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When you buy any piece of tsi writing essay writing on our website, you additionally get: Free revision Proofreading Deep researches of writing pay your subject Professional attitude Free consultations. Another important thing to law essays and books on charity trusts mention is that you pay for report pay an essay writer, which has been working exclusively for you. It means that each paper is written from scratch, following research and investigation of the stated subject. We never copy information from other papers and do not give the miller same papers for different topics. We appreciate our reputation, and if we notice that some of our writers try to writing pay cheat, we stop it immediately and no longer cooperate with them. Law Essays On Charity Trusts! The write my essay community must be fair. That is a clue to success in writing any sphere, including writing.

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IELTS Writing Tips: 10 Sentences to Avoid. Below are some common sentences and phrases to avoid in writing pay IELTS writing task 2. Developing Involves Which Of The! These sentences have been overused in writing pay IELTS essay writing or are considered to be learned expressions which are not accepted by the examiner. IELTS writing task 2 is an academic essay but it is also a test of your English language. Dissertation Economic Geography! You can’t cheat by learning sentences and writing them in your essay. The examiner is trained to spot sentences which are not typical of your level of English. Phrases to report Avoid in your IELTS Essay.

This essay will discuss both sides and give an opinion at the end. This sentence is essays miller poor because it is used for report pay, the thesis statement but contains no main points. It is a memorised sentence of 15 words. It only repeats the instructions but adds no information to the essay. Dissertation Economic Geography! Try to avoid using such sentences and just present your answer clearly. Another similar sentence is report writing pay “I shall put forth my arguments to support my views in the following paragraphs” which should also be avoided. Don’t forget that while these sentences might be fine for a usual academic essay, they are not appropriate for an English language test. With the development of science and modern technology… Many students use this expression to start their essay.

It is only suitable to use if the essay is about science and technology. It is overused and confusing for the reader if the topic is not science or technology. You don’t need any expression to start your introduction, just paragraph the essay question directly. Learn how to tsi writing write an writing pay introduction for dissertation economic geography, writing task 2. In the modern era, … / Since the dawn of time …. This is overused in writing pay introductions. Most essay questions are about current issues so you don’t need to put in a time frame unless it is law essays trusts about an issue in the past compared to the present. “Since the dawn of time…” is not a relevant statement for most IELTS issues and should be avoided. Pay! Some students also use “Nowadays” to start their essay. Again this is overused. Try to avoid these phrases and just paraphrase the information given by IELTS.

This is a highly controversial issue. Most essay questions in IELTS are not controvesial. Controversial means that it is tsi writing deeply debated and causes strong feeling, for example “the death penalty” which results in a person’s death is controversial but “watching sport on TV or playing it” is not controversial. 99% of report all essay questions in IELTS will not be controversial so don’t use this phrase. Also be careful writing “highly debatable” as this is also overused. This is a sentence which is used too often. Dissertation Economic Geography! It would be better to write “The most important aspect…” or “One of the pay key issues is…” as they are more natural to use in writing. For example, a recent study from the IMF showed that… / Research indicates that… The examples you give in IELTS writing task 2 do not need to come from economic, published sources or known research. They can just be an pay example of a situation: “For instance, the majority of working people do not …” Avoid learning opening phrases to common sentences. It can broaden a person’s horizons.

I have seen this written in so many essays and so have examiners. It would be better to write about “learning more”, “opening their mind to economic geography something” or “developing deeper understanding of report something”. Don’t learn sentences, just write naturally. There are good grounds to argue in favour of… / It cannot be denied that… This is another example of a learned phrase to avoid. It would be better to write more naturally “One reason that X is important / crucial …”.

Using more natural language avoids the examiner thinking you are memorising phrases. Also the phrase “it cannot be denied” is very much overused and mostly used incorrectly. “It cannot be denied” means it is 100% fact but most essay contain opinions which are not fact. Therefore, avoid this phrase. Many students use this idiom to start their conclusion. It is informal and not appriopriate to use in IELTS essay writing. Dissertation! To learn how you can start your conclusion, follow the link. … the report writing aforementioned arguments offer insights into vindications for the impression that… This is a typical sentence that should be avoided in a conclusion. You only need to restate the main points clearly without using learned phrases. If you would like to an essay add any sentences to the list above, please post them in the comments box below. Other Useful Pages for report writing, IELTS Writing.

Develop your IELTS skills with tips, lessons, free videos and more. I’ve been learning a lot from your website and I really thank you for that. I have a few questions about Writing Part 2 though. 1. Some IELTS websites advise test takers to write complex sentences to essay american dream conclusion achieve higher band scores. In some others we are told to use simple sentences that are easy to be understood. Since I do need quite a high score (7+) for Writing, what would you suggest?

I’d like to go with simple sentences but at the same time concerned I might end up with a low band score. 2. For the question. ” Improved medical care has proven to provide a lot of benefits, one of them is longer life expectancy. Do you think the advantages outweigh the pay disadvantages?” How do I know if I should write about the on charity advantages of improved medical care OR longer life expectancy? Thank you in advance #128578; The aim of writing is to avoid errors in grammar and vocabulary. All errors will lower your score. Yes, you need complex sentences to hit band 7 but you also need to reduce errors to hit band 7. So, if your English isn’t strong, don’t attempt complex sentences. I see. I’ll make sure to do a lot more practise tests to understand that.

Thank you for your advice and I hope you continue helping so many of us out here. “Apropos of this statement, I am in consummate discord/accord with it” Is it correct or suitable to use this sentence in essay? NEVER memorise phrases in report IELTS!! All right…thnku soo mcchh#128522;

We were taught about using ” this essay will discuss both sides and give an essay opinion on report this matter”. I just found that its not good to use as a thesis statement. Great Ending Essay! Can you pls give me an example of report writing how to present this kind of thesis statement in my own original way. Thanks a lot for your help Liz. See this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2-how-to-write-an-introduction/ and then review all my tips and model essays on dissertation geography this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/. For detailed training, get my advanced lessons which are excellent and explain everything clearly: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Dear Liz, I see that ‘controversial’ should be avoided in writing pay IELTS essay,can I write’…remains a issue that people have mixed feelings about’ . I’ll be so happy to receive your reply and it will help me a lot! The word “controversial” is fine to use when the issue truly is controversial, such as abortion or the death penalty. However, the majority of IELTS writing task 2 and speaking topics are not controversial. Tsi Writing Essay! This is about using vocabulary appropriately and avoiding learning phrases. hello Liz, i am preparing for pay, the ielts test in september.i have a doubt regarding conclusion linking word can we use-“That being said”

No, that is informal and the IELTS essay must have formal language. Can you tell me how many paragraphs should be there in WT2. Thank you so much for sharing such a wonderful post, does this rule applies to the General writing as well? Thanks for your valuable advice. Yes. All my writing task 2 tips are for GT and Academic students. my compliments for your site! I wold like to have your advice if words like “having in consideration… or bringing up children… ” to start an introduction can be effective? Thank you very much! Just paraphrase the tsi writing topic given to pay you. Don’t pre-learn phrases to put in your introduction.

hi liz,(from the dawn of civilization the issue matter of…….)i can start introduction use this sentence. agree and disagree essay. No, the examiner knows it isn’t your English and that you learned it in order to put it in your essay – in nearly all and every essay. It’s used by so many students around the world. Don’t use it. You don’t need it. Does this mean that IELTS examiners are, to some extent, giving different marks on how often they see particular expressions/vocabularies rather than purely considering 4 criteria (Cohesion/Task Response/Grammar/Vocabulary)?

To me, it is essays on daisy miller more straight forward and fair, that no matter how often they see a particular expression, this does not affect the score negatively as long as the essay satisfy above 4 aspects…. but I am bit confused if this is the case that examiner marks in a manner that changes upon report just how frequently he/she sees the expression on even other examinees’ essays….just my thought. Thank you for your helpful materials! The reason for this problem is because people memorise particular phrases to use to increase their score. Tsi Writing Essay! You are marked on your ability to adapt sentences and phrases to the particular task and pay, issue, not memorise generalised phrases to get a higher score. One phrase suits all issues isn’t going to work in a language test. Another problem is that students think if they learn a particular phrase this will give them a chance for a higher score. Sentence For An Essay! The aim of this lesson and advice is not to rely on learned phrases to report writing boost your score.

Can I still use the word ‘nowaday’ when paraphrasing the great essay question, says ‘in recent years’? The word is “nowadays” with an “s” and it is one of the most overused words to start an introduction, particularly for Vietnamese students. Try to avoid it. Good afternoon teacher ! Please teach me how to report paraphrase the Question from Ietls topics , i try to learn from law essays trusts, many websites but it doesnt work at all. When i got the new topic from my tutor , i can not write even 1 word. I have nothing in my mind. Part of your IELTS preparation is developing ideas for topics. Report Pay! This is something you do for yourself. You can google ideas and visit debate websites as well as read model essays online to use their ideas (not their sentences, just the ideas). See this page about writing an introduction: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ I am really confused about using contraction in writing test in ielts or not.Its clear from your videos that we got high band if we use contractions in speaking, but waht about writing ? For example, should we use I’m, I ‘d, can’t , don’t, i’ll or these are not expected while writing for ielts test.

Contractions are informal so you can’t use them in writing. Tsi Writing! Unless you are doing GT test and you get an informal letter for task 1. Is it possible to use contractions in the Speaking test? Yes, of course. IELTS speaking is report writing informal and contracts are a great pronunciation features that will help your score. Hi Liz, your website is economic great. I have my IELTS exam on 25th Feb(day after tomorrow).

I feel like I am not well prepared, but I am still hoping for the best! I have been following your website for about a week now and it has really helped me a lot to understand the tricks and techniques for IELTS. However, I feel sometimesit is writing really diffcult to great ending for an essay find an information. It would be great if the writing links were more organized and categorized. Hope you don’t mind.

This is just a constructive criticisim. All information can be found on on daisy the main pages which are accessed through the red bar at the top of the website. Here is the writing pay link for the main writing task 2 page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ and this is the page for information about the test: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-help-faq/. Let me know if this is what you are looking for? I wanted to ask about the essay idioms. In 1 of your lessons, u say that idioms are not suitable to use in report writing writing. why is that? what if i use an idiom (a common 1) to increase the word count. On Daisy Miller! Will i be penalized for that? Idioms are informal and not suitable for writing task 2. So, yes, it would lower your score to use inappropriate language.

However, you can use some idiomatic language such as “key to writing pay …” Hello Liz! First of all, I’d like to thank you for everything you do! Your site is real treasure for everyone who prepares for IELTS. THANK YOU SO MUCH. I wanted to ask you, in order to essay get high score on writing, what kind of sentences should i use in Writing Task 2. You said complex sentences, passive voice…and what else? Should i use conditionals? Thanks in report writing pay advance. American Dream! Look forward. You should use a range of tenses.

Using second conditionals is something most students should do. You can use prefect tenses, noun phrases, clauses – anything to report writing show your range of grammar and your accuracy as well. On Daisy Miller! See my advanced lessons to report learn more about the techniques for a high score: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. How can i improve my grammer?I m really really struggling with it. Pleaseguide me.

I have checked my essay with some tutors. I am cosulting different website. Involves! But still problem. Problems with grammar relate to English, not to IELTS. You need to find an English language teacher who can help you improve your English. your teaching in report writing this website is very useful. Thank you very much. I am struggling to get 7 in Writing, so I thought and planed to use a prepared structure.

my spellings are the worst. Can you please give your thoughts on that? thanks very much again. Having poor spelling with certainly be a problem for the criteria of vocabulary. You will need to essays on daisy practice writing essays and then review the spelling of all common vocabulary you use. Also consider getting one of my advanced writing task 2 lessons which explain in report writing depth the techniques needed for a high score: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Thanks very much Liz. My concern to you is tsi writing while writing conclusion in Academic writing Task 2,is it useful to say,”From aforementioned cases and argument,we come to pay know that…..” in this way is it the and books on charity right way to express? Don’t learn phrases to impress the report writing pay examiner.

Hi Liz,if I should avoid these phrases in writing ,what shall I supposed to write? You express your ideas using your own language, in your own words rather than sentences memorised for a high score. i have some problem about writing task 2 , Thanks for your great help in essays on daisy miller our study. I have a question : Is it possible if we use imperative sentence in IELTS Writing essay task 2? Thanks for your support. That tense is not suitable for IELTS essay writing. HI Liz I just wanna ask you if I want you to mark for me an essay is report that possible or not? Should I be formal in WT2? Like should I not use “sort of” or anything like that? Yes, you need to be formal.

Just came back to thank you for american dream, helping me pass ielts. God bless you. Thank you so much. That’s good news. Well done! Earlier today I paid to view your video lesson on Writing Task 2. I have a receipt number from Pay Pal, but have received no email to inform me how to access the video. Report Writing! Help!

PS what I have seen of your site looks excellent. I’ve sent you an email. Please let me know if you need further help. I also agree that we should use natural and law essays on charity trusts, easy-to-understand language. But maybe some examiner thinks some big words in report the essay can demonstrate the essays on daisy variety of vocabulary. Actually that’s a superficial habit. At no time do I state that students should use “easy to report writing understand” language. This article is about avoiding learned phrases. Tsi Writing! This rule applies to all students, even band 9 students. Does appropriate display of good vocabulary helps the band score improve?

I came to know about your website. It seems useful and informative. Great work Ms. Liz. You MUST learn about the band scores and writing pay, how your writing is marked if you want to do well: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2-band-scores-5-to-8/. If you need advanced lessons see this page: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Thank you for sentence for an, your numerous guidance.

Please, may I ask for report pay, other alternative phrases for essay, academic writing task 1 in providing an writing overview. I only developing an essay idea involves which of the following, know “OVERALL”. Pay! Please are there others as overall seems to be used most often by candidates? “Overall” is the best to us. This is law essays and books on charity not creative writing. It is report a report and on charity trusts, these are generally quite formulaic. What should i write to start intro and body paragraphs except these 10 points. Can we use While recapitulating or To recapitulate in the place of report In conclusion, at the time of sum up of essay , pls respond. Just use “In conclusion” – it’s correct and appropriate even for band 9. i do want to purchase an access for and books, your video, but i don’t have a credit card.

Is there a way for report pay, me to pay it bank to great sentence for an essay bank or at least in western union? thanks and writing, regards. I am so sorry but there is dissertation economic not other payment option available at present. 1-Can I write in the second paragraph (no one can deny that _something general but related to the essay topic- )?? 2-can I write : everything has to sides and the ….. is not an exemption. 3- can I write :initially, there is an writing urgent need to shed the spotlight on essay conclusion this topic which is …… thank you for your time . Do i need to put a title to report writing pay my essay ? No, you don’t.

Just start writing your introduction directly. I had essays correction before , the teacher insisted to ending essay add academic examples in my essays by writing ( a recent study or research ) because other types of writing pay examples will not get high score , now I am a bit confused what to do . Please advise me . On the 2nd point of your lesson on ‘Phrases to american Avoid in your IELTS Essay’, you have written ” just paragraph the essay question directly…”. Shouldn’t it have been ” just paraphrase the writing pay …” instead? Another question)) Is it possible to use conditionals in WT2? Is it rather a good or bad idea? I ofthen use it for making examples… It is a good idea to use a range of great ending sentence for an essay tenses in writing IELTS writing task 2. Using conditionals is common. Go through my model essays and see the range of tenses I use. (Don’t worry about typos – I make plenty myself).

Than you for your reply! More questions every day )) I always meke mistakes in spelling wiwds with hyphen. Essay Dream Conclusion! For example, it seems impossible to unredtand why CAR-PARK is with hyphen but FOOTBRIDGE is a comlete one word (i wrote is as two words). It always affects the listening score. May be you have some recomendations regarding this problem? Yes, that affects the score. You need to look online for a word list of compound nouns and start learning how they are written. i got 5 band in individual module in ielts exam how can i increase my score. You said that candidates should not use learnt phrases.

What do you think about phrases and chunks like ‘One of the writing pay big disadvantages of smth, another advantage is’ Can we use them or not? And what do you mean by learnt phrases? Thank you in advance. Can we use some phrases in on daisy conclusion,like: after hashing out both side,in compendium,in the eleventh hour. Don’t use learned phrases. Report Pay! The examiner can spot learned language and it will not be counted towards your score. Will The phrases i mentioned above be considered as learned language or not mam? I already answered this.

You can’t use learned phrases – yes, they are learned, unnatural phrases. It is very common to for an essay write a phrase “Looking forward to hearing from you” in IELTS GT writing task 1 (letter writing). Is it OK to use this sentence or if not, what would be the better way to rephrase the same ? You use this for report pay, formal letters not for personal letters. Use it when you need a response, for example you are hoping to get a refund for something. Deeply thanks for your priceless lesson Pro. Liz. And can you give us another lessons of Writing Task 2(Body Paragraph and Conclusion). This page is about the conclusion. Before you read it, follow the links to the body paragraphs.

I’ll try to put more such lessons up. http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-conclusion-opinion-essay/ I have my test on 19september what should I do now for preparation. Start learning. On Daisy! Read all tips and information pages, watch the preparation video on my home page and then start doing the report writing practice lessons. Dear Madam,It’s really interesting to take up the law essays trusts tips and guidance from you which are significantly applicable for report pay, my appearing at i.e.l.t.s.examination with much more confidence as well as integration. It would be highly enjoyable for me if i could take class directly by you.However,i will get myself concentrated to your tips and advice so that i can become successful for achieving my targeted band score.Wish you sound health and all the best.Good night.Sincerely yours,Hassan.

Thanks for your help. Regarding the great for an first phrase to avoid, I need to know whether the report writing following format is correct. I started my essay with a general statement and wrote that some people believe that ….and stated the first opinion and developing an essay involves which following, wrote that others feel that … and mentioned the second opinion and then for the thesis statement I wrote” in this essay I will discuss both opinions and writing, give mine at conclusion, the conclusion”. Is my thesis statement correct? No, your thesis statement is report a learned phrase. You should have written your opinion in the introduction as the thesis statement. I would like to thank you for your valuable and essays on daisy, quick reply. I appreciate your effort as I thought that you would not be able to reply due to the huge amount of comments you receive daily. Dear Liz, thanks for providing such useful tips and tricks ………

I only wanted to ask you.. in pay writing task two, are we obliged to write a refutation paragraph … if yes in which case ….. thanks in advance O If you are asked to give your opinion, the involves which your whole essay focuses on only that – nothing more. Report Pay! If you are asked to discuss both sides, you must do that. Dream! Just follow the instructions. How does it affect your score when you do not mention any examples in writing pay task 2 in writing test? It doesn’t affect your score. It is on daisy your choice how you explain and support your ideas. You are an report pay angel – thank you so much for helping us to avoid hackneyed phrases! Will you please advice what will be alternative sentences/phrases can be use instead these mentioned above?

The idea is not to learn sentences so I won’t give alternatives to memorise. Each sentence should be unique to the essay question and tsi writing, topic. Thanks for the clarifications. Hi Liz I got 6,5 several times in writing pay writing my problem is that I need 7 to developing an essay involves following pass ,What is the report writing magic recipe? many thanks for your useful website. The reasons people don’t get 7 are mainly due to great ending sentence for an technique and writing, it is very lengthy to explain. Idea Following! I can only suggest you buy one of my writing lessons from my online course to see exactly what you need to do.

The lessons are long and detailed: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Dear Liz, thank you for all your advices here in report your page, it was very helpful for an essay which following, me to do my IELTS test last month and successfully I got the score I needed. Thank you so much. That’s really good news. I’m glad my blog is useful #128578;

Hello,will they give me some white paper to plan my essay and my report? I am from India. Want to report pay know which method is more better, using a paraphrase either in introduction or conclusion. An Essay Involves Which Following! or we should write in our own ideas and thoughts. You paraphrase both the introduction and conclusion. But successful paraphrasing does not mean changing all words – just reformulate them. Nowadays in the world, it cannot be denied. Yes, avoid those phrases. I’ve added that to the list above. Dear Liz, is the word “add” incorrect? you wrote “I’ve add” or it is writing mistype? Please comment. Essay American Dream Conclusion! I just get confused with the report writing pay grammar bcz i take your english for etalon.

Thank you. Well spotted. Developing Which! My typing is terrible. I’ve just changed it. wow Liz thank you so much for this tips, it came in the exact moment cause I?m taking my test in the next few weeks. Some learned sen. ( since the dawn of time…., through out history ) Thank you for your remider, because I thought I can write some examples and giving figures! This is especially about health and WHO related .. I hope to do well this time ! I’ve added that to my list of writing phrases to avoid. Dissertation Geography! Thanks #128578; You are a wonderful teacher . Thank you so much for writing, sharing your amazing video,and useful comment. Nowadays, In toadays modernized era.

To commence with, To start, Firtly. On the other hand, On the flip Side. To conclude, In Conclusion . You should use “In conclusion” or “On the other hand”, these are 100% correct to use in an formal essay for IELTS. They are clear linking words, please see here for the full list: http://ieltsliz.com/linking-words-for-writing/. However, you should try to an essay idea of the following avoid the others, particularly “on the flip side” which is informal and inappropriate for essay writing. Dear Liz, thank you so much for your guidance n ielts essay writing, that is really helpful for a beginner like me….I also need to report know how to write an introduction in writing part 1…if you please give tutorial on that it will also beneficial for me….#128522;

Current IELTS exam topics and an essay idea, questions: Share your IELTS test results. Answer to report pay Reading Paraphrasing Lesson. Reading Skills for IELTS: Paraphrasing. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed.

IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the law essays on charity UK and a graduate of the University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in a number of report writing pay countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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The History of African Village Chickens: an Archaeological and Molecular Perspective. The history of the introduction and report writing dispersal of essay village chickens across the African continent is a subject of intense debate and speculation among scholars. Here, we synthesize and summarise the current scientific genetic and nongenetic knowledge in report writing, relation to the history of the species on the continent. Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and historic data all suggest a complex history for the species in dissertation, Africa, characterized by report multiple maritime and/or terrestrial introductions over essay american conclusion, time and several dispersal routes towards and within Africa. Molecular genetics information supports these observations and in addition suggests possible Asian centers of origin for report pay African domestic chickens, including South Asia and Island Southeast Asia. However, both sets of data were until now too limited in their geographic scope, both within Africa and in comparison with chickens from Asia, to great ending for an, unravel the history of the species in detail. We anticipate that further continent-wide studies combining archaeological, ancient and/or modern genetic information may shed new insights on the history of the pay, species. These will contribute to a deeper understanding of the history of trading networks and human interactions within Africa and between African and Asian societies, at the root of the development and expansion of African civilizations. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10437-013-9128-1 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. L’histoire des introductions et des dispersions des poulets de village sur le continent africain reste un sujet fortement debattu et plein de speculations parmi les experts.

Ici, nous synthetisons et resumons nos connaissances genetiques et autres en rapport avec l’histoire de cette espece domestique sur le continent. Les evidences socio-culturelles, linguistiques, archeologiques et historiques suggerent toutes une histoire complexe de l’espece en Afrique caracterisee par de multiples introductions maritimes et/ou terrestres, ainsi que plusieurs routes de dispersions vers l’Afrique et sur le continent. Law Essays Trusts. Les informations de la genetique moleculaire supportent ces observations et en plus, elles identifient les centres possibles d’origines, lesquels incluent le Sud de l’Asie et les iles de l’Asie du Sud-Est. Cependant, toutes ces evidences sont jusqu’a presentes trop limitees au niveau geographique, au sein du continent Africain et en Asie, pour reveler en details l’histoire de l’espece. Nous anticipons que de nouvelles etudes sur une grande echelle geographique associant des informations archeologiques et genetiques (ADN ancien et moderne) pourraient apporter de nouvelles lumieres sur l’histoire de l’espece. Celles-ci contribueront a une comprehension plus profonde de l’histoire des reseaux commerciaux et des interactions entre societes africaines, ainsi ainsi qu'entre societes africaines et asiatiques. Interactions qui sont a la base du developpement et de l’expansion des civilisations africaines. Domestic chickens are closely associated with humans, and they rely entirely upon humans for their dispersal and indirectly for report writing pay their survival. The species are therefore important biological markers of agricultural, trade and on daisy cultural contacts between societies and civilizations. They are present across the African continent where free-range, scavenging village chickens are found in pay, all agroecological zones, ranging from essay american dream conclusion, villages in writing, the humid and essay subhumid tropical rain forests of West and Central Africa to the temperate highlands of East Africa and the arid and semi-arid regions of the report writing, Sahel and on charity trusts Kalahari deserts ( http://dad.fao.org/ ; DAGRIS 2007 ). With an report writing pay estimated total population of developing idea following 1.6 billion at the end of 2010 (FAOSTAT 2012 ), they are the report pay, most abundant livestock species in economic geography, Africa, contributing to a significant part of the continent's agricultural economy.

Although the African continent is rich in galliform species, the recognized main wild ancestor of domestic chickens, the red junglefowl Gallus gallus , is endemic to sub-Himalayan northern India, southern China and Southeast Asia (Delacour 1977 ), where the putative centers of domestication of the pay, species are present (Tixier-Boichard et al . 2011 ). Therefore, domestic chickens, though abundant on the continent, are an introduced species from Asia. Whether or not the species was domesticated in a single geographic area in Southeast Asia (Fumihito et al . 1994 , 1996 ) or across the geographic range of the wild ancestor in both South and Southeast Asia (Liu et al . 2006 , Kanginakudru et al . 2008 ) is still disputed today. Opinions among scholars are divided concerning when the species arrived and the routes by which chickens entered and dispersed across the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Archaeological data are patchy (Fuller et al . 2011 ) while molecular genetic information is just starting to emerge (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this paper, we review the information available today (sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and essay dream molecular genetic) on the arrival and movement of chickens across the African continent, providing a proxy for our understanding of ancient and modern human interactions and migrations, including trading routes within Africa and between the African continent and civilizations across Asia. Sociocultural and Linguistic Evidence. Published dates and evidence for writing pay the occurrence of domestic chickens across Africa. Horton and on daisy Mudida ( 1993 ) Archaeological remains a.

Archaeological remains a. Tomb of writing pay Iretirou/Yeturow at Nuri, North Sudan. Boessneck and Von den Driesch ( 1982 ); Boessneck ( 1986 ); Katzmann ( 1990 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) Tomb of tsi writing essay Ramesses IX. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Textual/graphic/pictorial representation (earliest) Carter ( 1923 ); Houlihan and writing Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris. Annals of King Thutmose III at Karnak.

Third Dynasty of Ur. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el-Gebel. Houlihan and developing an essay idea involves which Goodman ( 1986 ) c. 323–316 BC or later. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Archaeological remains a. Ibn Battuta (Lewicki 1974 ; Levtzion and Hopkins 1981 ) Literary evidence (first) Manning and MacDonald ( 2005 ) Rivallain and van Neer ( 1983 ) Archaeological remains a. Shinnie and Kense ( 1989 ) Oursi, Saouga, Kissi.

The initial trigger for the adoption of domestic chickens by African communities could have been sociocultural and/or recreational ( e . g ., cockfighting) rather than as a new source of food. Writing. Textual records indicate that chickens were already present in Egypt by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur ( c. Law Essays And Books Trusts. 2,113–2,006 BC), and the oldest recognizable occurrence of the bird in writing pay, art dates from the second half of the fourteenth century BC (Haller 1954 ; Smith 1965 ). Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) suggest, however, that the first evidence for on daisy its consumption comes from the tomb of Petosiris, which dates to the fourth century BC, though this suggestion has been challenged by MacDonald and writing pay Edwards ( 1993 ). Houlihan and idea which of the Goodman ( 1986 ) further suggest that chickens were probably brought to Egypt as creatures of curiosity and admiration because of their unusualness and that they did not become a regular feature of the Egyptian farmyard until the Ptolemaic period (304–330 BC). Domestic chickens could have been introduced to the African continent several times, fulfilling different societal needs at writing different time periods. Linguistic evidence not only tsi writing essay supports a deep embedding of chickens in African cultures and traditions, but also agrees with an writing pay early introduction and a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species. More particularly, Williamson ( 2000 ) suggests that different geographic distributions, and spread of the three major roots of the word “fowl” across three language phyla, represent at least three separate introductions of domestic chickens to West Africa: two across Central Africa from the East Coast of Africa and one from economic geography, North Africa across the Sahara. Blench ( 2008 ) noted that the origin of the common Malagasy name for writing chicken, akoho , cannot be assigned definitively to a Bantu or Austronesian language group. Rather, from on daisy, his analysis, he concludes that all the terminologies relating to writing, domestic animals in Madagascar appear to be derived from languages of the dissertation economic geography, Swahili, with the Comoros Islands being a possible original source of chickens found in Madagascar. Archaeological and Historic Evidence. Summary of pay archaeological dates for the presence of chicken in different regions across the African continent.

The fourth to tsi writing, third millennia BC have been advanced as the period for the first arrival of domestic chickens in Africa (Chami 2001 , 2007 ). However, these dates have been disputed as the osteological remains used in report pay, their calibration are nondiagnostic according to the recommended criteria (MacDonald 1992 ; Dueppen 2011 ). In North Africa, domestic chickens are depicted in Egypt from the second millennium BC (Houlihan and Goodman 1986 ). Dissertation. In sub-Saharan Africa, the earliest widely accepted evidence of domestic chickens dates to report, the mid-first millennium AD in Nubia and the late first millennium AD in East and South Africa ( e . g ., Horton and Mudida, 1993 ; Plug 1996a , b ). In West Africa, several sites attest to dissertation, the presence of chickens in the late first millennium AD (Table 1 ). More particularly, while in report pay, the Voltaic region evidence for on charity trusts chickens is report pay, scarce, researchers working at Daboya (Ghana) have suggested the presence of chickens throughout the great ending, first millennium AD (Shinnie and Kense 1989 ). Until recently, the oldest known, securely identified remains in pay, the western part of the continent were dated to AD 500–850 from essay american dream, Jenne-Jeno in Mali (MacDonald 1995b ). New evidence from Kirikongo (Burkina Faso) and Daboya indicates that chickens were already a significant component of the Iron Age economy in report writing, West Africa by dissertation the sixth century AD at report pay the latest and probably several centuries earlier (Dueppen 2011 ) (Fig. 1 ). Using geographic distribution and dating of the purportedly most ancient, undisputed archaeological evidence in the form of american conclusion skeletal remains ( c. 1,567–1,320 BC), pictorial/artistic representations ( c. 1,425–1,123 BC) and literary evidence ( c. 1,504–1,450 BC), a commonly held argument is that chickens may have first entered Africa overland through the North of Africa (Egypt), with subsequent dispersion southwards along the Nile valley to report, Nubia and developing an essay involves then in West Africa along the pay, Sudano-Sahelian corridor (MacDonald and Edwards 1993 ; Fuller et al . 2011 ). Coltherd ( 1966 ) argues that this introduction brought chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley civilization ( c. 2,500–2,100 BC) into Egypt via Mesopotamia. In addition to the Nile corridor, MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) further suggest an law essays and books trusts independent diffusion of chickens into West Africa through the Sudano-Sahelian belt from the East African coast occurring much later, perhaps related to Indian Ocean trade networks. However, increasing evidence for greater antiquity than previously thought for the Indian Ocean trading network, based largely on the presence of report writing Asian plant domesticates in Africa and of African domesticated plants in South and tsi writing essay Southeast Asia, support an pay early possible entry point of domestic species along the East African coast (Fuller et al . 2011 ). These findings challenge the presumption of North African anteriority for the origin of sub-Saharan African chickens. Dissertation Economic. A component of this early maritime trading network has been described in some detail in the Periplus of the report writing pay, Erythraean Sea from the early first century AD (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). That work mentioned African port centres along the coast of essay american Somalia, Tanzania or even possibly Madagascar (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). Chami ( 1999 ) has also reported evidence confirming the report writing pay, great antiquity of trading networks in the Indian Ocean interaction sphere, lending support to the observations of the Periplus . As summarised in essay conclusion, Blench ( 2010 ), it is likely that there were regular contacts between Island Southeast Asia and the East African coast prior to the first centuries AD, independent from the establishment of Austronesians in Madagascar around the fifth century AD (Blench 2010 ). Report Writing. Lastly, the idea of the following, inclusion of writing pay East Africa into a maritime trading network extending eastward to Southwestern China is illustrated by the visit of great for an essay Chinese fleets under the command of Cheng Ho off the pay, coast of East Africa, although at a much more recent date, the beginning of the fifteenth century AD (Duyvendak 1939 ). Undoubtedly, the complex and ancient interactions resulting from the Indian Ocean trading networks must have facilitated maritime and terrestrial intercontinental translocations of several domestic and sentence for an essay nondomestic plant and animal species among Africa, the Middle East and South, Southeast and East Asia (Boivin and Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al . 2011 ). Pay. It would not be surprising that domestic chickens would have been an intrinsic part of these translocation packages in historic times and possibly much earlier than the introductions via the north of the continent. The arrival of miller European settlers as part of the development of the terrestrial and maritime empires of several European nations across Africa and Asia (Portugal, Britain, etc .) from the fifteenth century AD onwards provided further opportunities for the arrival and movement of chickens within Africa.

Also, since the second half of the twentieth century, the African continent, as other parts of the world, has witnessed the arrival of exotic chicken breeds developed for report higher productivity (Kitalyi 1997 ), including for geography crossbreeding purposes with local flocks to improve meat and egg production. These developments might have had an impact on report the genetic make-up of some African village chicken populations. Microsatellite studies on american dream conclusion indigenous African chicken populations. Number of birds per population. Number of microsatellite loci. Overlapping markers with FAO/ISAG f. Kingdom of Morocco.

a Jimma, Debre Berhan. b Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi. c South Gondar, Awi, West and East Gojam. d North-Mekele, Gonder-Zuria, Haremaya, Dodota, Arbaminch-Zuria. e Konso, Sheka, Horro, Mandura, Farta. f Location of the sampling within the report writing, country unknown. Mitochondrial DNA studies on ondigenous African chicken populations.

Number of samples. Haplogroup frequency (%) a. a Nomenclature according to essays on daisy miller, Mwacharo et al . ( 2011 ) b Field populations only. c Observed in report pay, a single bird. d Observed in two birds. The genetic diversity and essay american conclusion relationships between chicken populations from several African countries have now been investigated using autosomal microsatellite markers (Table 2 ). The studies have included chicken populations from Tanzania, Nigeria and Cameroon (Wimmers et al . 2000 ); Kenya and East Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda) (Mwacharo et al . 2007 ); Zimbabwe, Malawi and Sudan (Muchadeyi et al . 2007 ); Ethiopia (Dessie 2007 ; Hassan et al . Report Pay. 2009 ; Dana 2011 ; Goraga et al . 2011 ); South Africa (Mtileni et al. 2010 ); Benin (Youssao et al . 2010 ); Ghana (Osei-Amponsah et al.

2010 ); Egypt (Eltanany et al. 2011 ); and dissertation economic Benin, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, Morocco and Cameroon (Leroy et al. 2012 ). Although the markers used in these studies overlap to a large extent, with the recommended set of report ISAG–FAO microsatellite markers (FAO 2011 ), no common samples or populations have been used across studies, and this constrains continent-wide analysis. However, a few important general findings are emerging. Essay. African indigenous chickens are closely related genetically but are clearly distinct from commercial breeds (Mwacharo et al. Report Pay. 2007 ; Leroy et al. 2012 ). Their genetic diversities are roughly comparable across studies/populations and correspond to the values usually observed in other free-range scavenging chicken populations worldwide, but they are much higher than those observed in commercial breeds ( e.g. , Wimmers et al. Essay American Dream. 2000 ; Osei-Amponsah et al. 2010 ; Leroy et al.

2012 ). This diversity may indicate a higher effective population size for introduced African village chickens compared to commercial chickens, and/or ancient population admixture following multiple introductions. Genetic divergence between chicken populations is generally weak ( e.g. , Osei-Amponsah et al. Pay. 2010 ; Youssao et al. Dissertation Economic. 2010 ), and report writing pay it seems to reflect geographic distances between populations (see Mwacharo et al. 2007 ). However, Goraga et al . Dissertation Economic. ( 2011 ) report genetic distinctions between groups of chicken populations from writing pay, Ethiopia and Mwacharo et al . ( 2007 ) genetic distinctions between Kenyan - Ugandese and Ethiopian - Sudanese populations.

Also, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) report greater similarity of genetic structure between chicken populations living in the same major farming systems across West African countries than between farming systems within countries. These observations are compatible with a history of multiple introductions of conclusion different genetic pools of the species into the regions, chicken movement along specific trading routes, and/or long-term geographic isolation of these populations. Evidence of genetic introgression between commercial and local populations has recently been demonstrated using microsatellites for populations from Morocco and Cameroon, but not for populations from Benin, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire (Leroy et al. 2012 ). Such introgression could be related to the long-term breeding improvement programmes that involve the writing pay, supply of commercial breeds to local farmers for crossbreeding purposes. However, the impact of economic geography such introgressions is limited, possibly due to poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions and the preference of consumers for local chickens. Only a few molecular genetics studies have now been published on pay African chickens using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Razafindraibe et al.

2008 ; Adebambo et al. 2010 ; Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. For An Essay. 2011 ) (Table 3 ). Fortunately, these studies have all analysed a hypervariable region of the molecule, the report, D-loop, which allows comparison across studies. Unfortunately, there is no standardized nomenclature for the chicken mtDNA haplogroups identified across the African studies. So far, the largest study is the one by essays on daisy Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ). It includes mtDNA sequences from 512 domestic chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda). For the sake of report pay comparison, we have therefore adopted the nomenclature of Mwacharo et al . Developing Idea Of The Following. ( 2011 ) (Table 3 ), with its equivalence in other African studies as well as in the reference broad-scale Eurasian study of Liu et al . ( 2006 ) presented in supplementary Table S 1 . While we observe on the African continent five of the report writing pay, nine divergent haplogroups identified across Europe and Asia by ending sentence essay Liu et al . Writing Pay. ( 2006 ), two haplogroups, A and D, dominate the miller, continent (Table 3 ). Haplogroup D clearly is found in all the report writing pay, African countries studied and is the most common in all countries with the exception of tsi writing essay Madagascar, Zimbabwe and eastern Kenya. It is the only haplogroup so far identified in West Africa, represented there by Nigeria (Adebambo et al. 2010 ). The next commonest haplogroup is report writing, A, which is absent from Uganda, Sudan, Nigeria and Ethiopia but is the commonest in Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe and eastern Kenya. The other haplogroups are observed at very low frequencies in all studies, being present in only one or two birds.

Through a detailed analysis of the geographic distribution of haplogroup A and D across East Africa, Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ) have provided evidence revealing that these two haplogroup likely have a different history on the continent. It has been proposed that African haplogroup A originates from tsi writing, Southeast and/or East Asia (Muchadeyi et al. Writing Pay. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) and that it would have been the result of a maritime introduction along the developing which of the, East African coastline (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) including Madagascar (Razafindraibe et al. 2008 ). Following the known history of the report writing, peopling of Madagascar, Razafindraibe et al. ( 2008 ) have suggested that its origin might be the Indonesian islands. It is therefore possible that haplogroup A would be a legacy of the Austronesian expansion in Africa. However, so far, no studies have attempted to address the relationship between African haplogroup A and the haplogroups observed in local chickens from the dissertation economic, Indonesian islands. Using phylogeographic information on the modern geographic distribution across Europe and Asia (Liu et al. 2006 ), the report writing, Indian subcontinent has been proposed as the initial center of origin for the haplogroup D found in developing idea of the following, Africa (Muchadeyi et al.

2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. Report Pay. 2011 ). Interestingly, a possible Indian subcontinent origin of some African chickens is further supported by the commonly observed yellow skin phenotype across African village chickens ( e.g. , FAO 2009 ; Dana et al. 2010a ; Youssao et al. Great For An. 2010 ; Daikwo et al. 2011 ; Melesse and Negesse 2011 ; El-Safty 2012 ). Writing Pay. This phenotype has recently been shown at the molecular level to be a legacy of successful introgression of the grey junglefowl Gallus sonneratii , a yet-to-be-domesticated Gallus species with restricted geographic range on the Indian subcontinent, into domestic chicken (Eriksson et al.

2008 ). However, whether or not these “crossbred” chickens of Indian origin reached the African continent through a maritime and/or terrestrial route remains unknown. The possible center(s) of origin for chickens harbouring the mitochondrial DNA of haplogroups B, C and E, observed so far at low frequencies on the African continent (Table 3 ), is more speculative. Haplogroup B and dissertation geography C may have reached Africa following recent introductions of improved commercial chickens (Mwacharo et al. Report Writing. 2011 ). This suggestion is and books on charity trusts, supported by the presence of identical or closely related haplotypes belonging to these haplogroups in European and commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al. 2010b ). Using microsatellite markers, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) also demonstrated gene flow between commercial and local chickens in writing pay, some sub-Saharan African countries. However, a more ancient and direct introduction of these two haplogroups from their centers of origins in Asia also remains possible. More data are required to further clarify the origin(s) of these two haplogroups on tsi writing the African continent. Haplogroup E is not observed in commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al.

2010b ). Both Muchadeyi et al. ( 2008 ) and Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ), using the study of Liu et al. ( 2006 ) as a reference, have proposed that the center of origin of report writing haplogroup E might be South China and, more particularly, the Yunnan province and/or adjacent geographic regions such as Myanmar (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). The routes of introduction of this haplogroup into dissertation geography the African continent remain unknown, but its worldwide geographic distribution today (Liu et al. 2006 ) suggests that it was likely the consequence of a maritime introduction to pay, the African continent. It raises the interesting hypothesis that its arrival might have followed the Chinese maritime trading expeditions across the developing idea which following, Indian Ocean (Duyvendak 1939 ; Beaujard 2005 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological, historic and report writing molecular genetic evidence are all in agreement in revealing a complex history of domestic chickens on the African continent, which may include multiple origins from the developing idea which of the, geographic range of the wild ancestor in writing pay, Asia, multiple entry points and and books multiple routes of dispersion. Archaeological data support a relatively ancient presence of this domesticate in Africa, although several thousand years more recent than the earliest evidence of domesticated ruminants on the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Terrestrial as well as maritime introductions likely brought chickens to writing, Africa. However, our knowledge of the history of African village chickens is dissertation economic geography, still in its infancy with several important unknowns. We still do not know when domestic chickens were first adopted by African societies and for what purposes.

We have, so far, little information on the likely number of writing pay waves that brought chickens into the continent and dissertation economic their time sequence. Also, the terrestrial and maritime dispersal routes of writing domestic chickens from their centers of miller origin in report writing, Asia to Africa remain largely speculative. Last but not least, our knowledge of the putative entry points and ending essay movements of chickens within the writing, African continent is similarly incomplete. We believe that the answers to these questions will rely on new archaeological and genetic information generated from inside and outside the economic, African continent, with the writing, most promising studies combining calibrated dating of archaeological bones, ancient DNA sequence information and dream joint analysis of archaeological and molecular genetic diversity data across Africa, Europe and Asia. New genetic marker analysis (autosomal markers, full genome and report mitochondrial DNA sequences) will undoubtedly provide further information, as has now been illustrated for other African livestock species ( e.g. Tsi Writing. , cattle; see Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this context, it is important to take note of the fact that we do have at best incomplete molecular genetic information on the modern genetic diversity of indigenous chickens from the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle and report writing pay the Near East, most of the Indian subcontinent, and large geographic areas in mainland and island Southeast Asia ( e.g. , Laos, Cambodia, the tsi writing essay, Philippines, Indonesia). Also, within the African continent, information on the genetic diversity of indigenous chickens is still too fragmentary to allow a comprehensive genetic analysis throughout the continent. Lastly, as reviewed in detail by others (Blench 2003 ; Boivin and Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al. 2011 ), chickens were only report writing pay one of the agricultural species being voluntarily traded between Africa and Asia.

Combining different lines of information from other agricultural and nonagricultural organisms that may have travelled as companion species will likely provide new insights and tsi writing essay hypotheses about the history of African domestic village chickens. We would like to thank Diane Gifford-Gonzalez as well as two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Report. This article was produced as part of ongoing research aiming to better understand and characterize the unique animal genetic resources of the African continent. The research activity is supported by american dream conclusion multilateral donor agencies to the International Livestock Research Institute and BBSRC-UK (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council—UK) funding (BB/H009051/1) to report pay, the corresponding authors. Open Access This article is essays on daisy, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. J. M. Report Pay. Mwacharo 1 Email author G. Bjornstad 2 3 J. L. Han 2 4 O. Hanotte 2 1 Email author 1. Centre for Genetics and Genomics, School of Biology University of american conclusion Nottingham Nottingham UK 2. International Livestock Research Institute Nairobi Kenya 3. Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History University of Oslo Oslo Norway 4. CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) Beijing China.

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career plus resume Every week I receive multiple calls as a career coach from people wanting to find their “dream career” or “what they are meant to do for the rest of their life.” While some people do have a career calling, most people actually have several potential careers that would give them great satisfaction, provide decent income, help them feel like they make a difference in the world, but aren’t necessarily a “dream career.” The dream career, in report writing pay my opinion, is a myth perpetrated by the media and Hollywood as an ideal fantasy. That fantasy shows that every day of your career life should consist of and books, love, puppies, kittens, roses and constantly happy and at peace. The reality is that you can have an incredible career that you do love and still have bad days, stressful times, dread an occasional Monday, work overtime, and struggle. These “issues” are part of report pay, real life and developing an essay of work. Report Pay. From people selling “manifesting your potential” to essay, that “ideal career,” the whole fantasy is that every minute of your day can be happy, you can have as much vacation as you want, your pay will be outstanding, everybody has a calling, and that you can do your passion for a living.

I have a passion for collecting angels, but that doesn’t mean I can turn it into a career. My father had a calling to be a police officer, but he didn’t even realize it until he became one and saw the difference he could make in others’ lives. Sometimes happenstance intervenes and report that was the case with my career. Sometimes a career coach leads you to a better career. Sometimes a job you take out of necessity or an interest/hobby turns out to be a great career. However, sometimes that career you felt so called to changes to one you want to leave, or a dream business opportunity fails, or you don’t want a traditional “job” but instead want to for an, raise your children and be there for your parents as they age. My “dream careers” were to be a rock and roll star, an opera star, or a conductor of writing, great choirs. I still sing as a hobby (paid and unpaid) and essay dream don’t conduct much, but I am truly happy in my vocation as a career coach, resume writer and small business coach. The reality is that ALL of us are multi-faceted and any number of report writing pay, careers can make us happy. So, first we have to tsi writing, determine if the career itself is the problem or perhaps something else. Report. For instance: –Are there issues with your current boss that make you unhappy in your job?

–Do you dislike the values or current direction of the company for which you work? –Do you like your current fellow employees? –Could there be issues from your home life that impact your work life – like a divorce or separation, sick parent, sick child, or money issues? –Do you suffer from essays on daisy miller, depression or other related illness that can negatively impact how you feel about your life and career? –Does the report pay, job pay enough for geography, you to writing, save a bit of money and not live paycheck-to-paycheck? This will necessitate you looking at your finances and essay american conclusion determining where you might be overspending and if that could be creating part of the report writing pay, problem. –Is it YOUR attitude? Sometimes what you bring to the table is ultimately what makes the essay dream conclusion, job miserable. Pay. That can be hard to hear for some of my clients, but bad attitudes, grouchy demeanor’s, and an overall “the glass is half-empty and where the hell is my cheeseburger” outlook will get you nothing but dissatisfaction.

Ask yourself if you like the work you do, not the boss, employees, etc., but the work itself? How about the essay, industry? Perhaps it isn’t a new career in total, but a different job within your current industry. Report Writing. What about the trusts, work environment? If you work alone but love people, or vice versa, you might be miserable due to the environment but not the job.

Regardless of whether you stay in your current job, change your job or change your career, make sure that your decision is made with a dose of reality. There are no true dream careers like you see in a commercial or a movie. Yet, there are highly satisfying careers, given the proper circumstances (appropriate pay, good work environment, nice coworkers, a happy and grateful attitude by you, and a company and boss who seem to care overall). Report Writing. Even if one or two of the above are missing, you can still like your job/career. Too many have changed their entire career path when the real issue wasn’t the work itself. Take your time in evaluating your current career and your personal life to law essays, find the report pay, root of the issue, and do it as objectively and dispassionately as possible. American Conclusion. Then, if the career is truly dis-satisfactory, take more time to discover options of where you could have a more satisfying career experience. Do not rush to a decision, which could have you jumping from the frying pan and into the fire. Likewise, don’t stay if you know you are in the wrong place, as becoming comfortable in your discomfort because change seems more stressful, will only writing, make the rest of your life increasingly unsettled. Whether you find a new career on your own, or with some guidance from a career coach, know that each job/career has its difficulties.

Also know that you can find a career you love and live a more fulfilling life because of it. Karen Silins is essays on daisy a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and pay small businesses. After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into and books, the Human Resources realm. Report. Karen left Human Resources to become an entrepreneur and an essay involves which following help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and pay providing 30-70+ seminars and workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area. She can be reached via her website at essays miller, www.careerandresume.com . Let’s face it, being in a job search is difficult. However, not doing necessary tasks or leaving portions of your job search unfinished that can help you get a new job is report pay even worse. An Essay Involves Which. You could literally be losing out on new job prospects, contacts who will recommend you personally, and wasting a great deal of time doing personal “stuff” instead of actually job searching.

So, what’s left unfinished or undone in your job search preparation? –Have you completed your LinkedIn profile? –Do you have a quality LinkedIn picture? –Do you mind your manners and what you post on Facebook, Twitter and other social media? –How about your friends on Facebook, Twitter, etc., are they minding their manners, and staying away from report writing pay, inappropriate pictures, political postings, constant complaining, or other overly opinionated sharing? Have you checked? –Do you plan your job search out daily or weekly? –Are you spending five to eight hours a day on on daisy, your job search, or instead doing “honey-do” and “around the house” projects and errands? –Are you tailoring your resume and cover letter to the jobs for which you apply?

–Are you writing personalized thank you letters for all in-person interviews and any lengthy phone interviews with decision-makers? –Are you searching your local business journal for report writing, companies hiring currently or in the near future, information on companies for interviews, networking opportunities, and and books new companies to target? –Do you go to report, networking events in your area and ending sentence essay cultivate contacts in person? –Do you attend local job fairs? –Have you volunteered to help a local organization to both get out and writing meet new people (network) and to great ending sentence for an essay, add new information to your resume? The list of items you can accomplish that can positively impact your job search can seem endless, but many are actually very simple. You need to, as the Nike ads say “just do it.” Put together all the pieces of your job search puzzle and get back in the game! Karen Silins is report writing a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and american dream conclusion personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses.

After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Report Pay. Karen left Human Resources to become an entrepreneur and help jobseekers and economic geography fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by pay, working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and developing an essay idea involves of the providing 30-70+ seminars and pay workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area. She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com . When interviewing new hires and even in an essay involves which following coaching clients I have seen a little bit of everything. From talking about report, how a boss works someone too hard to a person answering a behavioral interview question that didn’t call for essay conclusion, negative outcome with an incredibly troublesome answer. Report Writing Pay. I agree that sometimes a little bit of “not so positive” can be appropriate to explain why you left a job or for when a behavioral question calls for a negative result, but notice I said a LITTLE BIT. Many interviewees seem oblivious to the fact that they are even giving a critical response to many an interview question. Often my clients will say, well I just want to be truthful. Trust me, there is a difference between truthful and tsi writing damaging in an interview, and report writing pay if you don’t know the difference, you may have a very long job search. Karen Silins is a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and for an essay personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses.

After graduating with degrees in writing pay education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Karen left Human Resources to become an involves of the, entrepreneur and report writing pay help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and essay marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area. She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. Communication, Communication, Communication!

In real estate it’s all about one thing: location, location, location. In the ever changing business environment however, the mantra should be: communication, communication, communication. Pay. Those frequent business changes also necessitate flexibility in how we communicate to essay, customers, peers, management, suppliers, and especially to our own workforce. For those of you who are closer to the Gen-X, Baby Boomer, and Depression Era generations, we remember when communication essentially came in only three ways – written/print, phone, or in-person. Report Writing Pay. Now we have mobile/digital devices, texting and texting language, increased job jargon (just think of IT), faxes (yes, those are still used), email, IM, social media, blogs, online forums, and of course, traditional written/print, phone, or in-person. Excellence in communication skills is dream conclusion a must at all levels. We can no longer accept change-paralysis in the exposure and mastery of new devices, communication methods, and sometimes the report pay, new words and acronyms that come with a job.

Our employees should feel comfortable, and knowledgeable in their business interactions, and that means providing more training to essays, our staff. Every organization should either hold classes internally or send management and employees to external training to ensure their workforce has instruction in, and builds confidence in business communication skills. Training should include courses in business writing, digital device utilization, how to write an effective email, job-related lingo, business-related text language and abbreviations, and report writing pay how to maintain professionalism in essay american conclusion business and personal social media and report writing pay online forum postings. Yes, I said personal and conclusion professional. Having the report writing, discernment as to the suitability of language used in both professional and personal postings has led to dissertation geography, many an report, excellent personal brand and career advancement. When that judgment has been absent, many a career and brand have been seriously injured or destroyed. Unfortunately many schools aren’t really teaching the difference between casual language and the more formal business language utilized in corporate America.

Awareness and appropriateness of communication can also be lacking, particularly when it comes to abbreviated messaging in texts, IM’s and social media posts. With so much potential for involves, misunderstanding and broken internal and report external business relationships, it is dissertation economic geography up to companies to ensure their workforce recognizes the report writing pay, difference and uses the language of work, in law essays trusts all of their professional interactions. From problem solving and conflict management to traversing everyday business dealings, good communication skills are vital for report writing pay, every employee. Let’s make sure our employees and management are trained properly for both organizational and personal benefit! Karen Silins is a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses. After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Great For An. Karen left Human Resources to become an entrepreneur and report pay help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for on daisy miller, small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and report pay providing 50 -70+ seminars and workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area.

She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. I’ve noticed a trend on applications in recent years, requiring submission of references to call before the candidate is even interviewed. Essays On Daisy Miller. That truly perplexes my clients, and I have to say myself as well. The whole idea of having references to call is to determine truthfulness of tasks performed and achievements professed, what the candidate is writing like as a person versus what they say in essays on daisy miller the interview, and to unearth possible weaknesses or issues. You lose out on discovery with potential candidates when you contact references prior to an interview. You don’t have the advantage of evaluating the candidate first regarding weak areas or answers to report writing, questions that cause concern.

These are subjects where you might have issue and would want to dig deeper with their references. From ascertaining that the candidate didn’t contact references before listing them to gauging interviewee honesty, you need to talk to essay, the applicant first. Hold off on those calls as a Headhunter, HR Manager or Hiring Manager, and learn more about the report writing pay, candidate before wasting the on charity trusts, reference call by contacting too early in the process. While an interviewee may indeed communicate with their references after an interview; crafting a well-thought out set of questions can frequently overcome any “candidate reference coaching.” Whether it is the answer, or lack of an answer from a reference, verbal cues can be assessed and their veracity can be gauged. Interview a candidate first, then call their references, or miss out on some important information for your hiring decision. Karen Silins is a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and report pay small businesses.

After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Karen left Human Resources to law essays, become an entrepreneur and help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. Pay. She keeps current regarding trends in tsi writing essay the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and report writing marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and tsi writing essay overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area. She can be reached via her website at pay, www.careerandresume.com. The Ghost is not in the Machine, it’s in the Hiring Process! The term Ghosting has become quite popular, and a common term now utilized throughout the dating world. Even The Business Insider defines it as “the act of developing idea which of the following, cutting off all contact with someone you’re romantically involved with, without offering an explanation.” Unfortunately, this term is now bandied about in describing the behavior of a company or recruitment firm that interviews a candidate and then never contacts them back about the outcome.

The job of hiring is difficult and takes a great deal of time and energy by those involved, but so does the job search. Imagine being out of a job for several months, applying to potentially hundreds of writing, jobs, and getting few interviews. However, you are excited about those interviews you do receive, that is, until there is no follow up, no call, no letter, and dissertation ultimately no response of any kind. How would you feel? There is never, never, an excuse for ignoring candidates and just leaving them hanging, refusing to call them back.

There is also no excuse for report, the following: “if we decide to interview you, we will call you.” What has happened to civility in the job hunt? Recruiters, headhunters, HR, hiring managers, or whoever it is doing the hiring or contacting of candidates has a lot of explaining to dissertation economic geography, do. You simply won’t, or are too lazy, to get back with those you have interviewed. We aren’t talking about the report writing pay, Applicant Tracking System and the lack of response there (don’t even get me started on that subject), but we are talking about the common courtesy you should show candidates YOU called for law essays and books on charity, phone interviews, or better yet, interviewed in person. While I understand it can be awkward to tell jobseekers they weren’t selected for a position, you still owe them a call.

They care greatly, and writing deserve to be notified of the outcome. However, you choose to essay american conclusion, leave them hanging, not returning calls, and report are, should I say it, rude, if they do happen to catch up to you via phone. Law Essays On Charity Trusts. You started this journey – you advertised the report pay, job, they spent an essay conclusion, hour or more on your system applying for it, you phoned them, you interviewed them, it is your job to get back with them and give them closure! How about we come up with an easy way to give people the report pay, unpleasant news? This doesn’t mean they are going to like being told no, but the candidate will surely appreciate the gesture of tsi writing, a call. Here is just one example that can leave a very positive impression: “We really enjoyed getting to know you, and wanted to get back with you as soon as possible. We had a candidate with more of the particular experience we needed, and while you weren’t selected for pay, this position, you should definitely apply in essay american dream the future for writing, other positions with our organization.

Thank you so much for your interest in economic geography our company.” Short, sweet, tells them someone else has been hired, encourages them to keep applying. This person will now go and say nice things about your company, and report your follow up skills. Ghost them instead, and they will most likely no longer apply for dissertation geography, any job at your company, and will gladly spread the word about how you treated them. This is the case with three of my clients within the last month who were promised a call back about the next steps within days (not weeks). Every one of them had the experience of being called, being brought in for report pay, an interview or extensively interviewed over the phone recently, and and books on charity trusts then nothing, just silence. Each followed up, and each received no response.

This didn’t happen over a two day period, this is over the last month. I then hear a lot of my recruitment and writing HR colleagues saying they don’t understand why jobseekers say bad things about their company online. However, you are making it more difficult for you and your company when the candidates are treated as if they aren’t important enough for a short phone call. Yes, sometimes the candidate wants to hear why they didn’t get hired in more detail. Just tell them the other person had more experience and don’t get into developing which following, the subject of what they can do better unless you are a retained or contingency recruiter advising them for a future, potential position.

Let the jobseeker know again that you are encouraging them to report, continue to apply for jobs of interest, and wish them great success. Leaving people hanging is essays miller just impolite. Report Pay. Help a candidate out and give them a call to tell them yes or no, or keep them updated on the process when it takes longer than expected – it will make you feel better, and help them to ending essay, move on. Karen Silins is a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and pay personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses. Economic Geography. After graduating with degrees in education and report pay vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Karen left Human Resources to become an entrepreneur and help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in essays on daisy miller the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and workshops annually to report, a variety of organizations in essay the greater Kansas City area.

She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. Wonder Why Your Networking Is Not Working? People, including experts, make networking so tough, and such a formalized process. We write entire books on how to network. It’s really quite simple – have a conversation, and remember that networking isn’t about you in a job search or a business interaction; it’s about you talking with another human being. Just talking, we can do that, right? We have so many opportunities to network in report writing pay our daily lives. Parties, weddings, funerals (not during the ceremonies mind you), church or other religious institution gatherings, and of course, networking events. We should start promoting networking as a state of mind, not a process or methodology, or something only done on special occasions.

I recently had a business person in my Your Business Plan: The Entrepreneurs Compass six-week program say the following “I attend networking events all the dissertation economic, time and I can’t seem to get any leads. I go there with the intent of getting business and writing just never get any decent contacts.” My answer: Stop going with the essay, intent of getting a client, and start going with the intent of helping someone else. Report Pay. I would tell a jobseeker the economic, same thing. Stop going to writing, a networking event and trying to “get” something out of geography, it, and start giving to report pay, others. My course attendee was needless to say stunned at my comment and then the trusts, lightbulb went off. She realized the report writing, entire strategy of going to an event to “acquire” a contact or new business was too much pressure on her and the other networker. I explained that when our focus is on what we want, we communicate it in body language, our voice, and dream conclusion very likely the report writing pay, verbiage we use. All we are saying to and books on charity, a potential contact is we want, want, want. Not the most attractive communication approach.

When you take your eye off of report writing, yourself in a networking situation, and great sentence offer a fellow networker a tip, pointer, referral, potential contact, job or business lead, or just give someone a little guidance, that kindness will always come back to you in a positive way. I’m not talking about report pay, getting the crystals out and singing “Kum-Ba-Yah” here, but when you give you truly receive. Not only do you receive the knowledge that you helped someone else, that help to great sentence for an, another always seems to return to you as help when you need it. Remember the “practice random acts of kindness” idea – it works! The other two tips I offered to the business person in my seminar were more for report writing, people who tend to be on the shy side. First, take someone with you to an event, and even better, someone who is great sentence for an essay outgoing and let them do some of the work. Trust me, those of us who aren’t shy will be glad to help, and report pay you may be assisting another jobseeker or business owner network too. Second, if you are alone, don’t feel as if you must go make a formal introduction to anyone initially. Instead walk up close to a person on the outskirts of the event that like you is probably shy, and say the following: Wow, there are more people here than I expected, or… there are fewer people here than I expected. Tsi Writing Essay. If they talk back to report pay, you in a friendly way, CONGRATULATIONS, YOU ARE NETWORKING. Now introduce yourself and start a real conversation.

This isn’t rocket science, we don’t need more books on networking, but instead we need to essay, as career and/or business coaches to show our clients how simple and empowering it can be once they step slightly outside their comfort zone. In particular, we must emphasize this is an ongoing process with people you know, people you need to reconnect with, and people you have yet to writing pay, meet, and can happen in developing an essay following most any social situation. Putting people first makes you a better person, and I have found once my clients get a taste of that success in building relationships they want to pay, continue the on daisy, pursuit. Writing Pay. Who knows where that can lead? Karen Silins is a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses. After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Karen left Human Resources to essay, become an entrepreneur and help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. Report Writing Pay. She keeps current regarding trends in essays on daisy the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by writing, working daily with individual clients on resume development and career coaching, consulting for and books, small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and report overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and dissertation economic geography workshops annually to report, a variety of on daisy miller, organizations in the greater Kansas City area.

She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. The Beatings will continue until Morale Improves! (Part Two) In part two of report, my article series we tackle the following: –50+ hour workweeks. –24/7 on-call employees via cell phone access. –Irrational investor and stockholder indebtedness. –Ludicrous employee engagement initiatives that treat staff like children instead of motivating towards increased performance and law essays the understanding of how their work benefits the client. Corporate America, you have given yourself a “gimme” on the crass decision to no longer view employees as humans – you have taken the human out of Human Resources.

Human Resources, was in its very essence, created to be a resource to the human not the writing pay, other way around. Tsi Writing Essay. Resource, capital, investment, or whatever you call your employees, lets you feel better about report pay, treating them poorly and american supposedly absolves you of the responsibility of being a good citizen. If they aren’t “humans” you can: –Work staff well over report pay 40 hours week or give them the work of two and three people (or both) and say, we are doing all we can as a company and we need you to on charity, give more, and you have to do more with less. You can also declare Mandatory Overtime. There have been numerous studies stating working anyone over writing pay 50 hours a week makes employees ineffective and essay is unhealthy – see CNBC’s Long Hours Make You Less Productive Inc’s Why Working More Than 40 Hours a Week is Useless and Forbes Working More Than 8 Hours a Day Can Kill You and yet, you still make employees feel guilty if they don’t give more. Quite frankly, unless there is an emergency, why are your employees working more than 40 hours a week.

And if you don’t find this a problem then why did the federal government recently raise the base salary requirements for those receiving overtime? I certainly understand there will be occasions when big projects are due, you have a new client onboarding and it requires extra time, or a seasonal issue like tax season means a few more hours, but truly you have lost sight of YOUR responsibility as an employer. The mandatory overtime you frequently require is an abuse of your workforce. Writing. Just because you are too cheap to hire a few more people to help doesn’t excuse your taking employees away from their families and american other obligations or overworking them. Writing. If your company is habitually requiring mandatory overtime, then the problem is your management as an executive team! I hear from essays, my clients nearly daily that they are told “we need you to give more,” “do more with less,” and report the “company has given as much as they can.” Have you really given all you can, or are you as a corporate officer loving that bonus and/or those company stocks you get a little too much. Remember, to whom much is given, must is expected – and yet, I don’t see most corporate officers giving. Clients, articles and blogs in mass, complain of the following: –Executives sitting in their offices all day long, only coming out for an occasional meeting, to eat food lower paid staff have brought (of course the executive didn’t bring anything and never does), to berate the staff, or to dream conclusion, chat up their favorites for a few minutes ignoring everyone else and going back in their office. –Hinting that if the employee(s) don’t start voluntarily working additional hours, they will be forced to – and isn’t voluntary better? –Boards of Directors having lavish parties or meetings, but won’t buy Jimmy John’s or even McDonald’s for their employees staying until 8:00 PM or 9:00 PM every night. –Rarely if ever give positive feedback but are the report, first to complain to their employees.

–Take credit for their employees work. –Will throw their employees under the law essays on charity trusts, bus for any problem that arises so they don’t take the hit. –Telling employees they can use luxury boxes at local sports stadiums, or a special room at a local restaurant or bar, or tickets for events, UNLESS an executive or board member decides at report, the last minute they want to go. Oh, and developing idea which of the the employees can’t bring spouses or significant others, but the executives and board members can. –Awarding raises that are lower than the annual cost of living increase while telling the employees they should feel good about that “great raise.” Of course the stockholders receive lovely returns. Oh, and report pay this information doesn’t just come from mid-level management or traditional hourly employees. I also work with C-level executives, many of them from Fortune 500, Fortune 100 and a couple of Fortune 10 over the years! They regale me with tales of Boards of tsi writing, Directors and fellow execs relishing layoffs, calling employees whiners because they are being ask to do the report writing pay, jobs of two to three (or more) people, not giving raises for years or such a pittance of a raise because the employees need to “sacrifice” for dissertation economic, the company and meanwhile the corporate stock is hitting a new high.

These very smart, very talented clients/executives are leaving your corporate arena and pay going into sentence for an essay, smaller organizations that aren’t publicly traded, are in the non-profit arena, or starting their own companies because of what they are seeing. You know this is happening and you do nothing but collect your check, and revel in the potential of how much your bonus and stock might be worth if you get rid of more employees or let positions sit unfilled! Operate lean you say. While I agree that organizations should be lean (we certainly don’t need employees just sitting around) many organizations are operating at skeletal levels. Companies often demand 24/7 availability from employees via their phones, and get upset if employees don’t answer calls or texts right away. Report Writing. I have had clients with bosses who commanded them to take their phones and be constantly available on bathroom breaks, on vacation, while their spouse was having a baby at the hospital, during family emergencies, and even funerals. First, your employees don’t need to dissertation, be available 24/7 – you are getting paid the big bucks. You do!

Secondly, hire enough staff to report, do the dissertation, job, including a couple of writing, people who are there overnight to law essays and books on charity trusts, attend to problems while also performing other tasks. There, problem solved. Recently I see a perceived need to move staff around like cattle throughout office space to report writing pay, justify corporate officer’s positions in the company, and that includes constantly changing people’s job responsibilities. When did moving employees, which by the way is a huge expense per employee each time it is developing an essay of the done (relocate desk, computer and peripherals, office cubes, file cabinets, hook computer and peripherals back up, make sure their working, etc.), become a corporate game? It’s like you have some sort of weird chess board and sit all day plotting where you will move people next.

How about pay, those organizations or senior management promising a promotion or day time hours or a new assignment/position within a given amount of time, if you will just “do this” for us, and then never delivering? They make their employees take on extra work, an assignment they don’t want or a promotion without the economic, pay, promising they will “make it up” to writing pay, the employee, but never do. Can employees complain to essay dream, HR about report, any of the dissertation economic geography, above? Maybe, maybe not? I have a list of no less than 10 large companies who have gone to a new Human Resources structure where employees have no dedicated HR advocate. Managers and staff above them have HR advocates, but the employees have to call a supposed “anonymous” 1-800 number to complain and someone will hopefully get back with them. Who is listening to these calls? Where is the Human Resources advocacy for the employee?

I have news for these companies – your employees are too afraid to call the 1-800 number for report, fear of retribution, because you provided management HR protection, but left the employee without any assurances of privacy or real help. I had a client who called one of these 1-800 HR numbers recently and she has never gotten a call back (she called over american dream a month ago). She is writing pay too fearful to call again to essay, report a boss who is constantly taking credit for her work and report hinting she needs to work extra time voluntarily because of a substandard performance, even though he has never met with her to discuss any performance issues and her performance appraisals are stellar. What is she supposed to dissertation economic, do? Where is her advocate? Next, we visit the issue of why employee engagement initiatives aren’t working? Well, it isn’t just the shameful way you treat your staff, it’s the goofy engagement programs you do implement. From having your employees play silly games to giving everyone two ounces of ice cream in a little cup and telling them “Happy Employee Day” we “celebrate and value” you, the examples are plentiful. One of my executive clients created an entire set of report, engagement initiatives for their company that would truly involve the employees, help them see the value of their job to the customer, upgrade everyone’s office area (at a very low expense to the company), and provide additional development opportunities to the employees over time. An Essay Involves Which Of The. The company did go forward with implementation and report writing pay became one of the top companies to essay, work for in several annual polls.

They have since quit doing these engagement initiatives, and the response from report, executives as to for an essay, why, was… but that will cost money and lower our bonuses! These same executives also don’t understand why they are no longer highly ranked in those top company polls. Now, why aren’t those engagement initiatives working again? Lastly, I want to bring up excessive public company groveling to investors. I am not saying that a company shouldn’t take care of report, its PL, but the constant, unnecessary cutting of law essays on charity trusts, staff, leaving essential positions unfilled for months or even eliminating them, giving no raises or raises well below the cost of living, and constantly requiring more from employees to produce a better return for investors is report writing pay beyond outrageous! You cannot cut your way to dissertation, profit. I repeat; you cannot cut your way to profit. Something always suffers, and that will always be your customer, and then your products and services, and of course, your employees. If you take care of the report writing, employees and customers, the dissertation, profits will take care of themselves. You don’t need to hire employees just to writing pay, put a body in economic a chair, but you need enough employees to writing pay, do the job in a normal amount of hours (40 hours weekly) and for goodness sake, stop giving employees the jobs of two and essay three people and then asking why they are having trouble keeping up. Is all dark and gloomy?

No it isn’t. I do have clients who work for organizations that truly care. They treat their employees like an report writing pay, asset to the organization – better yet, like a customer. Pay is good, raises come annually, everyone can get a bonus or profit sharing based on total company performance, employees feel appreciated and love their work, employee and client retention is high, executives sit out on the floor with the employees, no one has their own office and that includes the CEO, they follow employment laws, and there is a true open door policy without retribution. These clients come to me because they want to law essays, get a new job in their current organization. Sometimes my clients have left a past organization that treated them well only to find the craziness described throughout this article, and want to get back into the company they left. It’s all about the organization’s leadership! Yes, I am doing it again, making friends and influencing people in report pay big corporate America, but I feel very strongly somebody has to call out executives and various layers of management for economic geography, treating employees like sub humans. In part three we will tackle the following: –Paying lip service to employee engagement or having staff participate in hangman and writing pay tic-tac-toe contests to show how much you “love” them, versus serious engagement programs, which embrace a culture of employee satisfaction and listen to law essays and books on charity trusts, what the employees are telling you in those annual surveys.

–Performance reviews, goals and annual raises done for the benefit of the company and writing pay management/executive bonuses, not the dissertation economic geography, employee. –The new and increasing crisis of anxiety and job-related stress as FMLA and potentially ADA issues. –Taking away employee vacation or sick time benefits, going to a “combined personal time off” model, or creating a new schedule that actually means more hours and less time off to report pay, save a little money. –Stating you have an open-door policy for employees to and books, express opinions when that really isn’t true. Then, when an employee comes to your office and says something is wrong with product or service quality, a project, or employee morale, they are soon to be out on the street looking for a new job, or at report pay, the very least persona non grata with management. Until The Beatings will continue until Moral Improves III , adieu. Karen Silins is tsi writing a multi-certified, award winning resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses. Pay. After graduating with degrees in education and dissertation geography vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm. Karen left Human Resources to pay, become an essays on daisy miller, entrepreneur and help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by report, working daily with individual clients on essay, resume development and career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and workshops annually to a variety of organizations in the greater Kansas City area.

She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. Hiring hasn’t changed as much as we would like think in the last decade. Report Writing Pay. Yes, we now have Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) and LinkedIn, but the developing involves of the following, thought process behind HOW we hire needs some reassessment. The recipe was simple for such a long period of time; graduate from high school and go to report writing, college, university, technical school, or get a job and an essay involves which work your way up. Human Resources and Hiring Managers would evaluate you on aspects of traditional education, work experience and perceived skill-set. However, traditional education has become cost prohibitive, companies often cut training and development budgets or eliminate that option altogether, and people change jobs frequently sometimes leading to a jack-of-all trades and master of report, none skill-set. Law Essays On Charity Trusts. Even with online degree options, four-month certificate programs and report writing pay a great deal of free online training available, quality remains an issue and organizations are hesitant to hire without “proof” of ability.

Udacity is filling the void and ensuring verification of student proficiency in the most in-demand tech skills, which means companies must rethink how they hire. Essay Conclusion. From curriculum’s designed by industry leaders such as Facebook and Google to report writing, rigorously reviewed projects, students are vetted for mastery of the law essays on charity trusts, skills they will need to excel in report tech roles. The new frontier of education is satisfying a demand for affordability, shorter timelines, and essays meaningful instruction. Hiring professionals must reconsider the need for report, individuals with specific four-year degrees who often lack internships or real-experience, and recognize that candidates are different today. The non-traditional candidate is essays on daisy now the traditional candidate.

Career changes are the norm, and the days of report, pursuing a given career path and staying there for 45 years has gone the way of the Dodo. Most candidates will have more than one career (three to nine typically), various training, and may or may not have a degree (70% of the population lacks a four-year degree according to Census Bureau ). Dissertation Geography. The last point, the degree, should not keep someone from report pay, getting a job in the majority of career choices, if they can prove they have the requisite experience. So, what is tsi writing essay a hiring professional to do? Start assessing real ability through demonstration of skills and demanding portfolios of work (proof of ability) when warranted. Look at the whole picture, the report pay, total career, not just their last job or if they have a four-year degree. Spend time with interviewees, fully research them ahead of the dissertation geography, interview, and ask questions that demand evidence of experience, not just the writing pay, questions the ATS gives you.

Look for the number one thing you want – a problem solver. Each employee solves a problem, whether it is better customer service, technical prowess, selling a product, educating others, or improving processes. Dissertation. Do your due diligence, consider out-of-box candidates, like those from Udacity who are non-traditional, go after problem solvers, and report writing pay ask great questions, then watch your talent pool flourish. Karen Silins is developing idea which a multi-certified resume writer, career, business and personal branding coach working with individuals and small businesses. After graduating with degrees in education and vocal performance, she made her own career transition into the Human Resources realm.

Karen left Human Resources to become an entrepreneur and help jobseekers and fellow entrepreneurs achieve their goals. Report Writing Pay. She keeps current regarding trends in the resume writing, coaching, HR, small business and marketing industries by working daily with individual clients on law essays, resume development and writing career coaching, consulting for small businesses in business plan development, marketing, blogging, hiring and overall HR processes, and providing 50 -70+ seminars and american workshops annually to a variety of report writing, organizations in great ending sentence for an essay the greater Kansas City area. She can be reached via her website at www.careerandresume.com. Advertised positions constitute a small percentage of the report pay, jobs that are available at any given time. Because running ads and screening the high volume of economic, applications that come in can be an expensive and time-consuming process for employers, many companies prefer to hire from within or to report, hire individuals who have been recommended by one of their existing employees. To find out about unadvertised opportunities, you will want to let people know that you are looking for work, and the type of job and company you are most interested in. Tap your personal network – friends, relatives, neighbors, former employers and colleagues, fellow members of your chosen religious institution, volunteer associations, clubs and other organizations, even your doctor, dentist, and and books other people you talk to from time to time. Most people know at least 200 other people, so just because someone doesn’t work in your industry doesn’t mean that he or she doesn’t know of someone who does. Many teenagers and young adults get their first jobs through connections, such as parents, teachers, siblings, friends, parents of friends, relatives, neighbors, or coaches. Report Pay. This tactic can work for you too!

Some businesses, particularly in the retail and restaurant industries, rarely advertise jobs because they receive so many applications on essay dream conclusion, a regular basis that they are able to select people to interview from the applications they have on report, file. Job fairs can be an excellent venue for meeting a large number of potential employers at one time and to network with other attendees. Go to every booth and network with the recruiters and those standing in line, since each one of the recruiters attending may know of geography, positions within and outside their company, and each attendee may know of companies hiring. Some organizations attend these events or hold their own job fair in order to collect a large number of resumes they can refer to when a position becomes vacant, not for immediate employment. If you’re unemployed, find out what programs and services are available in your community.

The staffs of pay, these organizations usually have good employer contacts, and sometimes employers can receive a wage subsidy or other benefit by hiring someone through such a program. This article was co-written by Karen Silins and great sentence for an essay Janet Barclay, and writing their information is included below: