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Law and Ethics in Nursing Essay Sample. According to Edwards (2009) “Ethical problems are faced continuously in our day to day lives.” He then goes on methods to discuss various examples of the types of ethical issues many individuals can face during a typical day, such as a homeless person asking for money for food and explains how this common dilemma has an ethical dimension to imagery in macbeth, it that most ordinary people may not be aware of. When defining an research chapter dissertation ethical dilemma, the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (1997) bring a human element to the definition and explain how choices are made with the consideration personal feelings, principles, beliefs and personal opinion of what is good or bad within a situation (Jones, 2007). Nurses are faced with many more ethical problems on a day to day basis within health care environments than ordinary members of the community and the increasing variety of mba admission vancouver, ethical issues that arise within modern nursing practice is why it is essential that nurses study law and chapter dissertation, ethics (Edwards, 2009).The literature suggests nurses are far more likely to experience ethical dilemmas on thesis imagery a daily basis and research chapter dissertation, often these ethical problems are associated with legal issues. Chaloner (2007) describes law and ethics as ‘instruments of regulation’ and uses an example relating to public opinion of intentional killing to provide scope for a brief discussion on how statute law can sometimes reflect society’s ethical views.
It is also imperative that registered nurses have a sound legal knowledge and understand the legal consequences of their actions (Dingwall, 2007) Chaloner (2007) believes that understanding ethics within nursing is essential to providing skilled nursing care in practice. The advances in modern medicine have directly affected the role of nurses and as a result nurses are now faced with decision making that may conflict their own moral values (Edwards, 2009). The study of on how, ethics can enhance nursing practice by ensuring that nurses have the skills and knowledge to tackle ethical dilemmas and the study of ethics also helps to develop nurses own personal moral values and beliefs, ensuring that they are able to make ethical decisions with a higher quality of reasoning (Allmark, 2005). This assignment aims to explore the legal and ethical implications of covert medication administration based on an incident witnessed in practice and will conduct a critical analysis using Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle. Research Methods Dissertation! This assignment will also examine the moral theories and principles that affect every day nursing practice and will examine the rationale for reflective practice in nursing. For the essays papers on martin, purpose of this assignment and to maintain confidentiality in methods chapter dissertation, accordance with the NMC’s Code of Professional Conduct (2008) the patient’s name within the critical incident has been changed. Moral theories examine how we make decisions based on our own personal beliefs e.g. what we believe is right or wrong and the factors that influence our beliefs. Edwards (2009) identifies three influential moral theories that are often related to on how to bulid, nursing practice; Utilitarianism, Deontology and virtue theory.
Utilitarianism theories were originally devised by research chapter dissertation, J. Bentham [1748-1832] and J.S. Mill [1808-73]. Beauchamp Childress (2008) describe utilitarianism as a consequence based theory and identify the main principle of papers on martin luther, this theory as utility, stating “This principle asserts that we ought always to produce the maximal balance of positive value over disvalue (or the least possible disvalue if only undesirable results can be achieved).”(P.341). Research! The authors then explain how the Utilitarian approach to ethics is one that believes that negative actions can be justified as long as the outcome was positive. Edwards (2009) gives an example of how the Utilitarian theory relates to ethical decision making in nursing by describing a terminally ill patient in thesis titles, constant pain. Edwards (2009) then continues to discuss how the Utilitarian approach with regards to care for this patient would be based upon chapter dissertation opting for the course of mba admission writing services, treatment that would result in the least amount of pain, regardless of research, other consequences. Deontological theories, also known as duty-based ethics, are often referred to in the to poetry collins, literature as non-consequentialist ethics due to chapter, the main principles conflicting with those of consequentialist ethics. The key elements of deontology can be simplified as shown below, stated by the BBC: “Duty-based ethics teaches that some acts are right or wrong because of the sorts of things they are, and people have a duty to act accordingly, regardless of the good or bad consequences that may be produced.” “Duty-based Ethics” from BBC Ethics Guide http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics Noble-Adams (1999) describes the thesis, Utilitarianism and deontological theories as the two dominant theories of ethics although notes that each of these theories have their limitations. Noble-Adams (1999) believes that the Utilitarian approach is faltered as the consequences of actions are hard to predict or validate which could pose a risk of harm to others. The deontological approach is also criticised by Noble-Adams (1999) due to methods chapter, the fact that following stringent moral rules, as is common with this approach, make it difficult to choose the right course of action. Edwards (2009) agrees with the criticisms made by essay, Noble-Adams (1999) and believes that it is extremely difficult to foresee the consequences of particular acts and also notes how Utilitarianism can often lead to research methods chapter dissertation, a lack of truth telling (p.32) which poses conflict for nurses in particular with relation to moral principles and the NMC’s Code of Professional Conduct (2008).
Edwards (2009) explores the limitations of the deontologist theory in more detail than Noble-Adams (1999) by essay, firstly discussing the difficulties in research methods chapter dissertation, understanding the work of philosopher Kant (p.34) and thesis titles, secondly discussing in detail the research methods dissertation, moral implications of truth telling in contrast to thesis titles, Kant’s theory (p.39-41). Edwards (2009) gives an example of how lying could be ethically justified within the text by using a hypothetical situation where an research dissertation innocent relative or friend could be at mba admission essay writing services, risk and the only way to protect them would be to tell a lie. The author then states how “…lying is never justified for Kant.” (p.40) and goes on to note the methods, implausibility of that statement in relation to nursing practice. Edwards (2009) offers further criticisms suggesting that the literature behind the theory is inadequate and also states that he believes the deontological theory to to poetry billy essay, be inappropriate in the health care setting. Conversely, Forschler (2013) introduces a new dimension to the arguments for and against each theory by comparing the arguments of chapter, two authors with conflicting views as to whether Kant’s views could have led him to Utilitarianism had his own bias not affected his approach. Chaloner (2007) believes these established theories to to poetry, be fundamental to ethical decision making in practice and suggests that by studying these concepts and research chapter dissertation, principles, nurses can make an ethical analysis when faced with ethical dilemmas.
Edwards (2009) writes of the principle-based approach to ethics in which nurses are encouraged to focus on the four moral principles identified by Beauchamp and Childress (2008) (p.12). They offer a set of moral principles that they believe should function as a basis for ethics within nursing as follows; respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. During discussion of nursing ethics Meetoo (2009) states his belief that there are no solutions to ethical problems and that they should not be sought. About Faith! However, Meetoo (2009) relates the principled approach to the topic within his article addressing each of the four principles in detail, yet he is reluctant to promote the use of one ethical framework. Research Methods Chapter! He claims that if alternatives to the principled approach were more widely available nurses would be able to make ethical decisions with more multicultural and international considerations. Thesis Titles! The four moral principles within the principled approach are defined as autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. Autonomy is defined in the literature as the ability to make one’s own decisions freely and maintain personal morals, values and research methods chapter dissertation, beliefs as individuals. Thus to be autonomous is to be free to make our own decisions and be in control of essay services vancouver, our own lives (McParland et al, 2000).
Non-maleficence relates to the moral obligation not to inflict harm on others physically or mentally and beneficence describes the obligation to ‘do good’, prevent/remove harm and act in chapter, ways that promote well-being in others (Edwards, 2009). The principle of services, justice in relation to nursing requires being just and fair to all patients and chapter, respecting their human rights and dignity (Hussey, 2011). To Poetry! The UKCC (1992) states that nurses’, midwives and health visitors should ensure that they act in the best interests of their patients and promote and safeguard their interests. This directly relates to the principled approach to nursing practice, as to protect and safeguard an individual is part of ensuring they are able to make independent well informed decisions as stipulated by the NMC Code of Conduct (2008). McParland et al (2000) suggest that one of the ways in which nurses can ensure they respect autonomy in research chapter, practice is by ensuring patients and imagery in macbeth, their families are given relevant information relating to their care and encouraged to make their own decisions, regardless of the potential outcomes or the research chapter dissertation, moral values the nurse may have. Beauchamp and Childress (2008) also discuss how respecting autonomy involves the obligations to respect the thesis imagery, decisions of research methods dissertation, others and allow others to be self-governing. The principle of autonomy directly links with non-maleficence and luther, beneficence when it comes to ethical decision making within nursing practice and a good example of this can be found when examining the literature relating to covert medication. Tweddle (2009) explains how the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence can conflict when making ethical decisions relating to health care. When discussing whether to conceal medication in food is in the best interests of the patient, Tweddle (2009) states “The underlying question is whether the harm caused by giving the medication covertly is greater than the harm the chapter dissertation, patient may sustain if they do not receive the medication at all.” (p.938) In this example it would be considered non-maleficent to administer medication covertly as to introduction to poetry collins essay, withhold the medication could result in harm, however the beneficence of the act must also be considered and in this case it would be the obligation to act positively and honestly, which would stipulate that to give medication covertly is a dishonest act which could not be considered beneficent (Tweddle, 2009).
Another notable example of how the research chapter, four principles conflict in nursing practice is essay on how that of nurses being advocates for patients and McParland et al (2000) gives the methods chapter dissertation, example of how a nurse may explain a procedure to a patient that they may not have understood when explained by statement faith healing, another healthcare professional. The principle of autonomy takes the main focus here as to remain autonomous the patient must be well informed of the procedure in research methods, order to make an autonomous choice regarding their care. Advocating for the patient in this way is beneficent and non-maleficent as explaining the procedure fully to the patient is ensuring that no harm is caused (non-maleficent) and giving the patient an honest, clear description of the procedure is to benefit the patient and ensure the situation is improved (beneficent). The principle of thesis healing, justice is maintained in this example as the nurse is ensuring the dissertation, patient is well informed which would suggest that the nurse is mindful and respectful of the introduction billy collins, human rights of the patient. However this kind of advocacy is highly likely to dissertation, cause conflict within the care team and the nurse advocating could find themselves in a difficult position between the duty to the patient and the duty to work as part of imagery, a team (McParland et al, 2000). Edwards (2009) also advises against nurses bombarding patients with an research amount of information that they may find overwhelming. Even when all the information given by in macbeth, the nurse is relevant and/or important, Edwards (2009) warns that to do so is not to respect their autonomy. Tweddle (2009) discusses how the duty for health care professionals to research, respect autonomy can conflict with the essay services vancouver, principle of beneficence when related to the refusal of treatment. The author describes how beneficent acts aim to promote physical wellbeing and chapter dissertation, reduce suffering yet acknowledges that it is not possible to introduction to poetry billy collins, define what beneficent acts are specifically as individuals have different ideas and definitions of illness and pain (p.936). Each of the four principles will be explored in greater detail and related to the ethical dilemma within the analysis section later in methods dissertation, this assignment.
The use of the principled approach to ethical decision making interlinks with the introduction to poetry billy collins, use of reflective practice within nursing in the sense that the four principles can be reflected upon and explored further using reflection. The next section aims to highlight the importance of research methods dissertation, reflection in modern nursing practice and the ways in on blood imagery, which nurses can reflect using reflective models. Reflection is a necessary part of nursing practice as it can facilitate the understanding of actions carried out and the consequences that follow, and is a way of learning from research methods chapter dissertation, experience (McSherry et al, 2002). Essays On Martin Luther! There are two types of reflection that can be related to nursing practice discussed in the literature; reflection in action and reflection on action (Schon, 1991). Reflection in action is when an dissertation individual reflects on the situation as it occurs and reflection on action is when an individual reflects on the situation after the event (Burns Bullman, 2000).
The reflection used within this assignment will be reflection on action, as the incident was reflected upon essays on martin luther after the event occurred. Atkins Murphy (1993) believe that the literature relating to reflection lacks depth and the clear concept of reflection is research methods chapter not clarified by mba admission writing vancouver, the authors that explore it. This view is echoed by Andrews, Gidman Humphreys (1998) who also detail how reflection is more than just recollection and go on to discuss how reflection can be used as an research methods dissertation educational tool for nurses if the essay on how, process of reflection is research chapter dissertation taught correctly. Taylor (2000) believes that there is a great deal of importance in nurses aspiring to be reflective practitioners and discusses how describing, analysing and evaluating care provided to patients could be imperative to the improvement of future nursing care. The literature relating to reflection and reflective practice highlights the importance of analysing critical incidents in order to fully understand the concept of thesis imagery, reflection and use it to enhance nursing practice. However Andrews et al (1998) dispute the fact that reflection can immediately benefit and improve nursing practice by noting how there is little evidence in the literature to prove this theory and that often it is presumed that reflection will lead to better nursing practice with no theoretical proof.
Andrews et al (1998) examine the literature and research chapter dissertation, conclude that the process of reflection bares more importance to the content of the reflection, noting also how there is thesis on blood in macbeth a need for more research and clarification on this topic There are several processes for reflection defined in the literature. Schon (1991) identifies three stages of chapter dissertation, reflectivity as conscious reflection, criticism and action (Atkins Murphy, 1993 p.1189). Atkins Murphy (1993) interpret the essays, first stage as an awareness of uncomfortable thoughts and feelings, the dissertation, second involving a critical analysis of the situation and the third stage being the development of a new perspective following the thesis on blood in macbeth, use of stages one and two, concluding that the overall outcome of reflection is research methods chapter dissertation learning. Mezirow (1981) defines the conclusive stage as ‘perspective transformation’ (Atkins Murphy 1993, p.1190). The authors detail how the literature moves from essay to bulid, studying reflective processes to reviewing the skills needed by those promoting reflection as an educational tool yet notes how the skills required are not specifically identified (p.1190).
Conversely, Andrews et al (1998) refer to research, reflecting as a ‘highly skilled activity’ (p.414) although the authors argue that the to bulid, skills required for reflection are taken for granted in many cases and discuss how assumptions are often made that reflection in nursing practice does not require much effort, suggesting that nurses have always done it. The literature offers a multitude of ideas and opinions on why nurses should reflect and research, the key aspects have been developed into numerous frameworks available to assist nurses with the reflective process (Barnett, 2005). Broad frameworks have been developed by theorists Gibbs (1981) and Johns (1994) with a view to enable nurses to reflect critically using a logical approach (Somerville Keeling, 2004). Johns’ (1994) model of structured reflection asks the user five questions that aim to enable the user to collins, break down the events of the incident and reflect on the outcomes (see appendix 2). This model was originally based on Carper’s (1978) 4 patterns of knowing; ethics, aesthetics, personal knowledge and empirics (Johns, 1995). Barnett (2005) selects Johns’ (1994) model for her critical analysis as she believes that the model provides a systematic structure that encourages the user to examine personal thoughts and actions. Barnett (2005) also suggests that this model is suitable for practitioners who are new to reflection due to the simplicity of the framework and the ability to research methods, adapt the essay, model to most situations. The contrasting framework to be explored here is Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle. Comprising of six stages, (see appendix 1) Gibbs’ model asks the practitioner to answer questions about the event in a specific order, encouraging them to reflect on the experience with a structured and logical approach. Jones (2007) writes a reflective account using Gibbs’ (1988) model and research methods dissertation, explains that her reasons for billy collins, doing so are due to ways in which the model encourages personal development and chapter, the simplicity of the framework overall.
She uses the model to thesis titles, identify the dilemma and then conduct an analysis of the incident in which she examines the legal and methods chapter, ethical perspectives before coming to a conclusion that includes her opinions on what she would do differently if the incident were to arise again. Gibbs’ (1988) model will be used in this assignment due to essays papers on martin, the simplicity of the questions within the methods chapter, model and the ways that the model encourages the user to explore and reflect on every aspect of the introduction billy collins essay, incident. Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle has been selected for this assignment after careful consideration and comparison to Johns’ (1994) model on the basis that Gibbs’ (1988) offers a simplistic approach yet allows the user to fully explore each section. It was also discovered within the literature that Johns’ (1994) model encourages the user to explore more complex personal thoughts and feelings in greater depth than Gibbs’ (1988) model (Barnett, 2005), something that is not relevant to the critical incident that will be explored in this assignment. Methods! The use of the statement about faith healing, model by Jones (2007) suggests that Gibbs’ (1988) offers the research methods, correct framework to follow when exploring the critical incident below, as Jones (2007) is able to mba admission essay writing services, easily identify the legal and ethical implications within the incident in research methods dissertation, a logical style that is easy for the reader to interpret. The following critical incident will be explored using the statement about faith, six-stage cycle (see appendix 1) addressing each question as it is depicted within the cycle, beginning with the first stage which asks the reflector to research methods chapter, describe the statement, event to be examined. During a clinical placement in a community hospital I often observed the medication rounds and noted that a particular patient’s medication was being administered covertly on research methods dissertation a regular basis.
The patient concerned was Mrs Green*, a 93 year old female suffering with dementia who had been admitted from a nursing home after developing a chest infection. Mba Admission Vancouver! Mrs Green was reluctant to take any medication when prompted and due to her lack of chapter dissertation, capacity, the nurses had taken to administering her morning anti-psychotic medication hidden in her porridge. Mrs Green had no living relatives to advocate for her so the decision to thesis, administer her medication in this way was made by the nursing team. The nursing staff on the ward concluded that this was in her best interests after being informed by the nursing home staff that this was how her medication was administered in the nursing home. Chapter Dissertation! The ward sister was advised that the on how, decision to methods chapter, hide the medication in food was due to the confusion and agitation Mrs Green experienced when she had not taken her medication and she noted down this conversation into Mrs Green’s nursing notes to inform other staff of the issue. As my mentor, the ward sister instructed me to administer Mrs Green’s medication covertly and she supervised me as I did so, reassuring me that this was in Mrs Green’s best interests. With Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle in mind I can clearly recall my thoughts and feelings after being instructed to administer medication covertly.
Although it was fully explained to me the reasons why the medication was given in this way and I was also shown the documentation supporting the decision to mba admission writing services vancouver, administer covertly, I could not help but feel as though I was not respecting Mrs Green’s autonomy. I was certainly aware of her lack of research methods chapter, capacity to consent and felt that given the complexity of the issues relating to the administration of thesis titles, medication to patients who lack capacity, the ward sister should have given the medication instead. At the research, time I was not comfortable in administering the mba admission essay vancouver, medication in this way as a student nurse, although upon research dissertation reflection I became aware that the ward sister presented me with a legal and ethical issue that I could learn from and encouraged me to deal with the situation as I would when I become a qualified nurse. The second stage of Gibbs’ (1988) model asks the user to evaluate the incident and decipher what was good and bad about on martin, it. In the case of Mrs Green, there are positive and negative aspects of the incident that can be identified using reflection.
The decision to administer medication covertly did not seem to have been taken lightly, the liaison between the nursing home staff and the ward sister suggests that staff on chapter dissertation the ward did not instantly make this decision due to Mrs Green’s confusion and aggression. The fact that the thesis titles, ward staff contacted the nursing home could suggest that they were indeed trying to act in the best interests of Mrs Green after discovering she suffered from dementia and had no living relatives to act as advocates. However the liaison between the chapter, ward staff and the nursing home could also indicate a negative aspect of this incident as it could suggest that the ward staff contacted the nursing home to collins essay, ascertain how they administer her medication and upon discovering that they did so covertly, they have simply continued this practice without considering the research chapter, legal implications or questioning the rationale behind this decision. From what I witnessed during the incident I feel it was a positive experience overall, as it seemed as though the staff were trying to advocate for Mrs Green and by ensuring she took her prescribed medication they also ensured that she was calm and thesis, comfortable throughout her time on the ward. Research Methods! The next stage of Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle requires an analysis of the critical incident which will be conducted by examining the literature surrounding the legal and essays, ethical issues of covert medication. Haw Stubbs (2010) state that the literature relating to covert medication to research chapter dissertation, older adults is ‘sparse’ and conducted a study to review the existing studies of the subject and collins, also reviewed the methods, national guidelines of covert medication along with the legal and ethical implications of such practice. Covert medication is defined by Haw Stubbs (2010) as the practice whereby medication is administered to patients hidden in food or drink, without their knowledge or consent. Haw Stubbs (2010) describe covert medication as unethical when administered to patients who have mental capacity, capacity being defined by the Mental Capacity Act, (2005) however they give examples of when covert medication is considered to be in the patient’s best interests such as when a patient is statement about faith incapacitated as a result of learning disabilities, schizophrenia and research dissertation, more commonly in older adults diagnosed with dementia. It is widely considered more ethical to to bulid, administer medication hidden in food and drink as opposed to using forms of restraint or forcible injection (Haw Stubbs 2010, p.762). The authors also refer to English law by noting the charges that could be brought upon research methods chapter dissertation a practitioner that has administered medication covertly, such as charges of assault or battery (p.765).
The literature stipulates the thesis titles, importance of adhering to the Mental Capacity Act (2005) when making decisions to administer medication covertly and this is echoed by the requirements of the NMC’s Code of Professional Conduct (2008). Tweddle (2009) describes autonomy as the ethical principle that relates to free choice and explains that all competent adults have the right to refuse treatment or refuse to consent to treatment. It is important to consider the issue of accountability when administering medication covertly and Tweddle (2009) highlights the importance of the health care professional being able to justify their actions and prove that they were in the best interests of the patient e.g. to prevent suffering or to improve quality of chapter dissertation, life. Tweddle (2009) details the involvement of the incapacitated patient’s relatives as an important factor when making the on how, decision to administer medication covertly. Research Methods! As noted earlier, Mrs Green had no living relatives that could advocate for her which raises the issue of how the decision to essays, hide medication in research, food is made when there is no advocate for the incapacitated patient. Thesis On Blood! Tweddle (2009) recommends that the decision should not be made in isolation and that health care professionals faced with this ethical decision should liaise with other health care professionals to gain a broader perspective, however this must be done in a way that respects the confidentiality of the patient. Another notable implication of covert medication raised in the literature is that of the research chapter dissertation, need for nurses to have pharmaceutical knowledge of medications and understand the thesis in macbeth, possible implications of crushing tablets or opening capsules (Honkanen, 2001). Stages four and five of Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle require the user to establish a conclusion and dissertation, an action plan. With consideration of the above analysis of the critical incident concerning Mrs Green, I believe that the ward staff justified their decision to administer medication covertly by taking her condition into account, acknowledged her lack of thesis statement about faith, capacity to consent to treatment and ensured all discussions with the ward were documented.
The ward staff appeared to have made this decision with consideration of the methods chapter dissertation, possible result of withholding the medication. This could have resulted in essay, Mrs Greens’ health deteriorating and the decision that was eventually made to administer the medication hidden in food suggests that the research methods chapter dissertation, principled approach was used here and the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence may have conflicted, as discussed earlier. Upon reflection, if this situation arose again in practice, I would be more inclined to ask the ward sister how she would justify her decision to administer medication covertly from a legal perspective and also what my legal standing would be as a student nurse administering medication covertly under supervision. However I do believe the situation was addressed efficiently and careful ethical decisions were made with Mrs Green’s best interests at the forefront of the decision making at all times. Exploring the on how to bulid, literature relating the critical incident establishes covert medication as a complex issue that should only dissertation, take place under extreme circumstances and any practitioner who does so must be able to justify their actions, be able to provide proof and in some cases legal evidence that it was the best option for the patient. Essay! The literature frequently makes references to moral principles, highlighting the need for nurses to study ethics as an understanding of moral theories and chapter dissertation, principles is collins needed in order to research chapter dissertation, make ethical decisions in practice. It is important to note how the four moral principles are challenged in relation to patients who lack capacity, such as in the critical incident, where the thesis titles, patient lacks the ability to be autonomous. The nurse must advocate for chapter dissertation, the patient in ways that are beneficent, non-maleficent and ethically justified, something that the literature proves can be difficult due to the key principles of beneficence and introduction to poetry collins essay, non-maleficence often conflicting. Again, this is another finding that suggests it is imperative that nurses study ethics.
It is evident from research methods, examples within the literature that nurses are frequently required to make ethical decisions instantaneously and that it is only really possible to consider the full legal and ethical implications of our actions upon reflection, which highlights the importance of reflective practice in nursing. Upon further investigation it is clear from the literature that there is to poetry billy a need for more research into the benefits of reflection within nursing practice as the current literature on the subject is quite limited. Chapter! However the literature that is currently available suggests that reflection has an invaluable effect on nursing practice, something discovered within this assignment as it was only upon reflection of the critical incident that the services, full legal and ethical implications of covert medication were considered and explored further. Allmark P. (2005) Can The Study of methods chapter, Ethics Enhance Nursing Practice? Journal of Advanced Nursing 51(6), 618–624 Andrews M, Gidman J Humphreys A (1998) Reflection: does it enhance professional nursing practice? British Journal of Nursing 7 (7) 413-417 Atkins, S, Murphy K. (1993) Reflection: a review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing 18, 1188-1192 Barnett, M. (2005) Caring for a patient with COPD: a reflective account. Nursing Standard. 19(36) 41-46 Beauchamp, T L, Childress, J F (2008) Principles of Biomedical Ethics.
6th edition Oxford, Oxford University Press Burns, S, Bulman, C. (2000) Reflective Practice in Nursing: The Growth of the Professional Practitioner. 2nd Edition Blackwell Science Limited, Oxford. Chaloner, C (2007) An introduction to to bulid, ethics in nursing. Nursing Standard. 21, 32, 42-46. Chaloner, C (2007) Ethics in nursing: the way forward. Nursing Standard. 21, 38, 40-41. Edwards, S D (2009) Nursing Ethics: A Principled-Based Approach 2nd Edition, London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Forschler, S (2013) Kantian and Consequentialist Ethics: The Gap Can Be Bridged. Metaphilosophy 44(1-2) Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford. Haw, C, Stubbs J (2010) Covert Administration of research methods chapter, Medication to mba admission essay writing services vancouver, Older Adults: a review of the literature and published studies. Dissertation! Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 17 761–768 Honkanen L (2001) Point-counterpoint is it ethical to give drugs covertly to introduction to poetry billy collins, people with dementia? West J Med 174: 229 Hussey, T (2011) Just Caring.
Nursing Philosophy 2012. 13, 6-14 Johns C (1995) Framing learning through reflection within Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. (22)2, 226-234 Jones J (2007) Do not resuscitate: reflections on an ethical dilemma. Nursing Standard. 21(46), 35-39 McParland J, Scott P A, Arndt M, Dassen M, Gasull M, Lemonidou C, Valimaki M, Leino-Kilpi H (2000) Autonomy and clinical practice 1: identifying areas of concern. British Journal of Nursing 9(8) 507-513 McSherry, R., Simmons, M., Abbott, P. (2002) Evidence-Informed Nursing: A Guide for Clinical Nurses. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, London Meetoo, D (2009) Nanotechnology: is there a need for ethical principles? British Journal of Nursing 18(20) 1264-1268 Mental Capacity Act (2005) The Stationary Office, London.
Mezirow J (1990) Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood Jossey-Bass San Fransisco Noble-Adams R (1999) Ethics and chapter, Nursing Research 1: Development, Theories and Principles. British Journal of Nursing, 8(13), 888-892 Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008). Thesis Titles! Code of Professional Conduct: Standards of conduct performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London: NMC Royal College of methods dissertation, Nursing (1997)Ethical Dilemmas: Issues in thesis on blood in macbeth, Nursing and Health 43. RCN, London Schon, D. (1991) The Reflective Practitioner 2nd Edition Jossey Bass: San Francisco Somerville, D Keeling, J (2004) A Practical Approach To Promote Reflective Practice Within Nursing.
Nursing Times 100(12) 42 Taylor, B. J. (2000) Reflective Practice: A Guide for Nurses and Midwives. Open University Press, Buckingham Tweddle, F. (2009) Covert medication in older adults who lack decision-making capacity. British Journal of methods chapter dissertation, Nursing (18) 15 936-939. Is this the perfect essay for papers on martin, you? Save time and order Law and Ethics in Nursing.
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achilles anger essay Troy and the Bronze Age. Achilles' Wrath and the Plan of Zeus. Dr. Diane P. Thompson. (Adapted from Chapter 1 of “Human Responsibility and the Fall of Troy,” Diss. CUNY, 1981 Diane Thompson ) The Iliad 1 begins and research methods chapter, ends showing people in a normal state, before and after the wrath of Achilles has precipitated the plan of Zeus. In this normal state, people are capable of acting rationally, using experience and wisdom to guide their behavior. However, during the main action of the Iliad , the wrath of introduction billy collins essay Achilles and the plan of Zeus, people live in an extraordinary state of human/divine crisis, because human emotions have broken down those barriers which serve to research methods chapter dissertation protect them from the gods.2 In such a human/divine crisis, the essays papers on martin luther, disorder of human passion spreads outward, intensifying like a plague, affecting the gods themselves and disrupting the normal order of the cosmos. Dissertation? The resulting cosmic disorder is wonderfully represented in the Iliad by essays papers, the chaotic battle of the elements between the river Xanthus (water) and the god Hephaestus (fire). The passions of the gods are stimulated and magnified by the emotions of research dissertation human beings, producing an interactive intensification of violence that can only introduction to poetry collins be ultimately controlled by the plan of Zeus, requiring the deaths of Patroclus and methods, Hector. These deaths, carefully orchestrated by essay, Zeus, serve to reestablish boundaries and distance between humans and the gods: their relationships are normalized; the barriers are restored; and research dissertation, the contacts between humans and the gods are once again carefully regulated by the prudence and rituals which serve to protect people from the gods. On Blood? Human actions initiate events in the Iliad . However, once the gods are involved, people become helplessly caught up in the terrible logic of a system of rules that operate as relentlessly as the laws of physics.
This system is methods chapter, called the plan of Zeus; it is in macbeth, inexorable; it is deadly; it works itself out by causing many human deaths. It is a balance of powers rather than a system of morality . The golden scale expresses the essence of the law of Zeus--balance. Human actions upset that balance in the first place, causing the human/divine crisis of total war that governs the action of the research methods dissertation, Iliad .3. Anger is the emotion that disturbs the distance between human beings and the gods in the Iliad . Uncontrolled anger destroys orderly social relationships and upsets the balance of essays on martin correct actions necessary to keep the gods away from human beings. Anger also seems to be infectious; it can spread to other human beings and even to the gods themselves. But anger can and should be controlled, in order to preserve human society and methods dissertation, protect it from the mba admission services, wrath of the chapter dissertation, gods.4. Book 1 provides several examples of situations involving anger, demonstrating both correct and incorrect means of dealing with it. Agamemnon directs his anger against vancouver, Chryses, Calchas, and Achilles, all men with close relationships to the gods. Consequently, Agamemnon’s anger is especially dangerous, because it can so easily involve the gods.5 The anger of Chryses against Agamemnon produces the plague from Apollo. The anger of Achilles against Agamemnon sets off the wrath.
Once Achilles petitions Zeus for revenge, the plan of Zeus is put into research methods dissertation, action, which in turn sets off the anger of Hera against Zeus, as well as the anger of various other gods, each with his/her own agenda. Anger in introduction to poetry, the Iliad can be directed outward against research methods dissertation, the enemy, as in a war, or it can be directed inward, against one's own social group. These two modes of anger have radically different results: one promotes the order of the world; the other destroys it. The anger of statement about faith Chryses against Agamemnon is actually constructive. Chryses persuades Apollo to kill men who are already Chryses' enemies, and the result is that he regains his daughter. But the anger of Achilles is chapter, purely destructive, since he persuades Zeus, via Thetis, to destroy members of Achilles' own social group and glorify the enemies of that group, purely for personal honor.6. Thesis Titles? When the Iliad starts, a plague caused by Agamemnon's behavior is killing many Greeks. Chryses, a priest of Apollo, has approached Agamemnon, attempting to ransom his daughter, who is held by Agamemnon as his personal prize. Although all of the other Greeks want to honor the priest and return the girl, Agamemnon responds with anger, sending the old man away with cruel threats. The terrified priest flees, but as soon as he is safely away, he prays to Apollo, who responds by sending a plague to research dissertation kill many Greeks.
This is the essay on how to bulid, Iliad 's first example of the conjunction of research dissertation human and on blood, divine anger creating a human/divine crisis. Unaided, humans are not able to alleviate the situation once the gods have become actively involved. However, another god, Hera, takes pity on the Greeks, and research methods dissertation, she inspires Achilles to call a meeting to investigate the causes of the plague. There is a general awareness that the plague is sacred in nature, and Achilles suggests that they inquire of a seer or priest as to its specific cause. The seer Calchas explains that Apollo is angry with the Greeks because of Agamemnon’s rude treatment of Chryses. Introduction To Poetry? Only by returning Chryses’ daughter and performing ritual sacrifices will the Greeks appease Apollo's anger and stop the research methods, plague. Agamemnon initiated this human/divine crisis of collins essay plague by dissertation, his angry treatment of Chryses. He continues it by his angry treatment of another seer, insulting Calchas. Agamemnon is furious and makes no attempt to control his anger: and with rage was his black heart wholly filled, and writing, his eyes were like blazing fire ( Il. 1. Chapter Dissertation? 103-4).
Agamemnon insults Calchas bitterly, but agrees to return the essays on martin luther, girl for the sake of his people. However, he demands that the research, Greeks provide him with another prize to replace her. Achilles rises to the bait, calling Agamemnon: 'thou most covetous of introduction to poetry essay all men' ( Il. 1. 122). The struggle is on, culminating in Agamemnon’s demand for the girl Briseis, Achilles' prize, as a substitute for Chryseis, the girl he must return to Chryses. Achilles, furious, is methods dissertation, considering killing Agamemnon, when Athena appears only to him, advising (but not compelling) restraint. Hera has sent her, since she loves Achilles and faith healing, Agamemnon equally.7 Athena promises that Achilles will receive threefold rewards in the future if he controls himself now. Achilles agrees to cooperate and sheaths his sword. However, he swears an oath to Agamemnon that will become the core of the plan of Zeus: 'verily shall a longing for Achilles some day come upon the sons of the Achaeans one and all, and in that day shalt thou in methods dissertation, no wise be able to help them for all thy grief, when many shall fall in death before manslaying Hector. Thesis Statement About Healing? But thou shalt gnaw thy heart within thee in wrath that thou didst honour no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. 240-44).
So far there has been tremendous anger, the gods have been involved, but the situation is not irreversible. Agamemnon could regain his self-control; Achilles might accept sufficient apologies. It is at this point, when correct action is still possible, that the master of correct action, Nestor, rises to speak, giving good advice that could repair the methods, situation. Nestor's age and thesis, experience are sources of wisdom that can teach men how they ought to behave. Nestor tells the two quarreling leaders: Neither do thou, mighty though thou art, seek to take from him the girl . . . nor do thou, son of Peleus, be minded to strive with a king . . . for it is no common honour that is the portion of methods chapter a sceptred king to introduction to poetry collins whom Zeus giveth glory. Though thou be valiant, and a goddess mother bore thee, yet he is the mightier, seeing he is king over more. Son of Atreus, do thou check thy rage; nay, even I beg thee to let go thine anger against Achilles, who is for chapter dissertation, all the Achaeans a mighty bulwark of evil war ( Il. 1. Thesis Titles? 275-84).
Nestor’s advice weighs the relative merits of the research dissertation, two angry men and shows the thesis imagery, path to a compromise that would benefit all of the Greeks. Even Agamemnon agrees that Nestor is correct but objects that Achilles is constantly challenging his authority. Achilles replies with more angry words and they part. Agamemnon sends men to fetch Briseis from Achilles, who relinquishes her and then goes to pray to his goddess mother Thetis. Agamemnon has made a fatal error. Achilles, like Chryses and Calchas, is connected directly to the gods, which makes it incredibly dangerous to offend him. If Achilles were an ordinary Greek, no matter how good a warrior, he might go to his tent and sulk, he might even refuse to fight, causing the deaths of many Greeks, but that would not produce the human/divine crisis of the Iliad . Chapter Dissertation? However, Achilles is thesis on blood imagery in macbeth, not an ordinary warrior, he is semi-divine, and when offended he is able to approach the gods directly, precipitating the human/divine crisis that will result in the terrible wave of deaths that constitutes both the research chapter, wrath of Achilles and essays papers on martin, the plan of Zeus.8. Achilles seeks the payment of a debt that Zeus owes to Thetis. Achilles asks Thetis to remind Zeus of this debt and then beg him to help the Trojans against the Greeks, so that Agamemnon 'may know his blindness in that he honoured no whit the best of the Achaeans' ( Il . 1. Research Methods Dissertation? 411-12).
Thetis weeps and replies that now Achilles will be doomed to a speedy death, but she goes to on martin luther petition Zeus. Meanwhile the Greeks return the girl to methods chapter Chryses, perform the correct rituals of sacrifice, and Chryses prays to Apollo to stop the plague. This aspect of Agamemnon's anger is not irrevocable; he is able by means of the proper expiatory behavior to persuade Apollo to stop the plague. However, this can only happen because Chryses, the man originally offended by Agamemnon, forgives him and prays to Apollo to stop the plague. Agamemnon has to statement about healing do several things to stop the sacred plague: expiate his offense to the priest, Chryses, by returning the girl; expiate his offense to Apollo by offering sacrifice; and gain the methods dissertation, forgiveness of Chryses, who approached Apollo in the first place.
If Chryses had been hardhearted, one can be sure that the Greeks alone could not have appeased Apollo sufficiently to stop the plague, which was produced to honor Chryses rather than merely to punish the Greeks. This theme of forgiveness will be echoed in essay, the later stress on Achilles' hardness of heart. The path to methods chapter the god is via the man connected to the god; consequently forgiveness, or the resolution of a human/divine crisis, must be mediated by the emotions of human beings, just as the original offense was produced by human emotions. On the twelfth day Thetis visits Zeus and asks him to honor her son Achilles, who has been dishonored by Agamemnon. Essay On How To Bulid? She asks Zeus to help the Trojans until the Greeks show honor to Achilles and give him gifts to compensate for the dishonor he has suffered. Zeus agrees reluctantly to do what she requests and makes the promise irrevocable by bowing his head, saying 'no word of mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, whereto I bow my head' ( Il. 1. 526-27). Now there can be no forgiveness, no good advice, no easy reconciliation. Events have escalated to a full human/divine crisis, and from this point until the final resolution, human actions will be largely determined by the terrible plan of Zeus.9. Once the distance between humans and the gods is methods, collapsed, and the human anger of Achilles and vancouver, Agamemnon has involved the gods, many humans must die until the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus are fulfilled.
Achilles has initiated the mass killing of his fellow Greeks by his petition to research chapter dissertation Zeus to give him honor. There is no longer a rational, human-centered means of defusing the situation. Agamemnon was able to return the girl to in macbeth Chryses and end the plague. He can no longer solve his relationship to Achilles by merely returning Briseis to him, because Zeus has promised to give Achilles honor by research methods chapter, having the Trojans kill many Greeks. The quarrel between two leaders has turned into the willful destruction of many of their own people. Achilles has committed a terrible act by turning his anger from Agamemnon onto the masses of Greek soldiers. This parallels the situation where Chryses prayed to Apollo that the Greeks might pay for his tears.
But there are two critical differences: Chryses begged Apollo to destroy men who were properly his enemies; Achilles has persuaded Zeus to destroy Greeks. Thesis Titles? Strictly speaking, it is the Myrmidons who are Achilles' own people. Research Chapter Dissertation? However, the price he finally pays for his behavior strongly suggests that he should never have petitioned Zeus to allow the Trojans to kill the Greeks. Furthermore, Apollo is not Zeus. Apollo reacts to Chryses’ prayer by thesis titles, sending a plague, not by making a plan that must be fulfilled. From the human point of view, the struggle between Agamemnon and Achilles cannot be solved; both have grievances and both have power.
From the divine point of view, only research methods a radical realignment of their relationship can check the violence of their mutual anger. The anger of Agamemnon has spread like an introduction billy, infection, first producing the dissertation, plague, and then inflaming Achilles, leading to mba admission essay vancouver the events of Achilles' wrath and the plan of Zeus, paralleling the anger of Chryses and the plague of Apollo. The plan of Zeus centers on mass killing of Greeks until Hector kills Patroclus, Achilles' best friend. The death of Patroclus is the price Achilles pays for his wrath; the death of Hector is the price the Trojans pay for the death of Patroclus; and Achilles' death will be the price for the death of methods dissertation Hector. All these prices help to reestablish the balance account between human beings and the gods, between heroic wrath and fraternal sanity, between war and peace. Patroclus' death finally deflects the wrath of Achilles away from the Greeks onto thesis the more suitable figure of Hector. Achilles kills and mutilates Hector in a state of beastlike rage that only subsides when Priam comes to ask for his son’s body. Prompted by the gods, Achilles returns Hector’s body for burial and prepares Patroclus' funeral. Achilles, finally calm, is no longer a source of violence and danger within the research methods dissertation, Greek camp. Thesis Titles? His wrath is over, and the plan of Zeus has been fulfilled.
Patroclus must die because he is a substitute for the deadly Achilles who has taken a step far more destructive than the research chapter, anger of Agamemnon, by praying to Zeus to let the writing, Trojans kill the Greeks.10 Patroclus dies instead of Achilles. That is why he wears Achilles' armor and why his identity becomes so merged with Achilles' during his last battle.11 Hector must die because he kills Patroclus and because he is the main Trojan who participates in dissertation, the plan of mba admission essay writing services vancouver Zeus, killing many Greeks. Both Patroclus and Hector are killed by the direct involvement of gods and humans; both die wearing the armor of Achilles. Chapter? Both die in on martin, a state of delusion sent by the gods, which is only lifted at the moment of their deaths. Both die knowing it is the methods chapter dissertation, will of the gods, not the strength of men, that is killing them. The funerals of Patroclus and Hector provide the introduction to poetry collins, mustering out of the violent emotions that have drawn the gods down into human life. Dissertation? Patroclus must die because Achilles cannot cease from his murderous rage against the Greeks. Even as he prepares to send Patroclus out to statement fight in his stead, Achilles says: `I would, O father Zeus, and Athene, and Apollo, that no man of the Trojans might escape death, of all that there are, neither any of the Argives, but that we twain might escape destruction, that alone we might loose the research, sacred diadem of Troy' ( Il . 14. 97-100).
Achilles is papers on martin luther, just as dangerous to the Greeks as he is to the Trojans, even though the research methods chapter, wrath acts indirectly, by willing that the Trojans kill the Greeks, rather than by on how to bulid, killing the Greeks directly. Achilles' wrath is violence run wild within the society of the Greeks. Achilles finally sends out his troops to help the research methods chapter dissertation, Greek army, because he pities his friend's pity, not because he personally cares about the fate of the Greeks. Achilles observes Patroclus crying at the opening of book 16 and statement healing, asks the reason. Patroclus replies that he weeps for the terrible injuries and deaths that the Greeks have suffered and requests that he might wear Achilles' armor and research chapter, take the Myrmidons into introduction billy essay, battle. The narrator comments of Patroclus at this point: So spake he in prayer, fool that he was, for in sooth it was to be his own evil death and fate for which he prayed ( Il . Dissertation? 16. Collins? 46-47).
As he moves toward his death, Patroclus will increasingly become a sacred fool, a victim, manipulated by the gods for ends he does not comprehend. Unknowing, he will fit into the plan of Zeus and the ultimate fulfillment and cessation of the wrath of Achilles. Research Chapter Dissertation? Patroclus is a kind, gentle man. He interrupts an errand for Achilles in order to bind up the wound of Eurypylus. He is the thesis on blood imagery, one who weeps for the dying Greeks.
He is research, also the man closest to Achilles; they are like brothers. As Patroclus dons the armor of Achilles, his role as a substitute for Achilles is stressed. Patroclus hopes that if he wears Achilles' armor, the Trojans will mistake him for Achilles, increasing his impact as a warrior. Essays On Martin Luther? Achilles' armor does increase Patroclus' value as an Achilles-substitute, deflecting Achilles' anger finally away from the Greeks onto research methods dissertation the Trojans, as well as paying the price for the plan of Zeus. It is not clear why Achilles lets Patroclus go out in his armor rather than going himself. Achilles responds to Patroclus' request to go out and fight by saying: `Dread grief is this to me, seeing I have suffered woes at on how to bulid heart….
Howbeit these things will we let be, as past and research chapter dissertation, done. In no way, meseems, was I to be filled with ceaseless wrath at heart; yet verily I deemed that I should not make an end of essays on martin mine anger until the hour when unto mine own ships should come the research methods chapter dissertation, war-cry and the battle' ( Il . 16. 55-63). Achilles does not understand the plan of Zeus, nor the sacrifice that he is making of his dearest friend in order to fulfill that plan. Before sending Patroclus forth, Achilles makes a ritual drink offering to Zeus, praying that Patroclus might drive the Trojans back from the Greek ships, and imagery in macbeth, that he might return safely: So spake he in prayer, and Zeus, the counsellor, heard him, and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied ( Il . 16. 249-52). Patroclus, in Achilles' armor, routs the Trojans who think that he is Achilles. The approaching death of Patroclus takes on a quality of compulsion that is extreme, even for this poem about the wills of the gods exercised upon the lives of men. Zeus, the research methods dissertation, director of the war-scene, arranges Patroclus' death for maximum effect.
[Zeus] ever looked down upon them, and debated in heart, pondering much about the slaying of Patroclus, whether in the fierce conflict even there over essays papers on martin luther, godlike Sarpedon, glorious Hector should slay him likewise with the sword, and should strip the armour from his shoulders, or whether for research methods chapter, yet more men he should make the utter toil of war to wax. And as he pondered, this thing seemed to him the better, that the valiant squire of Achilles, Peleus' son, should again drive toward the city the Trojans and Hector. About Faith? ( Il . 16. 646-54) Patroclus had been warned by Achilles to drive the Trojans back from the ships, but not to pursue them across the plain to Troy. However, we see him doing just that, driven by Zeus, and yet somehow responsible for research chapter dissertation, his behavior: Patroclus . . . pressed after the Trojans and Lycians, and was greatly blinded in heart, fool that he was! for thesis statement faith, had he observed the word of the son of Peleus, he would verily have escaped the evil fate of black death. Methods? But ever is the intent of Zeus stronger than that of men, for he driveth even a valiant man in rout, and robbeth him of victory full easily, and again of himself he rouseth men to fight; and he it was that now put fury in the breast of Patroclus. ( Il . 16. 648-91) This extraordinary passage sums up the paradox of the death of Patroclus. Zeus drives Patroclus to thesis statement about faith healing his death, yet Patroclus is responsible in some obscure way; he should have obeyed Achilles' instructions. But he could not obey those instructions, because Zeus has him under his control.
Zeus drives Patroclus to excess and death because of the excesses of Achilles, whose debt to the gods Patroclus must now pay. The odd blame attached to him really belongs to Achilles, who is generally not blamed at all. Achilles petitioned Zeus for redress; Patroclus' death is the methods, price of that petition. Driven by Zeus, Patroclus leads the Greeks in papers, slaughtering the Trojans. Methods Chapter Dissertation? Patroclus’ magnitude increases until he is godlike in mba admission essay services vancouver, his ability to kill. He has incarnated the violence of Achilles, which up to now had been, in effect, turned against the Greeks. As Patroclus reaches the full stature of his incarnation of Achilles as semi-divine violence, he also reaches the end of research methods chapter his life: Patroclus with fell intent leapt upon the Trojans. Thrice then leapt he upon them, the peer of swift Ares, crying a terrible cry, and thrice he slew nine men.
But when for the fourth time he rushed on, like a god, then for thesis statement healing, thee, Patroclus, did the end of life appear; for Phoebus met thee in research methods chapter dissertation, the fierce conflict, an awful god. ( Il . 16. 783-89) He is the peer of Ares the war god; he is like a god. He is the thesis statement about faith, violence of Achilles in a form that can and research methods chapter, must be killed in introduction billy collins essay, order to fulfill Zeus' plan. He is, in short, a victim, the price Achilles must pay for his wrath. Methods Dissertation? Patroclus, for all his glory as a warrior, dies the death of a victim, struck down first by Apollo: And Patroclus marked him not as he passed through the turmoil, for enfolded in thick mist did he meet him; and Apollo took his stand behind him, and smote his back and broad shoulders with the flat of his hand, and thesis titles, his eyes were made to whirl. And from his head Phoebus Apollo smote the helmet, that rang as it rolled beneath the research methods, feet of the horses--the crested helm; and the plumes were befouled with blood and dust…. And in the hands of Patroclus the far-shadowing spear was wholly broken, the spear, heavy, and huge, and strong … and from his shoulders the tasselled shield with its baldric fell to statement healing the ground, and his corselet did Apollo loose--the prince, the son of Zeus. Then blindness seized his mind, and chapter dissertation, his glorious limbs were loosed beneath him, and on martin luther, he stood in a daze. ( Il. 16. 789-806) After Patroclus has been stunned and disarmed by Apollo, Euphorbus, a Trojan, hurls a spear at him, and only after that does Hector thrust his spear into Patroclus' belly for the final stroke of death.
The dying Patroclus realizes he has been killed first of research all by the gods, and he tells the foolishly boasting Hector: `Nay, it was baneful Fate and the son of Leto that slew me, and of men Euphorbus, while thou art the third in my slaying. And another thing will I tell thee … thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by statement about, thee, and might fate, that thou be slain beneath the hands of Achilles' ( Il. 16. Chapter Dissertation? 849-54). Patroclus and Hector are the two men whose deaths are required to fulfill the plan of Zeus. Patroclus had to die to pay for the excesses of thesis titles Achilles, and to deflect the anger of Achilles from the Greeks to the Trojans.
Hector must die because he has been the murderous agent of research chapter Achilles' wrath, killing the Greeks so that Achilles might receive honor according to to poetry essay the bitter plan of research chapter dissertation Zeus. Hector’s death will complete the wrath of Achilles and the plan of Zeus. Hector, the final victim of the thesis about faith healing, plan of research Zeus, strips the body of Patroclus and exchanges his armor for the armor of Achilles. Thesis Statement Healing? This is essential so that he may more perfectly be the research chapter dissertation, final victim of the wrath, killed by a conjunction of gods and men, as was Patroclus. Zeus observes doomed Hector donning the armor of Achilles: Ah, poor wretch, death verily is to poetry essay, not in they thoughts, that yet draweth nigh thee; but thou art putting upon thee the immortal armour of a princely man before whom others besides thee are wont to quail. His comrade, kindly and valiant, hast thou slain, and in unseemly wise hast stripped the armour from his head and research chapter, shoulders. Howbeit for this present will I vouchsafe thee great might, in recompense for this--that in no wise shalt thou return from out the battle. ( Il. 17. 201-07) Zeus then makes the armor fit Hector's body, and there entered into him Ares … and his limbs were filled within with valour and with might ( Il . 17. 210-12).
Hector, like Patroclus, is enhanced and essay to bulid, glorified to increase the value of research methods his death. Just as Patroclus had to become glorious in the immortal armor in order to be killed as a substitute for Achilles, now Hector, in the same armor, is thesis titles, glorified so that his death can better absorb the force of research methods Achilles' violence.12. Achilles’ anger against the Greeks is now redirected onto a more suitable object--the leader of the enemy army, Hector, who has been acting out Achilles' rage against the Greeks. Thetis, weeping, tells Achilles that, `straightway after Hector is thine own death ready at hand' ( Il. 18.
96). This, too, will restore balance, since Achilles ultimately has been the one responsible for the deaths of the Greeks. The death of Hector will be the next to final price for Achilles' wrath, since it is the precondition for Achilles' own death. Achilles tells Thetis that he is introduction essay, willing to die, since he did not help Patroclus in his moment of need. Further, Achilles accepts responsibility for the destruction his wrath has caused: `Now, therefore, seeing I return not to my dear native land, neither proved anywise a light of deliverance to Patroclus nor to research chapter my other comrades, those many that have been slain by goodly Hector, but abide here by to poetry billy collins, the ships a profitless burden upon the earth . . . so may strife perish from dissertation among gods and men, and anger that setteth a man on to grow wroth, how wise soever he be.' ( Il. 18.
101-8) After acknowledging the destructiveness of his anger, Achilles finally exercises self-control over his emotions, telling his mother, `Howbeit these things we will let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in our breasts, because we must. But now will I go forth that I may light on about faith the slayer of the man I loved, even on Hector; for my fate, I will accept it whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to pass' ( Il . 18. 112-16). Having accepted his responsibility and his fate, Achilles will dress in the immortal armor made for him by Hephaestus and research methods chapter, complete the violence of the wrath, killing many Trojans in a bloody fury that leads up to the final killing of Hector wearing armor that makes him look like Achilles, like another self. The gods prepare Hector for statement about healing, his death, just as they arranged for his earlier glory in battle. As the research methods chapter dissertation, Trojans flee into their city, escaping Achilles’ wrath on the battlefield, Hector is stopped outside the city walls. Hector did deadly fate ensnare to abide there where he was in front of papers on martin Ilios ( Il . 22. 5-6). Apollo had diverted Achilles away from the research dissertation, city, so that all of the Trojans except Hector could escape within.
Priam is the first to see Achilles finally approaching Troy, and he begs Hector to come within the gates, but Hector is essay writing vancouver, furiously eager to do battle with Achilles ( Il . Research Dissertation? 22. 36). Hector resists Priam's tearful pleading--he is willing to die to pay the price for his error in not properly leading the Trojans and debates within himself: Ah, woe is me, if I go within the gates and the walls Polydamas will be the first to put reproach upon me, for that he bade me lead the thesis titles, Trojans to the city during this fatal night, when goodly Achilles arose. Howbeit I hearkened not--verily it had been better far! But now, seeing I have brought the host to dissertation ruin in my blind folly, I have shame of the Trojans . . . for introduction, me it were better far to meet Achilles man to man and slay him, and so get me home, or myself perish gloriously before the research dissertation, city. ( Il. 22. 99-110) This parallels the blame attached to Patroclus, who should have obeyed the instructions of Achilles, although he could not because Zeus drove him to fury. But Patroclus and Hector must appear sufficiently guilty (or responsible for disaster, if one dislikes the term guilt applied to Homeric Greeks),13 so that their deaths can appear to be appropriate to them, rather than to Achilles, for whom they are substitute victims.14. Hector is in a state of confusion before the walls of Troy. He quickly vacillates in statement about faith, his feelings from wanting to face Achilles like a hero to wondering if he can offer to return Helen and much treasure, ending the war then and there. Chapter? Hector does not want to play the role of introduction collins victim assigned to him, and when Achilles finally draws close, Hector begins to run away.
This scene takes on qualities of the research chapter, funeral games, where the prizes are no longer life or death--they celebrate a death that has already occurred. This race is a game before the funeral, a rite made into a dramatic situation. The narrator remarks: it was not for beast of sacrifice or for bull's hide that they strove … but it was for the life of horse-taming Hector that they ran ( Il . 22. 159-61). Hector's life is indeed the mba admission essay writing services, prize in this race and the price of Patroclus' death.
To be worthy of this role, Hector must be excellent, the research methods, best available. So at just this moment when Hector's race is most like a funeral rite, Zeus, knowing full well that Hector must die, addresses his fellow gods, as if Hector could be saved, and remarks on his excellence and piety: Look you now, in sooth a well-loved man do mine eyes behold pursued around the wall; and my heart hath sorrow for Hector, who hath burned for me many thighs of oxen . . . but now again is goodly Achilles pursuing him with swift feet around the city of Priam. Nay then, come, ye gods, bethink you and take counsel whether we shall save him from death, or now at length shall slay him, good man though he be, by the hand of Achilles, son of Pelleus. ( Il . 22. 168-76) Athena correctly replies that Hector has been doomed by fate and cannot be saved. Hector's excellence becomes that of a fleeing animal. First, he is compared to a racing horse, then to a fawn chased by a hound. So that Hector may excel in this role, Apollo gives him swiftness for the last time. On How To Bulid? This is research methods, necessary because Achilles is swift-footed and requires a victim who can excel at running, just as his violence requires a victim who can excel at violence.
Having been as violent as a deity in the armor of Achilles, Hector is now swift as a deer in the armor of Achilles--a perfect match, a perfect victim for Achilles. Writing Services? Hector's death proceeds with the chapter, finality of a funeral race. On the fourth circuit of Troy15 Zeus lifts his scales: and thesis statement about, set therein two fates of grievous death, one for Achilles, and one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades ( Il . 22. 209-13). The scale is a perfect image for deciding the death of Hector because it functions to establish balance . The balance of human emotions and of the right separation between humans and gods has been disturbed by violence spreading outward from dissertation Agamemnon and Achilles; the death of Hector will being to on blood imagery in macbeth reestablish this balance and separation.16. Hector must die to restore balance in research chapter, the world. Once the scale of Zeus has objectified this necessity, the gods proceed to thesis titles prepare Hector’s death. Apollo leaves Hector and research methods, Athena comes to Achilles.
She will prepare the victim to die in a dignified manner. Achilles is mba admission essay vancouver, evidently tired from methods chapter so much running, so Athena tells him to rest while she fetches his victim. She then goes to Hector, and disguised as his brother Dephobos, urges him to stand and fight Achilles. Deluded into believing he has help, Hector prepares to meet Achilles, offering to fight according to the covenants of thesis titles civilized men. Achilles rejects any talk of covenants, saying: `No more is there any escape for thee, but forthwith shall Pallas Athene lay thee low by my spear. Now shalt thou pay back the full price of all my sorrows for my comrades, whom thou didst slay when raging with thy spear' ( Il . 22. Methods? 270-72). Luther? The death of Hector, killed by methods, both a god and a man, will be the essay, price for the death of Patroclus, as well as for the many dead Greeks. Methods Chapter? Of course, Hector was only able to kill those many Greeks because Achilles had withdrawn from the battle in his wrath and had persuaded Zeus to thesis titles let the Trojans have dominance over the Greeks. Hector's death is the final focus for all the violence and research methods dissertation, death caused by Achilles' anger and the plan of Zeus.
Hector's death will end the wrath, but it will bring no joy to Achilles, who knows he will die soon after.17. Hector’s mutilation is a critical element of his death, beginning when he asks Achilles for covenants, and billy, continuing throughout the rest of the Iliad . Research Methods Dissertation? Achilles' wrath has gone beyond all possibility of covenants. Achilles is not satisfied with merely killing Hector; he continues to exercise his rage upon the corpse. After Achilles, aided by Athena, has fatally wounded Hector, but left the windpipe intact so that he can speak, Hector's one concern is that his body be returned to his family unmutilated, while Achilles' concern is that the dogs and birds shall rend Hector's corpse while Patroclus receives proper burial. Achilles, wrathful beyond humanity, tells the dying Hector: `Would that in any wise wrath and fury might bid me carve thy flesh and myself eat it raw, because of what thou hast wrought, as surely as there lives no man that shall ward off the dogs from thy head' ( Il . 22.
346-48). Achilles continues to statement healing abuse Hector's body even after the funeral and games for Patroclus. Every night he weeps for Patroclus, and at dawn every day he fastens Hector's corpse behind his chariot, drags him three times around the mound of Patroclus, and then leaves him lying in chapter, the dust. Howbeit Apollo kept all defacement from his flesh, pitying the essays luther, warrior even in death, and with the golden aegis he covered him wholly, that Achilles might not tear his body as he dragged him ( Il . 24. 18-21). Such continuing abuse of research methods chapter dissertation a dead body was beyond the pale of acceptable behavior. On the twelfth day Apollo, the god of purification, speaks out among the gods against Achilles' behavior. Zeus determines that Achilles must relinquish Hector's body, so he sends Iris to Priam `to bid him go to the ships of the Achaeans to ransom his dear son, and to bear gifts unto Achilles which shall make glad his heart' ( Il . 24. 118-19).
Just as Patroclus and Hector paid the price for Achilles' wrath, now Priam must pay the price even more literally, with ransom to recover his dead son and release Achilles from his obsessive connection to the corpse. This ransom is essay, a step back towards civilization and methods chapter, covenants, where men may make a deal instead of killing one another. After Achilles has killed Hector, other Greeks run up and gaze at mba admission essay vancouver the body; each speaks and inflicts a wound on the corpse. Hector's death is a community affair and the resulting funeral ceremonies will purify the entire community, which has been polluted by an excess of research dissertation death. The funeral of Patroclus, with its human sacrifices, defuses much of the passion and pollution of the Greeks due to the many deaths they have suffered during the wrath. The plan of Zeus has been completed, but the essays, reestablishment of normal relations among men and research methods chapter dissertation, between men and the gods requires careful rituals and elaborately civilized behavior in order to succeed. On How To Bulid? The funeral games for dissertation, Patroclus are the focus for the reestablishment of human social order as the passions of men calm down and the gods recede from human affairs.
There are minor interventions of gods in the funeral games, but men are now able to handle these interferences without any deadly result. Although there are incipient quarrels about place and worth and prizes, Achilles is now able to graciously defuse anger and distribute prizes to keep the peace. This reintegrates Achilles back into human society from faith which he had withdrawn during his wrath. The plan of Zeus was a response to the wrath of Achilles. This plan shows a pattern of cause and effect which operates with the logic of the sacred, and the dual (or multiple) causation of a system that describes events as occurring for not one, but for two or more reasons, such as anger being produced by a man's emotions and by the influence of a god, or the research chapter dissertation, combination of god-sent delusion and human folly leading to thesis titles a disastrous action. Research Methods Chapter? Humans are most vulnerable to multiple or sacred causation when their passions are strong and thesis titles, their self-control weak. In such a state, men may offend those who are close to the gods, priests and semi-divine heroes such as Achilles, who in turn may call down the gods into human affairs. This creates a state of research methods dissertation imbalance in the entire cosmos, among the essay on how to bulid, gods as well as among men. This imbalance not only research chapter dissertation causes human suffering, but discomfort to the gods, such as the wounding of Aphrodite and Ares and the struggle between Hephaestus and Xanthus. It is the role of Zeus to create plans to reestablish balance and the appropriate separation between gods and men. Human anger is the starting point for everything that happens in the Iliad . The anger of Agamemnon and the responsive angers of introduction to poetry billy essay Chryses and research methods, Achilles are the events that initiate the introduction billy collins essay, plague and the wrath.
The Iliad was used for centuries much as the Bible has been used, as a source of historical information that provides sacred and moral instruction.18 At first this is difficult for us to understand, as indeed it became difficult for some Greeks to understand by the time of Plato. Homer has been accused for a very long time of telling lies about the gods. But, considered as a sacred story, the message of the Iliad is extremely clear and deeply religious, although it expresses a religion very different from the Judeo-Christian heritage within which we are immersed. The Iliad instructs people in the profound and simple fact that if they do not control their passions, they will disrupt the balance between the human world and the gods and create a crisis, which can only be resolved by many deaths. Despite all the confusions of multiple causations, the events of the Iliad happen because Agamemnon lost his temper and because Achilles, via Thetis, petitioned Zeus for revenge.19.
Both Agamemnon and Achilles learn, by means of the tragic results of their unleashed anger, that it is better for research methods chapter, a man to exercise self-control. As early as book 9, Agamemnon recognizes his folly as Nestor points it out to him, and he attempts to make amends.20 Once Patroclus is dead, Achilles realizes that he was responsible for what has happened to his friend and to all of the Greeks, and he attempts to make amends ( Il . 18. 101-8). However, once the to bulid, gods have been drawn in, once Zeus has made his plan, humans can no longer simply make amends. They must then act out the complex sorrows of research chapter dissertation passion and death until the plan of Zeus is fulfilled and normal life is restored.
The Iliad not only shows the catastrophic results of unleashed passion, but also gives clear examples of men exercising self-control and of an entire complex technology of correct behavior that serves to channel the sacred by means of proper rituals, thus keeping the gods at a safe distance from humankind.21. Nestor and Diomedes provide models of religiously and socially correct behavior, which are much the same thing in the Iliad , since anger can draw the gods down into human affairs. Both men know exactly how to behave in order to be excellent and on blood in macbeth, yet not involve the gods in research methods chapter, any improper and thesis titles, dangerous manner. Nestor gives correct advice to the quarreling Agamemnon and Achilles in book 1. Agamemnon acknowledges that Nestor is correct, yet he ignores his advice, as does Achilles. On the other hand, although Diomedes is able to fight almost like a god, he is always aware of exactly when to stop; he commits no offenses that might draw down divine reprisals upon the human community.22. Research Methods Chapter Dissertation? The funeral games portray the reestablishment of correct and normal human community, after the violence of Achilles has been released by the deaths of Patroclus and Hector. Purified of the wrath, Achilles is the ideal leader who arranges games as a form of to bulid contained and peaceful competition, where conflicts can be resolved without violence. The gods are still present, but men now can control at least some of their own actions, using knowledge and skill. Research Methods? The interrelationship of on how to bulid human skill, passion, and research dissertation, the gods is set forth in the chariot race, which is an exemplum of correct behavior in a potentially dangerous situation. When Antilochus tries to claim the prize for second place in the chariot race, Menelaus angrily demands judgment from the leaders of the Greeks: `Come now, ye leaders and rulers of the Argives, judge ye aright betwixt us twain, neither have regard unto either, ( Il . 23.
583-84). The world is now sufficiently normalized that human judgment can be called for and applied effectively, which was definitely not the case during the wrath, when whatever men did merely fulfilled the plan of writing services vancouver Zeus. When Menelaus demands that Antilochus swear an oath that he did not use trickery to pass him, instead of pursuing the conflict, Antilochus graciously backs down, which is prudent, since he had in fact used trickery to pass him. Men are now able to compromise in a spirit of social righteousness, which is research methods chapter dissertation, also religious righteousness. After Antilochus apologizes for being young and importunate, Menelaus graciously forgives him. This is the thesis titles, human social order, as it ought to function and chapter, can indeed function so long as men control their passions and behave correctly and in a lawful manner. The gods are always present as a potential for disorder. Athena broke the chariot of one man in the race, and caused Diomedes' horses to win first place. This form of divine involvement, while important, need not be lethal. One man suffers a spill; no one dies.
However, had Antilochus and Menelaus not been able to compromise and control their anger, that escalation of anger from one to the other and back again could have built up tensions that might have again shattered the boundaries between men and thesis titles, the gods. Research Methods Chapter? The funeral games display a social order based on correct behavior, contained competitiveness and self-control. So long as these conditions are maintained, and they are maintained now largely because of the excellence of leadership provided by Achilles, human society will remain relatively safe from the affliction of the papers luther, gods. 1. Homer, The Iliad , trans. A. T. Research Methods Chapter Dissertation? Murray, 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library (1925; rpt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U P, 1967). Cited as Iliad . All references are to writing the line numbers of the research chapter, Greek text, although only the corresponding English translations will be quoted. 2. W. C. Greene comments that “This instinctive feeling of a barrier between man and god, this fear that any presumption on the part of man may cause the gods to take offence, lines behind not only the ethical ideas of the essays luther, Homeric age but the research dissertation, prudential morality of the historic period.
Fear of overstepping barriers is the element common to the Homeric Aidos and the sanctity of oaths…” ( Moira: Fate, Good and Evil in Greek Thought [1942; rpt. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1968], 20). Walter Otto remarks of Homer that “There is mba admission services vancouver, no doubt that all excess was repellent to him, and most of all where it seemed to achieve its greatest miracle: the removal of the bounds between the finite and the infinite, between man and god” ( The Homeric Gods , trans. Moses Hadas [1954; rpt. Research Chapter? New York: Octagon Books, 1978], 158-159). 3. There is much debate as to what are the causes of human behavior in the Iliad . Gods as well as daimons can affect, and at times control what humans perceive and do. E. R. Dodds, in The Greeks and the Irrational (1951; rpt.
Berkeley: U of thesis titles California P, 1973), 13, comments that in Homer, “all departures from normal human behavior whose causes are not immediately perceived, whether by the subject’s own consciousness or by the observation of research methods others, are ascribed to a supernatural agency, just as is on blood imagery in macbeth, any departure from the research methods chapter dissertation, normal behaviour of the weather or the thesis titles, normal behaviour of research methods dissertation a bowstring.” According to Greene, Homer recognizes two reasons for essay on how to bulid, excessive human behavior, or hybris : “…the abuse of human freedom of the will, resulting in a hardened character, which is atasthalie ; and … the research methods, heaven-sent power of on blood in macbeth evil, which is Ate …” (20-21). Since self-control is praised and rewarded, while excessive behavior precipitates disasters in the Iliad , it is reasonable to suppose that human beings were considered capable of self-control, at research methods dissertation least under normal circumstances. 4. If restraint and self-control were not deemed possible, the Iliad would be a bitter tale indeed. Helen North comments in Sophrosyne: Self-Knowledge and Self-Restraint in Greek Literature (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1966), 6-7: “That the poet of the Iliad was himself keenly sensitive to essays papers luther the need for such restraint, both to dissertation avert disaster in the life of the individual and to prevent a society made up of self-assertive heroes from destroying itself, is evident from the content of to poetry collins many individual episodes and from the very pattern of the poem, determined as it is by the sequence of cause and effect, beginning with the hybris of Agamemnon and the unbounded wrath of Achilles, and culminating in the scene where Achilles achieves a kind of tragic self-knowledge in response to Priam’s appeal to his aids ( Il. 24. 503).” 5. C. M. Bowra, in Heroic Poetry (1952; rpt. Chapter Dissertation? New York: St. Martin’s, 1966), 87, comments that the “… gods are regarded not as types of goodness but simply as embodiments of power who govern human affairs. There is nothing wrong in thesis about faith, opposing them, but it is extremely dangerous.” If there is a wrong in this opposition, it lies not in a sin against methods, the gods, but in the damages the gods may wreak, if angered, upon ones fellow men.
6. A. W. Adkins remarks in From the Many to the One, Studies in the Humanities, ed. Max Black (Ithaca: Cornell U P, 1970) that “…in Homeric society … the most powerful terms of denigration are applied quite simply to thesis titles failure to ensure the safety and well-being of the members of the group of which one is the head. It makes no difference to the evaluation of the situation whether the failure results from cowardice, or from mistake or force majeure: only the result is taken into account” (29). In these terms both Achilles and Agamemnon are very much to blame for the deaths that follow their anger. Methods Chapter Dissertation? 7. R. On Blood In Macbeth? Girard, in Violence and the Sacred (1972, trans. Patrick Gregory [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U P, 1977]), commenting on the qualities of Greek tragedy, points out that the symmetrical equality of the protagonists is a crucial quality: “Whether the violence is physical or verbal, the dissertation, suspense remains the same.
The adversaries match blow for blow . . . it is mba admission services, impossible to predict the outcome of the battle. … Tragedy is the balancing of the scale, not of justice, but of methods violence” (44-45). One can easily imagine that if Hera had not loved Agamemnon and Achilles equally, the outcome of the quarrel would have quickly been settled by the victory of her favorite. The very equality of Agamemnon and mba admission essay services vancouver, Achilles in the eyes of the gods increases their ability to precipitate a state of sacred crisis. 8. The deaths of masses of Greeks in the Iliad have a sacrificial quality, as do the more important deaths of Patroclus and research, Hector. This is especially suggested by the extensive use of fire imagery in the Iliad , which has been examined by Cedric Whitman in Homer and the Heroic Tradition (1958; rpt. New York: Norton, 1965) 129-30: “…fire itself, or comparisons of things to fire, forms a remarkable pattern of on blood in macbeth association, all centering around the theme of heroic passion and death. … It begins naturally enough, with sacrifices and funeral pyres. The first fire we hear of research methods dissertation is in essay, the prayer of Chryses, who reminds Apollo of the chapter dissertation, sacrifices he has burned. Shortly thereafter the pyres of the dead blaze in the Greek camp. Essay Vancouver? …” Fire, especially the research methods chapter dissertation, fire of funeral pyres, provides a nexus of the relationship between men, death, and the gods. 9. An example of this occurs in books 3 and mba admission essay vancouver, 4 of the Iliad , when the Greeks and Trojans try to end the research methods chapter dissertation, war reasonably, by mba admission vancouver, means of a judicial combat between Paris and Menelaus, the contending parties in the war.
But Aprhrodite snatches Paris out of danger and the council of the gods reinitiates fighting by research dissertation, sending Athene to provoke Pandarus, a Trojan, into shooting an arrow, thus breaking the truce. During the thesis on blood, sacred crisis, men’s wisest and best efforts are liable to research methods fail completely, because they do not fit the intentions of the gods. 10. Heroes are extremely dangerous, in life and in thesis statement healing, death. Martin Nilsson remarks: “The hero-cult … is research methods, designed to appease the mighty dead, who are by no means slow to wrath. Essay? … It is the rule, even in historical examples, that the [dead] hero’s wrath sends disasters, plague, and famine, and that he is appeased according to the instructions of Delphi” ( A History of Greek Religion , trans. F. J. Fielden, 2nd ed [1925; rev. ed. 1952; rpt. New York: Norton, 1964], 194). 11.
According to Whitman: “There can be little doubt that the change in Patroclus’ character and characteristic epithets is not due simply to his presence in research, a battle scene. … Patroclus is playing the role of Achilles. For the moment he has become Achilles, and acts much more like the great hero than like himself” (200). 12. R. Lattimore comments on the disparity between Hector’s glory and his actual deeds: “the reputation of Hektor continually surpasses his achievement. … his only on how to bulid really great victim is research methods chapter, Patroklos; and from Patroklos he runs, and to bulid, must be rallied to fight him…. Much of what he does is by divine favour. Apollo picks him up when he is research chapter, down, and Zeus is collins essay, behind his charges” ( The Iliad of Homer , trans. and intro. by R. Lattimore [1951; rpt. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961]. 35). 13.
Dodds would use the word “shame” to describe the state of having done something wrong, rather than the word “guilt.” He argues that Homer’s society was a “shame-culture,” not a “guilt-culture” (17). Whatever the term used, the negative qualities of Achilles’ wrath are partially transferred onto Patroclus and Hector, as a part of their deaths. 14. These obscure “guilts” or “shames” are the source of research methods dissertation a long and confusing tradition of the genteel or minor faults of thesis on blood imagery Hector, which are those of an otherwise blameless man, who yet consistently commits major errors producing woes for the Trojans in many future Troy stories. 15. Patroclus had advanced killing Trojans three times.
On the fourth advance, Apollo struck him ( Il . 16. 783-89). 16. Balance is research chapter dissertation, a critical structural property of the entire Iliad . Whitman has shown how the Iliad is introduction, organized according to geometric principles of research chapter opposition and balance: “Concentric circles are a universal device in Geometric art…and the principle of balance around a central point which is implied in concentric circles is far and away the dominating formal principle in the Iliad . The poem as a whole forms one large concentric pattern, within which a vast system of smaller ones … gives shape to the separate parts” (97). These principles of balance seem to extend beyond the poetics of the Iliad to its view of the cosmos as in a state of complex balance until disturbed. 17.
Agamemnon too is responsible for the deaths of many Greeks because of his sacrilege against Chryses and his uncontrolled anger against Achilles. Agamemnon, like Achilles, received no direct punishment within the context of the Iliad , but there are many stories outside of the Iliad that describe his death, rather like the slaughter of an animal, at the hands of Clytemnestra and her lover. Agamemnon was really the starting point of thesis titles all the murderous wrath of the Iliad , but he was too powerful to kill, so others died for him. The same is true for research methods chapter, Achilles, the next in the chain of power and thesis titles, anger. 18. Whitman remarks: “To the ancient Greeks, Homer enjoyed a reputation as something between Holy Writ and an encyclopedia of universal knowledge…” (15). 19.
Greene comments that “the Hybris and still more the Atasthalie of Homer represent the idea of sin, with the emphasis … on innate and research chapter dissertation, growing proneness to essay to bulid mischief, no a deliberate choice of evil. They are the result of an aggravated willfulness, of a failure to observe Aidos ; and they lead to Nemesis and the punishment of the gods” (24). Cause and research, effect, human misconduct and divine reaction, are the reasons why events happen in the Iliad. Billy? 20. Agamemnon tells Nestor: “’Blind I was, myself I deny it not.… Yet seeing I was blind and yielded to my miserable passion, I am minded to make amends and to give requital past counting’” ( Il . 9. 116-20).
There is a real question of whether Agamemnon’s excuse that he was “blind” is meant to actually excuse him of responsibility for what he did, or merely to represent his version of why he behaved as he did according to his best self-interest. Dodds calls this blindness ( ate ) “…a partial and temporary insanity…ascribed…to an research, external ’daemonic’ agency” (5). Greene points out “…that if Agamemnon is merely seeking to excuse himself, let it be remembered that elsewhere Zeus is represented by the poet as willfully deceptive” (21). Yet Agamemnon and Achilles are not represented in their original quarrel as being victims of externally produced behavior, but as men unleashing their own rage, and papers on martin, Agamemnon does indeed learn that it is better to exercise self-control, if possible. 21.
Hugh Lloyd-Jones remarks: “If we strike a proper balance, we must acknowledge that Homer’s gods are effective and his religion real, but that his human characters are free to decide and are responsible for their decisions” ( The Justice of Zeus , Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. 41 [1971; rpt. Berkeley: U of California P, 1973] 10). This freedom and responsibility are most critical when dealing with the dissertation, gods, where any error can produce catastrophic results. 22. Nilsson comments that Homer deliberately contrasted “…the self-assertion and obstinacy of essays luther Achilles with the research chapter dissertation, loyalty of services vancouver Diomedes to his suzerain and to the gods” ( Homer and research methods chapter dissertation, Mycenae [1933; rpt.
New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968] 259).
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TMA03 DD101 Using the data in the table provided, what can you say about the ethnicity of the population in the national parks of England and Wales? ?TMA03 DD101 APRIL 2014. Research Methods Dissertation? Question 1 Using the data in the table provided, what can you say about the ethnicity of the thesis titles population in the . national parks of England and research Wales? The table provided shows the results of the 2011 Census and thesis statement about healing the distribution of research methods multiple ethnic groups around the national parks of thesis titles England and Wales. The table gives the chapter dissertation populations of 13 National Parks. In Macbeth? Three of the national parks are found in Wales and ten are in England. There are 5 ethnic categories; white, mixed. England , Ethnic group , Minority group 1482 Words | 5 Pages.
The street which has been chosen for this assignment is research chapter dissertation high street in the small city.This street is thesis titles a good example of observing some inequalities and . differences which are demonstrating themselves ,in more or less obvious ways and compare and contrast them with some of those found on City Road ,Cardiff.It will explore things such as : change over time ,compete use of the research methods chapter dissertation space gender, material infrastructure all of these launch out some differences and inequalities in about faith healing, patterns, which could. Binary relation , Business , Economic inequality 817 Words | 3 Pages. For the first assignment I have studied the research methods chapter 2 charts given and introduction billy essay showing my findings below. Methods Chapter? Chart 1 The data shows that twice as many older people have . been questioned compared to 18-24 year olds. There are only 2 questions in relation to “Community” compared to thesis titles, 10 for neighbours and 1 neutral question. This shows that the balance of questions is displaced and also that interviewees could be placed in more than one question depending on methods chapter, how they interpret the question. There are similar question. Bracket , Human communication , Interview 351 Words | 2 Pages. 3.1 TMA 01 Part A Throughout this essay I look at the different aspects of the disadvantages and advantages of at home caring. First of all I'm going to essay on how to bulid, . Methods Dissertation? look at the disadvantages using in particular reference the case studies we've just looked at over the past few weeks, using Ann's experiences to pin points the pro's amp; con's of the decisions she's had to essay writing services vancouver, make.
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The study was a replication of Navon’s (1977), (cited in Ness Smith and Thirkettle, 2014) experiment but differed, as it was a. Attention , Hoobastank , Repeated measures design 2386 Words | 8 Pages. Y176 TMA 1 Describe the three different parenting styles and research methods chapter discuss how they might impact on statement about, children’s behaviour. Using the information based on Thomas . and Rowanna’s family in methods chapter dissertation, chapter two I will demonstrate how the different parenting styles and certain changes in environment can affect children’s behaviour in on blood, their infant upbringing. How parents bring up their children can vary, often being very different. The three parenting styles are examples of the research chapter different approaches adults can use in.
Childhood , Concerted cultivation , Parenting 542 Words | 2 Pages. The Lodge Bistro Chain The Lodge Bistro chain started out as something a bit different. This difference has enabled The Lodge to expand and become a . successful chain of statement faith Bistros. However as time has gone on Bistros and outlets selling food have become more and more common. There are food outlets everywhere, all competing for custom and methods dissertation trying to introduction essay, be a little different to research chapter, their rivals.
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Word Count: 724 References Blakeley, G., Bromley, S., Clarke, J., Raghuram, P., Silva, E. Statement About Healing? . and Taylor, S. (2009) DD101 Introducing the social sciences, ‘Learning Companion 1’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. ‘Making Social Lives on City Road’ (2009) DD101 Making Social Lives [DVD], Milton Keynes, The Open University. Self-reflection I have found that I am enjoying studying the subject and meeting the research methods chapter dissertation tutor and other students. Age groups in on blood imagery in macbeth, Scouting and Guiding , Milton Keynes , Perception 842 Words | 3 Pages. Marked Assignments ( TMA1 and TMA2) Assignment Due date for research methods TMA1 : 1 November 2013 (Friday) Assignment Due date for TMA2 . (written): 29 November 2013 (Friday) ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES Group Formation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Papers On Martin? Both assignments are group projects. Research Chapter Dissertation? All students will form into groups with 4-5 each.
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JOIN NOW Recent Topics Dd101 Compare And Contrast. Training With Video Games Rizals Women Eco Tourism Life Without Mathematics. Allahabad University , Essay , Female 669 Words | 4 Pages. BBM203/05 Business Statistics TMA1 Weightage: 25% Submission deadline: 6th March 2015 1 a) Explain TWO (2) main differences between . qualitative data and quantitative. Methods Chapter Dissertation? (4 marks) b) Using the example of to poetry billy collins essay a group of research chapter dissertation BBM203/05 students in your class, differentiate qualitative and quantitative data. (6 marks) 2) A new restaurant did a survey among its customers recently. The following questions were asked in the questionnaire.
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Effectiveness. Business ethics , Ethics , Globalization 2002 Words | 6 Pages. in Community Development and Health in Scotland, Edinburgh, NHS Health Scotland; also available online at . www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/InsightBook.pdf (Accessed 15 may 2008) Staples, M., Meegan, J., Jefferies, E. and Bromley, S. Methods Chapter Dissertation? (2009) DD101 Introducing the thesis titles social sciences, ‘Learning Companion 2’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2011) K218 Working with Children, Young People and families, Learning guide 4 ‘Children, young people and social constructionism’, The. Attachment theory , Epistemology , John Bowlby 1522 Words | 3 Pages. business functions in organizational contexts I guess my level of skill at research chapter dissertation this point is thesis statement about faith healing Low.
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