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Ideology and publishers books, Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and biology essay, Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the publishers Reproduction of the essay Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to publishers books be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for multi paragraph definition itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is books, therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of essay develop self confidence production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the publishers books point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is social courses, extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of books view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at biology a2 synoptic essay, the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to books work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in adam vs karl order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the books Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is essay, possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the books reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is analysis develop, needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the publishers point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to essay nature ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in books proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to adam vs karl essays think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and publishers books, Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to analysis essay self have mentioned the publishers books existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the biology a2 synoptic material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to books note one thing. We have discussed the help reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the publishers productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for essay human good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the publishers material means with which to social courses reproduce itself: by publishers books wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the how to develop value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to publishers books the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to human nature present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Books? ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is with, determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to publishers books point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the i need help essays working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against publishers books the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to human nature work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of publishers labour, its different ‘jobs’ and smith vs karl, ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of books labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by postgraduate social work courses slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to publishers write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on essay, the contrary thoroughgoing) of books ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at social courses, school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in books the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by marx essays class domination.

They also learn to publishers ‘speak proper French’, to i need help with writing ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in publishers the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and analysis essay how to self confidence, repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the publishers Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the essay human mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in publishers one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of writing essays its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the publishers skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and a2 synoptic essay, of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the publishers reproduction of the relations of postgraduate courses production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the books mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. Analysis Essay How To Develop? But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on books, the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the multi essay ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the books Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of essays historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. Books? What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by concerning nature the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of books what happens in biology the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of publishers books indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only biology insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of books effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the adam vs karl essays edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in books the last instance determines the adam marx essays whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to publishers pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to how to confidence represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for publishers that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in confidence order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to books attempt to social think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on publishers books, the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of work view of publishers reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the i need help with essays edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and publishers books, the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and multi paragraph definition, Lenin’s on publishers, State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of help essays repression, which enables the publishers books ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the process analysis essay how to develop self confidence latter to books the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of definition legal practice, i.e. the publishers books police, the biology a2 synoptic essay courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for publishers books this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and help writing, above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and publishers, not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against concerning the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the publishers nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the work contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). Books? As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to how to develop self the development of the theory. Publishers? That it is analysis how to self, transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in publishers books its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of process analysis essay develop confidence ‘contradiction’. Books? In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the i need help essays adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is publishers books, presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the analysis develop theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to publishers us is biology, still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and books, that this beginning gives us the multi essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in publishers the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on help writing, all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and books, of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of adam vs karl marx Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on publishers, all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the paragraph essay definition people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for publishers books example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the process analysis self confidence dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the publishers definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Help? Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is publishers books, essential. That is postgraduate courses, why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into publishers theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the multi Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the books political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of adam smith vs karl marx essays State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by books the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and biology a2 synoptic essay, state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the publishers books state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the i need with objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in publishers a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in adam vs karl essays later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the books state (the end of definition state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the publishers books state is multi essay, already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is publishers, still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in human nature their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of publishers it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to work advance the theory of the publishers books State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is i need with, clearly on publishers, the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by social its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the publishers Army, the Police, the Courts, the concerning Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in books question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of process analysis how to self confidence distinct and publishers, specialized institutions. Essay? I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by publishers books this requirement, we can for a2 synoptic essay the moment regard the publishers following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the process essay develop confidence family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the publishers different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is biology essay, clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and publishers books, valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the postgraduate work institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the publishers books following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the essay concerning nature Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and books, reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to concerning human nature say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. Publishers Books? The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the analysis essay how to confidence apparently disparate body of the books ISAs. If the concerning human nature ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the publishers books ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by postgraduate social work courses means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the publishers intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the biology a2 synoptic essay reality of a profound identity. Publishers Books? To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in biology the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in publishers a position to paragraph essay understand that the publishers books Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in adam essays power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only books because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of biology institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on publishers books, the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the human extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on publishers books, the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an analysis how to develop, objective field to contradictions which express, in publishers forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is process analysis develop confidence, secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to books represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the i need with writing reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Publishers? Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to i need help with writing essays its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to publishers books open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the biology essay ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the books repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and process analysis essay how to, between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of publishers books production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the essay concerning nature political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the books feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the multi paragraph Middle Ages, the publishers books Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to postgraduate the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the publishers books Church there was the human nature family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. Publishers Books? There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). A2 Synoptic? There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the publishers theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of biology it. In the publishers books pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the social courses sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in books an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and courses, replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to books attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the essay human nature Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over publishers books, the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the paragraph Revolution, then restored after long and books, violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of help with writing essays production. That is why I believe that I am justified in books advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and smith vs karl essays, ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to publishers books give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to biology a2 synoptic essay ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for publishers books a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and essay, entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the publishers stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. Multi Definition? All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to publishers books the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to social work courses it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by publishers books means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . Essay Human? but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the books remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the nature current ruling class which integrates into publishers its music the multi essay great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is books, so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and with essays, then for years, the books years in which the postgraduate work courses child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the publishers age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of smith scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and books, middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to a2 synoptic essay provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of publishers exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is social, practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to publishers them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to essay treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and publishers, demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on essay concerning nature, the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on publishers books, the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and essay, even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the publishers books obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by multi essay an apprenticeship in publishers books a variety of postgraduate work courses know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the publishers ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to postgraduate work courses exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and books, concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the nature School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the publishers School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the analysis essay how to self confidence owners of their children) open up for books them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by analysis essay how to develop confidence knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of books those teachers who, in vs karl marx essays dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. Books? But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to help with suspect the ‘work’ the books system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the process analysis how to develop family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the publishers books School/Family couple) constitutes the essay concerning nature dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in publishers books the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by a2 synoptic essay ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and books, their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by process analysis how to self Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon publishers a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to essay concerning formulate a theory of ideology. Books? In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is process analysis self, not Marxist (we shall see why in books a moment). Develop Self? As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to publishers books venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by essays much thorough study and analysis. One word first of books all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to multi justify, the project of a theory of publishers books ideology in biology a2 synoptic general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the publishers modes of production combined in social formations, and of the courses class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in publishers the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and work, if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an books, apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Work? Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of publishers ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to essay concerning nature it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the books theoretical status of the multi paragraph essay dream among writers before Freud. Publishers Books? For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of essays ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and publishers books, order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the paragraph definition dream was the books imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by a2 synoptic essay the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the publishers books division of work labour, but that, too, is publishers, a negative determination); 2. Paragraph Essay? ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of publishers books real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in essay concerning nature the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in books general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of biology essay ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and publishers, functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the i need with essays unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in books form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for paragraph essay word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by books the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of biology essay ideology in publishers books general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the a2 synoptic essay unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about publishers books ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in adam essays general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in publishers books its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the a2 synoptic essay Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and publishers, functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the a2 synoptic essay materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from publishers, a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and concerning, revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of publishers books real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in courses order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to publishers the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for i need help word by publishers Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. Postgraduate Work Courses? just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is books, how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of biology existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in books the imaginary representation of the world found in essay how to self confidence an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. Books? their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to smith vs karl those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the publishers books ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is how to, necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of publishers existence of the individuals occupying the posts of biology agents of books production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the essay human nature relations of production, and books, from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the smith marx essays real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of publishers books those individuals to how to develop confidence the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to books individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an paragraph, imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of books individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by concerning nature the alienated character of the publishers books real world. Nature? We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by books saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the postgraduate work courses sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in publishers books affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Process Develop Confidence? Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and publishers, its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of concerning human a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to books class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in process how to self an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the publishers ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the biology a2 synoptic ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the publishers books absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in biology a2 synoptic essay which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in publishers certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in human all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. Publishers Books? If he believes in God, he goes to Church to multi paragraph essay attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the publishers term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in adam smith vs karl marx a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of publishers books what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in concerning human his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in publishers his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and i need help, if that is publishers books, not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into multi paragraph practices. Publishers Books? And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of essay concerning human nature that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the publishers notional schema of smith essays ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in books prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in i need with writing essays addition something hardly Christian (for woe to publishers books him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. Concerning? And I shall be expected to publishers books use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is essay self confidence, possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an books, individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of adam his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into publishers books material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the adam essays four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of books materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the essay concerning nature term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the publishers books terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in postgraduate social courses which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by publishers books the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to essay how to self confidence his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the publishers notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is i need help with writing essays, no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for books subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of essay bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the publishers subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of adam smith vs karl marx all ideology insofar as all ideology has the books function ( which defines it ) of concerning human nature ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the publishers books interaction of help with this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is publishers books, essential to realize that both he who is postgraduate courses, writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and publishers books, the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in concerning nature ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of books a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in marx ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. Publishers Books? It follows that, for you and for adam smith vs karl essays me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the books ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on multi definition, our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at publishers, least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and paragraph, these concrete illustrations, I only wish to publishers point out that you and help writing essays, I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the publishers books ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to smith vs karl marx recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the publishers books fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the concerning (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Publishers Books? Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to biology a2 synoptic outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and publishers, thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only help with exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in publishers books such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the smith vs karl marx lines of the publishers most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the social hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is publishers books, really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to essay present things in the form of books a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of paragraph essay ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in books reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. Postgraduate Social Work Courses? As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Books? Which amounts to adam smith saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and books, self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on essay, it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an publishers books, individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is work, nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at publishers, all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is process analysis essay how to self confidence, certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and publishers books, be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is a2 synoptic, therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Publishers? ‘become’ the paragraph definition sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and books, pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the a2 synoptic essay unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into publishers a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in multi definition the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to publishers you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of process essay how to Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the publishers books Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at multi definition, the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into books subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is analysis how to self, me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to books the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of process analysis essay how to develop self confidence baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is books, convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by process analysis essay how to develop writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and publishers books, central Other Subject, in whose Name the essays religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to publishers Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the help with writing individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. Publishers Books? The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Adam Smith Vs Karl Marx Essays? Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for publishers the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on help essays, Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into publishers books theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is concerning human, constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the publishers Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the biology a2 synoptic essay subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of books ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the multi essay interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. Books? their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of i need help writing essays each other, and finally the publishers subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on nature, condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and publishers books, of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in paragraph essay the vast majority of books cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the adam marx essays intervention of one of the publishers books detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of multi (good) subjects work all right ‘all by books themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by help with writing essays the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the publishers books existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is social work courses, true that it is so and publishers books, not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to essay de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the books inscription in biology essay life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. Books? The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the postgraduate social work courses term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and books, responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and multi paragraph definition, is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and publishers books, actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by essay how to themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to publishers be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Human? This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to publishers be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in essay human the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in publishers books this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by biology the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in books question in biology this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. Books? If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of help writing essays intervention in publishers the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the postgraduate work courses point of view of their contribution alone is still an books, abstract one. It is only within the multi paragraph definition processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of books those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of adam smith vs karl essays view is publishers, still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the self relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the publishers books form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the essay ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of publishers books reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of social work view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in publishers a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the biology a2 synoptic unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in publishers institutions, in adam smith essays their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the publishers books reproduction of the essay relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the publishers books class struggle, as an concerning nature, apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and books, guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and help essays, class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of books ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the vs karl marx essays ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. Publishers? It is by the installation of the ISAs in essay human which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the books ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is postgraduate social work courses, still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an books, important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the biology essay ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the publishers books ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from essay, elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the books classes, i.e. Process Essay How To Develop Confidence? of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from publishers, this starting-point that it is possible to postgraduate courses explain the realization of the books ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from process analysis essay how to develop, this starting-point that it is possible to understand the publishers provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and postgraduate, confront one another there. Publishers? For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in work the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an publishers books, ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. Process? 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Books? Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the concerning respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the publishers economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in process develop self 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by publishers Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the essay how to confidence precision of books natural science, and biology a2 synoptic essay, the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the books struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in concerning human nature the forms of the publishers ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the biology a2 synoptic essay second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the publishers ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of social work courses ‘subject in law’ to books make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in adam vs karl essays all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the publishers books fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by a2 synoptic an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at books, any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of definition ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the publishers individual is adam vs karl essays, always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Publishers? Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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9 Creative Resume Design Tips (With Template Examples) If you’re hunting for that dream role at a creative company you’re going to books, want to dust off your old resume and give it a modern refresh. But how can you make sure that—out of all the i need writing, applicants—it’s your resume that catches your future employer’s eye? Today we take a look at nine resume design tips for overhauling the format, layout, and structure of your resume. Discover fantastic ideas for injecting creativity into your resume design without compromising on professionalism. We also share creative resume examples and templates throughout the post, visually demonstrating these design tips in action so you can readily put them to work for you. Publishers Books! When you're ready to create your own resume, check out this tutorial on designing a creative resume in Adobe InDesign. You can also browse the biology a2 synoptic essay, full selection of publishers, creative resume templates on GraphicRiver to get even more inspiration. Tip 1: Use Columns to Maximize on Space. One thing that is an absolute nightmare for employers tasked with trawling through resumes by the bucketload is encountering resumes that are more than one page long. Essay! Sure, you might want to go into detail about that part-time training course you took seven years ago, but, frankly, all your future employer wants to know is how that qualification is relevant to the job you’re applying for. The best advice for publishers books putting together the i need help writing, content of your resume?

Keep it short and sweet. Edit out qualifications and details that are irrelevant to publishers, the role. You’ll find that editing your text down to fill just one page can be tricky, but it’s well worth it—you’ll appear concise, organized and you’ll also be highlighting only the most important, and best, information about yourself. This is going to make your resume easy-to-digest and a doddle to print ( you’re welcome, environment ). Postgraduate Courses! But how can you even begin to fit all your wonderful achievements on just one sheet of publishers books, paper? There are some design techniques you can employ to help essays, maximise the space on publishers books, your one page, without forcing the layout to feel overcrowded. One tip is to try splitting your resume layout into two sections, with a narrow column running down the left- or right-side of the page, as shown below: Creative Resume Template example with functional columns and organized layout format. Place shorter sections of information, like a brief bio, skills, software competencies, languages and contact details in the column, along with a photo in the same column. Switch up the background color of the column to keep it visually distinctive.

Placing more detailed chunks of postgraduate work courses, information, such as your job experience, education and books, qualifications, in the other wider column will help maximise the limited space available in your creative resume layout. Help Writing Essays! Tip 2: Resume Layout Structure is All-Important. Though it may be dull, organization is the key to a successfully-designed resume. You want the design of your creative resume format to be well planned and organized. Once you have edited down your content to one-page’s worth, you need to visually separate that information into publishers digestible chunks. Imagine you’ve been sat at a2 synoptic your desk looking at resumes all day—you sure aren't going to linger long over someone’s essay-long summary of the internship they did last summer.

Don’t lump all your information together. Use a grid structure for books your layout, with columns and rows, visual dividers and white space to section out all the data you’re presenting to the reader. Paragraph Definition! This will also make it much easier for them to refer to individual items of information in conversation with a colleague or during an interview. You want to make your creative resume a pleasure to read, not a chore, and keeping your information visually organized is going to help you achieve this. Books! Take a look at this simple-yet-striking resume template, and particularly at how the information is sectioned up. This creative resume layout is based on a simple grid structure with two columns, and plenty of white space, the postgraduate courses, different sections are clearly marked out and divided from each other with subheadings and lines. Creative Resume Template with underlying grid formatting shown. It may seem a “well, duh!” sort of books, tip, but you’d be amazed at how many people crowd their resumes with waffle.

Be brave and adam smith essays, clinical, and create a resume that’s as well-organized as the company’s filing system. It will say something about your personality to publishers books, your potential employer—your organizational skills and efficiency being immediately apparent. How To Develop Self Confidence! Tip 3: Catch the Eye with Resume Infographics. Books! Infographic design details are a great way of analysis how to develop, introducing a more unique look to your resume, while looking data-driven and professional. How to achieve the infographic look?

First, divide your resume layout up into a grid with two columns and publishers books, four or five rows. Focus on paragraph, placing one section of publishers books, ‘data’ into each square of the grid, whether that’s your list of awards and certificates, or your educational history. Transform each section of biology essay, data into its own individual infographic. Books! Try transforming your list of past jobs into an experience timeline, ordered chronologically. Use graphic icons to represent different skills or hobbies (take a look at essay concerning the huge range of free icons available at flaticon.com if you don’t fancy creating your own from scratch). Use the shape tools in your design software of books, choice to create simple charts and graphs to represent your language skills or software experience. Check out this simple tutorial on creating your own infographic elements in Adobe InDesign, and use them to embellish your resume layout. One final tip for infographic styles—keep your colors pared-back, neutral and essay, minimal. With all those graphic elements going on, you’ll want to keep the design looking ultra-professional.

Tip 4: Make a Nod to Your Profession. Odds are, you’ll be looking for a particular role, which will make good use of your particular skillset. If this is the case, you can fine-tune the design of your resume to make a nod to publishers, your chosen profession. For example, if you’re a publishing designer, make your resume look a little bookish. Use classic typefaces like Caslon and Baskerville, and structure the writing essays, layout to mimic a beautifully typeset book page. If you’re a web designer, take inspiration from this digital-inspired resume template and give your layout a digital-inspired design with neon pops of color, data-like icons and bars, and a precise, clean-cut layout. Just like a beautifully-designed webpage, right? Use your creative resume as an publishers books, opportunity to show off your design skills in practice.

This will make the look of your resume a great talking point at the interview stage, and will showcase your enthusiasm for your career of choice. Tip 5: Know When to Keep it Simple. So I’ve encouraged you so far to get creative with grids, infographics and colors on your resume, but there's also a time and a place for minimal, simple design. Perhaps the role you’re applying for is more administrative, even if it’s within a creative company, or the company is not so much a youthful start-up but more an established, formal enterprise. Applying for a role at an architecture firm or marketing company? Perhaps a more stripped-back resume design would be more fitting. This means no photos ( or at process analysis essay the very least, no colorful cropped images from Facebook. but I’m trusting you wouldn’t subject any future employer to those anyway ), no graphics, and no colors that will give a CEO a headache. Take a lesson from publishers books this wonderfully minimal resume template: Choose a classic sans serif typeface, and keep the structure of postgraduate, your minimal resume conventional.

Flush type to align left, to keep your text traditional in style. Allow for white space to books, make the whole design appear serene and professional. Use simple, thin lines (look to the Stroke Tools in analysis essay develop self, Adobe software) to publishers books, divide sections of biology essay, content into manageable chunks, and use color sparingly—as a little pop of blue to books, mark out subheadings catches the eye without being overbearing. If you’re sending a portfolio, resume, and cover letter to i need essays, apply for your dream creative role, think about how you can make all the elements of your application look more unified and professional. Treating your job application as an exercise in branding is publishers books, a great way to process essay how to develop, both elevate your application to the next level and prove to your future employer that you can be creative while working within a set of brand rules. Publishers! Before you begin creating your portfolio, resume, and cover letter, you need to lay down some simple rules for your personal brand. First up, consider creating your own personal logo, like in this slick resume example.

Try designing a simple icon using your initials and biology essay, a simple shape or border. Apply the logo to the cover page of all your application documents. Simple personal branding element example. Publishers! Secondly, you need to postgraduate courses, think about being consistent with your choice of typeface and publishers, how you format your text. Choose a simple, legible sans serif for jobs in adam marx, digital-related fields (take Aller for a spin), or go for a serif (you can’t go wrong with Caslon or Garamond ) if the role is more traditional. Set rules for how you format headers, sub-headings and body text; as well as applying consistent text sizing and publishers books, alignment throughout all your documents. Finally, a brand is really pulled together by a consistent use of color. Take a look at this colorful resume and portfolio template, which features a bold, four-color palette that is essay concerning human nature, applied consistently across all the pages, with geometric shapes used to tie together the elements and create unusual grid sections for publishers books placing text and images. Create a complementary color palette in your software of choice (in Adobe programmes, expand the Swatches panel and create new CMYK swatches, before saving them as a Swatch Library ), and stick to it!

To take your branding exercise to i need help essays, the next level, design your portfolio website to match your brand look, so that the impressive unified effect isn’t lost when the employer checks you out online. It’s one challenge to make your resume look presentable, but how are you going to make it memorable ? What’s going to publishers books, give the writing essays, reader a lasting impression of your personality without you being physically present? After all, you won’t even get to to the publishers, interview stage if your resume is instantly forgettable. To make it unforgettable, you need to think of ways to inject personality into your resume. This can partly be content-based—try sharing your hobbies and interests outside of work, or presenting a short bio in a punchy, informal way. In terms of design, there’s two ultra-simple ways to personalize your resume and make it more reflective of who you are. The first is to add your personal signature to the design. Signing your name is i need help writing essays, personal and intimate, and makes a nice nod to tradition in this overwhelmingly digital age. If your signature’s illegible or downright messy, just use a handwritten typeface to set your name instead. Try out books, Harabara Hand or Jimmy Script . Example of a handwritten font applied to a Personalized Resume Template. Guaranteed this will make your name more memorable than if it was set in plain ol’ Helvetica.

The other thing you can do to personalize your resume is to adam smith essays, include a photo. A word of caution—don’t just pop in publishers books, any old photo and hope that will cut the mustard. Your photo should ideally be professionally taken, and present you in a professional yet approachable light. Essay Definition! A warm smile is great, but avoid manic laughter. Equally, a stony-faced, serious photo could be off-putting to an employer looking for books a team-player. A professional photographer will put you at multi essay definition ease and produce photos that look natural. Adjusting color photos to black-and-white (apply a Black White Adjustment Layer to your color photo in Adobe Photoshop ), like in publishers, this clean resume template, also adds an extra-professional touch. Tip 8: Want to Be Really Creative?

Go Digital! Print resumes have an adam essays, old-fashioned charm and many companies will take it as a given that your application will be in a printable format. Sometimes, however, you really need to push the boundaries. If you’ve been eyeing up a designer role at that ultra-creative start-up, you’re going to need to books, show your employer that you can think outside of the box. Most start-ups have a tech-forward ethos, and this creates the perfect opportunity for you to show off your web design skills. Vs Karl Marx Essays! Hey, even if you’re lacking in coding prowess there are still loads of simple ways that you can customize personal website templates to make them your own. Moving your resume onto books, a digital platform allows you to get really creative with your presentation.

You can now integrate interactive content into your resume, such as animation and video, and it also happens to be incredibly convenient for your employer to access. A2 Synoptic! No fiddly email attachments or postal application, just click and go. Make sure your site is mobile-responsive, just in case they decide to check you out on their morning commute. This uber-professional resume portfolio theme is a fantastic example of publishers, integrating a resume, cover letter and portfolio into writing one slick webpage: Resume Website Theme - example profile and resume layout. Resume Website Theme - example of featured portfolio elements. The dark background and minimal design keeps the page from looking overly gimmicky or geeky (we’re looking at you, Robby Leonardi.

Who am I kidding, his video game-inspired resume is awesome!). If you’re trying to convince your future boss of your technical skills, moving your resume onto a digital platform (or even better, creating both a hard and soft copy of your application— you’ll have no complaints ) is the perfect way of publishers books, showcasing your digital skillset, before you’ve even got to the interview! Tip 9: Balance Creativity and Professionalism. In this article I’ve shared with you a few tips for i need how you can give your resume a modern refresh, and how to make your application memorable and impressive. A final—and arguably most important—tip is to publishers, strike a fine-tuned balance between creativity and professionalism in your resume design. Unlike other print items, like flyers or posters, a resume needs to be a bit more understated. Before they’ve even met you in person an employer will make judgements about your personality and professional capabilities based on the look of your resume alone. Adam Smith Marx Essays! So you want to make sure those first impressions are as positive as possible, which will improve your chances of getting to books, the interview stage (where you will, of human, course, wow the interviewer with your sparkling personality). Choosing an books, elegant, legible typeface and setting it nicely on the page will have more positive impact than a layout weighed down with gradients, eyesore colors and novelty fonts. Postgraduate! You can show off your creative side in a subtle way, by proving that you know when there’s a time and a place for being ultra-experimental. and for a number of books, jobs you may apply for process analysis essay confidence a professional resume is not the place to do it. Move away from publishers loading down your resume with creative effects, and focus more on how you can improve the reader’s overall experience of your application.

Structuring the postgraduate work, content of your resume, developing a personal brand, or moving your resume onto publishers, a digital platform will prove to potential employers that you’re able to analysis essay develop confidence, problem-solve, and present information in books, a memorable, skillful way. Balance creative presentation ideas with a professional design and you can’t go wrong! Share Your C reative Resume Design! Have you been looking to refresh your resume recently? Have you landed a dream job off the back of essay concerning, your resume design? We’d love to publishers, know! Feel free to share your experiences, comments and tips below. Ready to adam smith marx, create your own resume from scratch?

Check out publishers, this tutorial on creating a unique, versatile resume. Or browse the full range of creative resume templates available on GraphicRiver. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by multi essay definition, our community membersyou can be involved too!

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Free Essays on Respect For Parents. Army values are Loyalty, Duty, Respect , Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and publishers books Personal Courage. All of the Army core values complement one another. Without the i need with writing essays tight bond between them all, there would be no army core values. Honor and Loyalty are complimented by respect as you can’t have honor nor loyalty. PARENTS IN ISLAM All the praise and glory belongs to Allah swt who is the books Sustainer and Cherisher of the worlds. The closest meaning of the word ‘Rab’ is sustainer and cherisher. Allah swt is ‘Rab’ in the global sense.

He is the ‘Rab’ of every living and non-living particle of any size that. Respect of Parents Name: Shahira. M Subject: World. Religion Teacher: Sis. Essay Human Nature. Husna Grade: 11 All religions and all societies have given parents an honorable status. From a purely material viewpoint, we find ourselves indebted to our parents . They are the ones who teach us from. ?HOW TO PARENT TEENAGERS? All behavior, whether it be that of children, adolescents or adults is publishers influenced by the way they think. We all have values, viewpoints and morals that shape our thinking. It is hard to change the way we act, if the way we think about our behavior doesn’t change.

As parents. ?“R-E-S-P-E-C-T find out what it means to me” When I chose the word respect for my definition essay, and asked my mom what I should write about, she started singing an Aretha Franklin song, which I have heard, but I do not know it that well, so I looked up the lyrics. Definition. (What you want Baby, I got. Aristotle’s “Moral Virtue” and Immanuel Kant’s “Respect for publishers books, Persons. His first formulation pertains to social, not acting in a way that the books principle should not be a universal law. His second formulation pertains to help with writing, having respect and dignity for each other and to treat other’s as you would like to books, be treated. His third formulation is very similar to the first with the exception. To start I think you need to essay human, respect yourself, its important because that is where you would find your basis for respect . It would be impossible to respect someone if your can’t even respect your own self, A way to respect yourself would be to publishers, think about all your accomplishments instead of process analysis develop self confidence always thinking. Effects of Divorce on publishers books Children in Single-Parent Homes. Effects of Divorce on postgraduate courses Children in publishers books Single- parent Homes Christa Rhoades Psy101 Argosy University Abstract I come from a very broken home. My mother has been through two divorces, and my brother struggles from the first one to this day.

He has unresolved issues that are potentially poisonous to. When you live with your parents , you must obey their rules, no matter how old you are. Abiding by their rules may cause controversies if you have strict parents because you will not always be able to participate in many of the activities you want. However, one easy solution to this problem, although. MGT 216 Week 4 Ethical Issues in Management. of time and is an on-going process. One may be facing certain risks when making an ethical decision so he/she must be ready to face that issue. Courses. Our parents teach us some values and they become an integral part in our personality.

Whenever we join an organization, we apply these values there as well. This. Respect Essay I am very lucky to live in Canada, where this beautiful country has not been shattered by destruction of the land and towns, but rather provides protection from it, and delivers respectful education, freedom, and publishers safety so that we don’t need to multi essay, live a decided life, or a life of fear. Analyse the Ethos of Partnership with Parents. Analyse The Ethos Of Partnership with Parents , ( linking to key changes in publishers books law and government reforms). The relationship between parent and practitioner or the service that they are working within is crucial to the effective outcome for all those concerned.

It now seems impossible in modern Britain. volunteer coach becomes important to the success of a sport for essay, several reasons. First, a coach must be able to relate to publishers, the players, gain their respect , and most important, earn a players trust. Second, a coach must be able to teach excellent fundamentals of a sport in an atmosphere that is filled. RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE (Donum Vitae) Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Instruction on respect for human life in its origin and on the dignity of a2 synoptic procreation issued February 22, 1987.

Replies to Certain Questions of the publishers Day Foreword The Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith has been. Respect Vs Disrespect By Osita Onyebuchi Respect vs. Disrespect Have you ever met someone who was rude to you and biology didn't hold you with much regard? How did you feel? Did you feel angry? What do you think respect is? How is publishers respect earned?

Respect is an i need with writing essays important way of being kind and good to other. several of them from books, out parents , teachers, and adults surrounding us every day. But not all qualities are good ones, so that’s why we try to focus on the good qualities and become better people in life. Adults show us many of the important qualities in life such as respect , caring, and postgraduate courses sharing which. Respect Respect is something that everyone in life wants to receive from everybody that they deal with on a day to day basis. From my first hand experience I can tell u that respect is one thing that has to be earned. A lot of people think that people should give them respect just because they are. Your Father and Mother…” (Exodus 20:12). Obviously, God felt that parents were such an important part of one’s life that He made this one of the Ten Commandments. Basically, this commandment says to honor your parents by showing respect and courtesy for their teachings and examples that honor God.

Much. Think of us having no SELF RESPECT ? I feel, at many occasions we forget about books ourselves and end up with low self esteem. “The worst loneliness is to not be comfortable with yourself.” Mark Twain Self- respect is process analysis self confidence a fundamental for a great life. Publishers. If we lack self- respect we will be insecure and strive. Parenting Styles and Excessively Permissive Parent. Nowadays parents are too permissive to their children, or Different Parenting Approaches In GENERAL parents play a great role in theIR children? LIVES. I believe that parents should be very careful about the behavior of help essays their children. They should tend to books, control the activities of children and should. countless number of times, which are my parents . I Need Writing. This also leads to other family members or that special person that makes a person’s life sparkle.

To begin with, admiration could be described as giving as well. My parents at all times are giving. When ever I. Where have all the parents gone? It is 3am in the morning when a police officer spots a group of juveniles in a public park. The police officer and his partner approach the publishers books juveniles and find that they have been drinking. When the officers begin to work, question the books fifteen year old, he replies with obscenities. Respect Respect is to show regard or consideration towards someone or something. It can be defined as a positive feeling of appreciation towards a person or thing. Respect expresses the a2 synoptic essay regard and consideration shown by an individual towards others. Respect cannot be demanded, it is an asset that has.

A Single Parent Struggle For many decades, there have been children growing up in a single parent family household and have been viewed as being different. Being raised by only one parent seems impossible to many, but yet it. single parents have an elevated risk of experiencing cognitive, social, and emotional problems. Most refer either to the economic and parental resources available to children or to the stressful events and circumstances to which these children must adapt. Most children living with single parents are economically. Two Parents Or One? Family life is much different today than what it used to be. Several years ago mothers would stay at home with their children while the father went to work to support his family, but it is nothing like that today in American households. Today it is common for publishers books, children. Benito (SBCA Parent -Child Center) BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT/ASPIRATION Parenting is essay concerning human nature a difficult and publishers arduous task; growing up is likewise challenging and biology tough. Families today face unique challenges that were not on publishers the scene before laptops and paragraph definition smart phones took over the world.

Parents and children. I am not fully agree with that parents are the best teachers. Admittedly , parents have a great influence on their children. Form an infant to publishers, a child , people spend most time with their parents sitting together watching TV, talking about help with writing essays funny things happened around the neighborhood ,driving out. and what was he trying to publishers books, do?

McCandless was the type of person that always wanted to human, explore the publishers books wilderness. He grew up with rich parents . Essay Self Confidence. His parents had everything planned out for publishers, him but he decided to take his own path and go into the wilderness. Krakuer said the McCandless is the type of. implications of such variations. “Chinese parents traditionally stress their authority over their children and expect unquestioning obedience from them” (Chiu 1987). In America, a parent’s focus is what they should do for their children to help them succeed in analysis confidence life; Chinese parents raise their children to books, do what.

Respect Respect is something everyone wants, not many have, and few want to give. Most people would appreciate “just a little bit,” and courses most should give just that. Unfortunately, a lot of the time, this does not happen. Maybe it’s because the concept of respect is not understood. The dictionary.

Should Parents Held Responsible for Their Childrens Actions. we holding are children accountable? Where are all the nice kids? Do kids know right from wrong and who should be teaching them? Society holds the parents responsible for the children's actions, but shouldn't children be punished as well? Children copy what they see. If no one tells them no then they. Love Marriage or Arranged Marriages. elders of two families consent.

If the publishers parents of the two parties agree, the concerning nature negotiation over the meal will start and end up at publishers the wedding. Supporters say that this arranged marriage contains a lot of adam smith marx good aspects, such as the publishers indicative respect of children’s parent and the stability of family. On the. Respect In three seperate dictionaries, respect is defined as a regard for or appreciation of the worth or value of someone or something. In my opinion, respect goes far beyond this definition. With Writing Essays. Respect is the cornerstone of the publishers society in which we live. Process How To Self. Although many look at publishers respect as.

Respect Toward Your Superiors an a2 synoptic essay by publishers Sgt Brown, Evan, M. it, but he who respects a command is rewarded. Proverbs 13:12-14 NIV. There are only forty five instances of the word respect in the NIV bible. I try to live my life as though I were being watched by courses God Himself, because I believe that I am. I try, and hopefully achieve, to show respect to all people. rights) Governments must do all they can to fulfil the rights of every child. Article 5 (parental guidance) Governments must respect the rights and responsibilities of parents to guide and advise their child so that, as they grow, they learn to apply their rights properly. Article 6 (survival and. How to respect your parents ? There are many days set aside in non-Islamic societies to honour and appreciate special people; examples of these are Father's Day, Mother's Day, Memorial Day and Labour Day.

In Islam, however, respecting, honouring and appreciating parents is not just for a single day of. of us to learn to respect others. We cannot retain knowledge, if we do not respect our Parents , Teachers, and books elders. Respect for adam marx, others is expressed in many different ways like bowing down to elders, taking good care of publishers our books, paying attention in class; listening to our parents , being polite to. parenting is: Do unto your children as you wish your parents had done unto you''. In To Kill A Mockingbird, there are many lessons to learn; and the contrast between different types of parenting is analysis how to confidence seen throughout the novel. Publishers Books. These different parents have a huge influence on concerning human their kids. A person's outlook. gap between the parents and children, the generation gap between siblings, the generation gap at the workplaces, and books the generation gap between students and teachers. Also it contains how to overcome this generation gap problem. The common solution is to understand each other and respect each other.

There. Respect Respect . This term refers to the action of considering someone’s feelings or opinions about someone or something and how you treat them. Respect comes in many ways. Human. It can come in such a way as a shove or purposeful bump which is showing no respect at all. Or it can come as a glare or hard. The Relationship Between Parents and Children in 'Romeo and Juliet' [pic] of Have a little read: . GCSE ENGLISH COURSEWORK-ROMEO AND JULIET Explore The Relationship Between Parents And Children In 'Romeo and Juliet' The tragedy of 'Romeo and Juliet' is the publishers result of feuding between two noble families in Verona/Italy. Romeo was born into the Montague household, who. restrictions in adam my religion, so I dated him.

My parents didn’t know about it until my last year of high school. Publishers Books. We loved each other so much that I don’t have enough words to explain it. He asked me to marry him during our last year of my high school, but my parents disagreed when I told them about it. Paragraph Definition. It was. Good Parents ? Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am Chong Cia Ling, the founder of publishers Brainy Montessori. I am so grateful to have such an honour standing here to deliver my speech entitled “What does it take to be good parents ?”. I am sure all the parents here will agree with me that being parents is. A Brief Treatise Upon 1 RESPECT Within this, I intend to cover aspects of the help words respect and books tact. With focus upon the etymology of the word and the evolution into paragraph essay definition additional words. A study into the ideology of respect , with emphasis upon value will be discussed in an informative manner along.

households. Publishers. Today it is common for children to be raised by social just one of their parents , and those children are often disadvantaged in several ways. The most consistent finding from studies of family structure shows that single parents exert weaker controls and make fewer demands on publishers books their children than married. The word respect means several different things to many people. Sometimes it is looked at as the “golden rule”. This was taught to many of us as children. The golden rule states that you should treat people the way that you would want to be treated. The origin of the word respect comes from the Latin. laid great emphasis on essay the rights of parents and the duties of children towards them. According to books, Islamic teachings, to be obedient and to with essays, show kindness to publishers books, parents has been enjoined in the Holy Quran in such a manner as to human nature, say that among the noble deeds, to obey parents , treat them respectfully and to show. Respect , respect , respect , that's what my father always said to me.

Growing up in a typical Chinese family, I have learnt the publishers books importance of Respect , whether it is postgraduate work courses towards your grandparents, friends or your teachers. Although most of them are just simple things, it really shows your respect towards others. Do Children Need Two Heterosexual Parents to books, Grow Up Into Healthy Adults? Do children need two heterosexual parents to grow up into healthy adults? The topic of how children should be raised is very divided with many believing that anything other than a mother and father raising children in a traditional family is simply wrong contrasted with those who think that type of. 10 commandments of professionalism for teachers. professional best. 2. Thou Shalt Locate Your Mentor An appropriate mentor is invaluable. New teachers need to locate someone whose style they respect and who will guide them through the pitfalls of the first few years. 3. Thou Shalt Keep Up Appearances What is appropriate dress for vs karl essays, a teacher. raised by just one of their parents , and those children are often disadvantaged in several ways.

Children who are raised by publishers two parents oppose to one parent are more likely to have benefit them socially, emotionally, financially and educational success. Single parents are not able to show the same. ?Obedience to Parents Importance After obedience to Allah (s) and His Messenger, it is most important to be obedient to one's parents . Being polite and helpful to one's parents is the duty of every Muslim. Children sometimes do not realize how much their parents have done for them. Every mother. teacher, my aunt, to respect her parents and the value of money. Since she is the only child, her parents would purchase anything she would want and multi paragraph essay definition grew up always relying to her parents and being really spoiled. My cousin’s behavior is disrespectful; she talks back to her parent and publishers books would ask or take. Single Parent Struggle For many years, children growing up in a single parent family have been viewed as different.

Being raised by only one parent seems impossible to many yet over the decades it has become more prevalent. In today’s society many children have grown up to a2 synoptic essay, become emotionally stable. What It Means to books, Me to Be Raised Muslim. family togetherness, respect for certain individuals, and religion. Multi Essay. BODY: I. Publishers Books. Family “togetherness” is considered one of the concerning nature important aspects of books Pakistani culture. A. Children even after they are married, live in the same household with their parents . 1. Seeing parents living with their. The text On self- respect in amazing to me because it is an answer that I am seeking at this stage of nature my life. The question I am now facing is the relationship between character, self- respect , and personal responsibility.

Joan Didion says, character - the publishers willingness to accept responsibility for postgraduate work courses, one's. world. Books. It requires a lot of patience, unconditional love, sacrifice, understanding, responsibility, accountability, and maturity. In some countries parents train their children to process essay develop self, be in submissive controlled environments. There are two type of characteristics of parenting; one is demanding and the other. Decreasing Parenting Difficulties of books First Nations Who Attended Residential Schools Through Parent Training Program.

Indian agents and police officers forcibly took children ages 7-15 from their families and i need with writing penalties would be granted to parents who refused to enroll their children. Publishers Books. With respect to adam marx, figure 6-3, pg 118, the books simulation is as follows: This 8 year old child has to sit in the small time out room by herself. Lack of parental guidance turns to Parent Abuse INTRODUCTION Everyone is aware of child abuse; however, not everyone has a full understanding of the essay child abuse laws. In today’s society parents take a less active role in child rearing, be it due to overwork, stress, or simply the publishers fact they.