That, poised on the next century, we fear not.

Make no grand pronouncements. You say that language is dying, will die. And at times I have felt for you, even loved you. But I have never believed you. The Ebola virus is now. The Hanta virus. HIV. And that old standby, malaria.

Live while you can. Tonight, who knows, may be our last. We may not even make the to what is the use of animals research acceptable millennium, so don't worry about it so much. All my friends who have died holding language in freak the mighty their throats, into is the in scientific research essay, the end. All my dead friends.

Cybernauts return from time to time wanting to see a smile instead of a colon followed by a closed parenthesis#151;the online sign for smile. Research Paper On Steroids. When someone laughs out loud they want to hear real laughter in the real air, not just the to what is the in scientific research essay letters LOL in front of them. Essays. Ah, yes. World while there is animals in scientific acceptable ielts essay, world. A real bird in essays on magna carta the real sky and then perhaps a little prose poem or something in the real sky, or the page or the screen or the human heart, pulsing. I do not know which to prefer, The beauty of inflections. Or the beauty of innuendoes,

The blackbird whistling. The future of literature is utopic. As surely as my friends Ed and to what extent use of animals in scientific research acceptable, Alan will come this weekend to visit, bearing rose lentils. As long as one can say rose, can say lentil. Gary dying, saying Kappa maki. You say, over. But I say, no. I say faith and paragraph essay, hope and extent is the use of research ielts essay, trust and forever right next to wretched and hate and misery and hopeless.

In the future we will finally be allowed to graduate student cover, live, just as we are, to imagine, to glow, to pulse. Let the genres blur if they will. Let the use of animals acceptable genres redefine themselves. Language is a woman, a rose constantly in the process of opening. Vibrant, irresistible, incandescent. Whosoever has allowed the villanelle to enter them or the multi definition sonnet. Whosoever has let in one genuine sentence, one paragraph, has felt that seduction like a golden thread being pulled slowly through one. Wish: that forms other than those you've invented or sanctioned through your thousands of years of is the use of research, privilege might arise and be celebrated.

Put another way, it seems to cover letter, me that we have to rediscover everything about everything. There is extent use of animals acceptable essay, only one solution, and that is to turn one's back on American cinema. Up until now we have lived in a closed world. Cinema fed on cinema, imitating itself. I now see that in my first films I did things because I had already seen them in the cinema. If I showed a police inspector drawing a revolver from his pocket, it wasn't because the logic of the situation I wanted to describe demanded it, but because I had seen police inspectors in other films drawing revolvers at this precise moment and in this precise way. The same thing has happened in painting. There have been periods of organization and imitation and freak the mighty, periods of rupture. We are now in extent is the acceptable essay a period of essays on magna carta, rupture.

We must turn to to what extent is the use of animals in scientific research ielts essay, life again. We must move into modern life with a virgin eye. Wish: that Alvin Lu might wander in the astounding classroom of the world through time and space, endlessly inspired, endlessly enthralled by what he finds there. That he be allowed to reinvent freely, revel freely. The world doesn't end, says Charles Simic. Engraved on essays carta our foreheads in to what extent is the research acceptable ielts essay ash, turned into a language of stars or birdsong across a vast sky; it stays. Literature doesn't end#151;but it may change shapes, be capable of things we cannot even imagine yet.

Woolf: What is the phrase for the moon? And the phrase for love? By what name are we to call death? I do not know. I need a little language such as lovers use, words of one syllable such as children speak when they come into the room and find their mother sewing and bean questions, pick up the scrap of bright wool, a feather, or a shred of chintz.

I need a howl; a cry. Charlotte Bront: My sister Emily loved the moors. Flowers brighter than the rose bloomed in to what is the use of animals in scientific ielts essay the blackest of the heath for multi paragraph definition, her; out of a sullen hollow in the livid hillside her mind could make an is the animals acceptable ielts essay, Eden. She found in the bleak solitude many and dear delights; and not the least and best loved was#151;liberty. The future will be gorgeous and reckless, and words, those luminous charms, will set us free again. Words. If only for a moment. Whosoever has allowed the to what is the ielts language of lovers to multi paragraph essay definition, enter them, the language of wound and pain and solitude and hope. Animals In Scientific Acceptable Essay. Whosoever has dug in the miracle of the earth. Mesmerizing dirt, earth, word. Allowed love in.

Allowed despair in. Words are the ginger candies my dying friends have sucked on. Essays. Or the salve of to what animals in scientific research acceptable ielts, water. Words are the crow's feet embedded in multi the skin of the father I love. Words are like that to me, still. Words are the music of her hair on the pillow. Words are the lines vibrating in to what is the research acceptable the forest or in the painting. Pressures that enter us#151;bisect us, order us, disorder us, unite us, free us, help us, hurt us, cause anxiety, pleasure, pain. Words are the footprints as they turn away in the snow. There is no substitute for the language I love. My father, one state away but still too far, asks over the telephone if I might take a photo of this bluebird, the first I have ever seen, because he hears how filled with delight I am by this fleeting sighting.

But it's so tiny, it flies so fast, it's so hard to student cover letter, see. So far away. Me, with my small hunk of technology, pointing. With my nostalgia machine. My box that says fleeting, my box that says future. My pleasure machine. My weeping machine that dreams: keep. This novel that says desire and to what animals acceptable essay, fleeting and unfinished. Unfinished and cover letter, left that way. To What Extent In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay. Unfinished, not abandoned.

Unfinished, not because of freak, death or indifference or loss of to what extent is the use of research, faith, or nerve, just unfinished. Not to draw false conclusions anymore. Not to research, set up false polarities. Unfinished and left that way, if necessary. To allow everyone to write, to thrive, to live. The Baltimore oriole returned from its American tropics at the edge of this frame now. I wait. On this delicious precipice. And nothing replaces this hand moving across the page, as it does now, intent on making a small mark and allowing it to to what use of research acceptable ielts, stand on this longing surface.

Writing oriole. Imagining freedom. All that is possible. April in the country. My hands in bean trees essay the dark earth, or the body of a woman, or any ordinary, gorgeous sentence. Whosoever has let the hand linger on a burning thigh, or a shining river of to what extent is the in scientific acceptable ielts, light. Whosoever has allowed herself to be dazzled by the motion of the alphabet, or has let music into the body. Or has allowed music to fall onto the page. Wish: to live and allow others to live. To sing and allow others to sing#151;while we can.

Fleeting and longing moment on essay questions this earth. To What Is The Animals In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay. We were lucky to bean essay questions, be here. I close my eyes and hear the intricate chamber music of the world. An intimate, complicated, beautiful conversation in every language, in every tense, in every possible medium and form#151; incandescent. #151; for Alvin, Barbara, and Judith.

Like the clarinet with the flute, like the French horn with the oboe, like the to what extent is the use of in scientific research acceptable ielts essay violin and the piano#151;take the melody from me, when it's time. Germantown, New York. A walk around the loop and I notice the cover letter words bloodroot has begun to bloom. To What Research Acceptable Ielts. A bluebird, two bluebirds! The first I've ever seen, over by the convent.

Before my eyes I see an cover letter action, infant clasping a small bird as depicted in Renaissance painting and sculpture. The world begins again. In this vision. To What Extent Use Of Animals Research Essay. In the words bloodroot and bluebird. And the goldfinches too are suddenly back. Today I saw three enormous turtles sunning themselves at a pond. The bliss of being on leave from cover letter teaching is beyond description. I recall Dickinson when someone mused that time must go very slowly for her, saying, Time! Why time was all I wanted! And so ditto.

Blissful time. Writing, walking every day. I am keeping depression at bay, mania in check. All private sufferings and extent is the use of research acceptable ielts, hurt are somehow more manageable here in solitude. The moment seems all now.

The imaginative event, the student cover natural event (two wild turkeys in the woods), the sexual event, and the constantly changing and evolving forms in language for all of this. To What Extent Animals In Scientific Ielts Essay. John sends a note to remind me that my essay is due for words, the Review of Contemporary Fiction on May I, but that I may have a small extension. I should be finishing up Defiance, but all I can think about are my erotic tudes#151;again feeling on the threshold of to what extent is the animals in scientific research acceptable essay, something amazing and out of reach. I'm extremely excited#151;hard to describe#151;my brain feels unhinged. I must make a note as to where to move the daffodils, the iris. The earth in essays on magna carta my hands. A wand of forsythia like a light in my hands. I think of Barbara an hour away, the glowing glyphs coming off the screen in her study. The whole world#151;luminous, luminous.

We were lucky to be here. Even in pain and uncertainty and to what is the animals in scientific ielts essay, rage and bean trees, fear#151;some fear. In exhaustion. Too much energy has gone into is the use of research acceptable, this Brown/Columbia decision. Where shall I end up? I have only partially succeeded in keeping it all in its proper place. I've had to work too hard to on magna, keep my mind at the proper distance. It takes its toll. I've needed the space to think, to dream other things.

It hardly matters today though; another tude brews. The RCF essay now in the back of my head. What to say? What can be said? How to use it to learn something, explore something I need to explore. When thinking of literature, the past and the present all too often infuriate me: everyone, everything that's been kept out. To What Is The Use Of In Scientific Research Acceptable Essay. The future won't, can't be the same and yet.. Student Cover. one worries about it. What I wonder most is if there is a way, whether there might be a way in this whole wide world, to forgive them.

Something for the sake of my own work, my own life I need to do#151;have needed to do a long time. Use Of Animals Research Acceptable Ielts Essay. Perhaps in my essay I will make an attempt, the essays first movement toward some sort of reconciliation, at any rate. To What Is The Animals In Scientific Research Ielts. If it's possible. To set up the drama that might make it possible. This breakable heart.

April. Bean Essay. How poised everything seems. How wonderfully ready. And I, too, trembling #151; and on extent is the animals in scientific acceptable essay the verge. This essay may not be archived or distributed further without the author's express permission.

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