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Queens College English 110: College Comp. Below is an example of an brand ethnographic essay I wrote as an undergraduate. Notice the inclusion of media: please experiment with additional media in your own essay. They hurt you at home and they hit you at school. They hate you if you’re clever, and they despise a fool. Till you’re so fucking crazy, you can’t follow their rules. A working class hero is something to be. –John Lennon, Working Class Hero. The history of the working class man is one that has been constantly neglected in American society. The blue-collar worker, because his life does not have the power or wealth of the rich, rarely has the opportunity to tell his story.
Instead, our history books are filled with stories of how he and others like him were conquered by mba admission essay vancouver, the rich and dominant. And since his life has never much been thought of as important in the grand scheme of things, his existence is clothing quickly forgotten once he passes on. The truth of the matter is, however, that his existence and history deserve to zimmer essay, be known. He’s a working man, a caring man, and a man who sacrifices his life simply to thesis clothing, get by. His story is powerful, moving, and even to an extent, inspirational. Robert Alvarez is your average, run of the research paper mill American of brand Mexican decent. He was born in a small, working class mining town. His father was a blue-collar man, as were his grandfathers.
He has worked with his hands his entire life and it is the only kind of work he has known. He knows what it is like to work hard for poor wages, struggle financially, and to surrender himself for the good of his family. And it is because of all this that he is the perfect specimen of a blue-collar worker who deserves to have his story known to a world that has shunned him and solve his like in the past. I met with Alvarez at his home in the rural farming town of Safford. Thesis Clothing Brand. Outside the small house are five cars. Only two actually run. Pongal Essay In Tamil. The other three, a badly oxidized, baby blue 1966 Plymouth Satellite, a rusting, navy 1972 Plymouth Duster, and thesis brand a severely dinged up, silver and black 1979 Dodge Adventurer pickup, are former family cars that the oedipus essay owner hoped to restore after he retired. Thesis. Now over research paper two years since his departure, they remain in the same spots where they have sat for the last 15 years.
Upon entering the house of the retired miner, one is taken aback by the heap of landscaping tools lying on thesis brand his front porch. After 36 years working as a copper miner at Phelps Dodge and oedipus vs hamlet essay serving as his family’s primary source of income, the aging man now works as a gardener and takes the thesis clothing back seat as the money earner to his wife, Anna. She works as a public school bus driver by day and in the evening moonlights as a custodian. For Anna, an 11-hour workday is not uncommon. Since Robert’s retirement, however, she no longer has to work alone cleaning the oedipus Medical Center of Eastern Arizona, the Arizona State Savings Credit Union, and the Graham County Chamber of thesis clothing brand Commerce. He willingly lends her a hand. “It gives us a chance to mein zimmer, spend some time together,” she says. He greets me as I enter and we adjourn to clothing, the dining room table. He offers me a chair next to his. I gladly accept.
I notice that the table has an interesting floral arrangement in problems, the center. It appears to brand, have some sort of action figure emerging from the middle of it. I take a closer look and business realize that it is the clothing black Power Ranger. Oedipus Vs Hamlet. Alvarez catches me taking a peek at thesis the toy and essay writing services vancouver tells me it belongs to his grandson. “He pretty much runs the place,” he tells me as I crack a smile. I later learn that he was unable to brand, be at the birth of his grandson–his first grandson. He was gone on a two-week detail for the National Guard. As I search my book bag for my tape recorder, Alvarez gets up. “Would you like something to drink? Soda, orange juice, beer?” he asks.
“No thanks,” I tell him. Essay Services Vancouver. I chuckle at the offer of beer. I think to brand, myself how entirely inappropriate it would be to drink an alcoholic beverage at a time such as this. He returns to solve business problems, the table with what appears to be a 40-ounce bottle of beer. I’m not able to distinguish what variety of beer it is; it’s still covered with the brown paper bag from the thesis liquor store. He sets the cap on the table in front of him and I recognize the Budweiser lid.
Indeed, a truly American beer. He sits down in his chair and leans back “Okay, now I’m ready,” he says right before he takes a big swig of his drink. Alvarez is not like the average retired copper miner, if one can argue such a thing exists. No, Alvarez is one of those men who you know has battled life from all possible angles. His dark brown eyes tell the story of a man who has seen many a bleak, cold day. His white hair is an indication of his age and acquired wisdom. His dark, weather-beaten skin exemplifies the many hours he has spent working in the sun and mba admission services vancouver the laborious work he has subjected his body to for the majority of his life. He lifts up a cigarette and presses it between his lips.
I watch with astonishment as he gracefully picks up his lighter and thesis brand gently raises it to his face. His big, bulky fingers move with the greatest of ease. They look strong, stronger than, I think to myself, any one of services my arms. It’s almost as if they are performing a perfectly synchronized dance, some sort of warped finger ballet. With his right dancers he grips the red lighter loosely but still firm. His thumb works as the resistance on the wheel of the thesis lighter and with one stroke, a perfect quarter-inch flame is born. Mein Essay. With the cast of his left hand he creates a symmetrical half-dome shield to block any wind from thesis, extinguishing the oedipus flame. Thesis. The red glow of the pongal essay in tamil burning tip of the unfiltered cigarette glows in the hand wall he has created and lights up the lower half of his face.
He sets the burning Pall Mall down and takes another big drink of his beer. It doesn’t phase him a bit. He looks at me, “Let’s get this started.” Alvarez was born in Bisbee, Arizona. His father, Francisco Alvarez, a 50-year-old miner and thesis later janitor, married his mother, Maria, when she was 30. Robert was the oldest of his father’s new family (he had five other children from a previous marriage). His two brothers, Jim and Ronald, were nothing like their elder sibling. Instead of spending most of mein zimmer their time reading classic historical fiction, Jim and Ron were behaving like average adolescent boys their age. The differences that distinguished Robert from his two younger brothers grew wider once their father died in 1955. Clothing Brand. I ask Alvarez if he was thrust into research paper the position of thesis brand male role model for his brothers after the essay services death. Thesis Brand. “Definitely not,” he tells me. He fails to elaborate any more on the subject, and I, instinctively, decide not to follow up on it.
Something tells me not to press too deep into the subject. It appears he is writing vancouver not comfortable speaking of it. I’m disappointed in detecting this, but it is obvious there was some sort of clash of personalities between the thesis three. To this day, the brothers seldom speak to each other. Little Robert Carlos Alvarez was born on March 14th, 1943. From an new testament early age, he was recognizably intelligent. Thesis Clothing Brand. As a young boy he played the violin, excelled in mathematics and science, and read everything he could get his hands on. His favorite tales were those of the chivalrous knights of new testament medieval Europe, but he loved literature from all over thesis clothing the world. The book case near the entrance of his house is filled with a diverse collection ranging from essay services vancouver, Dostoyevsky to brand, Dante to the Bhagavad-Gita . He claims to have read the majority of mein essay works by these authors by the time he was 20 years of age. These authors gave him a view of a world that was much bigger than Bisbee. And because of this, they were his passports to the rest of thesis brand humanity.
At the age of writing vancouver 17, Alvarez enlisted in thesis clothing, the Army. His mother urged him not to leave, but he insisted. He needed to essay writing services vancouver, see the world, he told her. All the books he read as a youngster stirred his imagination. Clothing. From the authors mentioned above, he held the belief that much of the pongal in tamil language people in world were suffering, and, for some time, Alvarez was in clothing, his heart a socialist. It wasn’t until the fifth grade, however, that he learned of his socialistic tendencies. “When I was in fifth grade there was a big witch-hunt effort in the US for communists.
They were looking under every rock for them. Well, one day in class, I asked the oedipus vs hamlet teacher why some people had to be poor and others did not. I asked her if there was some kind of government that could make everyone the same. She told me there was and it was called communism. I almost shit! I thought communism was something bad. It really wasn’t bad.
People just didn’t understand it. People don’t understand suffering if they never really see it or experience it.” Once in the military, Alvarez’s idea of suffering changed. Thesis. “It was like the writers wrote but worse, way worse. The worst thing was the hunger. Starvation is a long, horrible process. Mein Zimmer Essay. I saw people dying in front of clothing brand me. People living in these starving countries didn’t care about government or politics.
They just wanted to survive. The ordinary people wished the United States and everyone else would leave them in peace. They didn’t want to be bothered by political things. They were more concerned about eating and staying alive.” Upon returning to Bisbee from his military escapade, Alvarez found employment at pongal language the local Phelps Dodge mine and began his life following in the footsteps of his father and grandfathers. He applied for a position on thesis clothing a whim. “Well, I really don’t know why [I applied]. I just did.” For Alvarez the prospects of mba admission essay writing services vancouver becoming a laborer for the mine increased when he learned that the man in charge of employment knew his father. Thesis Brand. “He said ‘I’ll take your application and give you a call. Don’t even bother coming down.’ A couple of days later he called me at home. ‘Come on down here and we’ll get the paperwork’. Paper. Easy as that.” The next day, November 21st, 1963, was Alvarez’s first day of his 36-year mining life.
I’m careful not to say career when I describe his years of service to the mining industry because he claims it not to be a career. “I just thought of it as a job,” he explains as he takes yet another drink from his beverage. “All my life I never worked at thesis clothing a place where I thought of it as a career. I just worked and made the best of it. A job’s a job. As long as they keep paying me, I don’t give a care.” And Phelps Dodge did continue to pay him. Essay. At 20, he was earning close to $500 a month. Thesis. This was a dramatic increase for him considering he only made $173 a month in the military. The increase in money prevented Alvarez from re-enlisting in the army and mba admission writing services it kept him for the time being in Bisbee.
The $500 a month wages he received, however, came at brand a price. Alvarez worked underground for new testament research paper ten years in Bisbee. “It’s the dirtiest work you ever seen,” he tells me. “There’s mud, heat, water. It’s hot.” After hearing this, I question him further and thesis clothing brand ask him if he could describe in detail what an business average day was like for him. He answers me, “a day in Hell.” I think he’s joking and I giggle. Alvarez’s face is thesis void of emotion.
He takes another drink from his beer. His time as an underground miner has paid its toll on in tamil language his health. Even today, 26 years after he left Bisbee, his hearing is very bad and he smokes a pack of cigarettes a day. Although the smoking may not be directly related with his work in mines, his hearing definitely is. Workers underground were not supplied earplugs by Phelps Dodge when they would operate heavy-duty drills.
Not that the earplugs would have made much difference. He refuses to wear a hearing aid. He prefers that people speak up to him instead. Several times during the course of the interview I had to thesis, repeat questions so that he could hear them. Twice during the new testament research interview I had to speak at very unnatural tones, almost yelling at him. It seemed like my uncomfortableness in doing this humored him. Although Alvarez is not what one would classify as an alcoholic, he obviously enjoys his beer. Again, this can also be contributed to his experience as an underground miner in Bisbee. Everyday, after his shift Alvarez, along with other underground workers, would go directly to thesis clothing, the local bar. “The bars would have what they called an after-shift drink, free. Pongal In Tamil. You’d go in, and as soon as you got in, they gave you a shot of whiskey . . . Of course, they gave it to you so you would start drinking more.
You’d stay in there with the old timers. A lot of us got there at about 3:30. We’d stay there till about 5-6:00. Except for clothing brand the die-hard ones, they’d stay there half the night. “The miner’s drink was called a boilermaker. It was a shot of whiskey and a beer. Developing An Essay Idea. We’d have quite a few of thesis those. You had to keep up with the others, no matter how much of a hangover you had the next day. You had to drink like Hell.
The next day at new testament research work you’d damn near die sometimes. But, if you could keep up with them, you were one of them. You were a part of them.” Being a part of the underground clique was a major accomplishment for Alvarez. Thesis Clothing Brand. The pride is idea involves which of the following evident in his disposition when he speaks of clothing brand these miners. His eyes light, and his voice picks up. He produces a smile. He even sets his beer down. It is clear that he cherishes the memories of risking his life working far below the surface with these men. Mein Zimmer Essay. “They were a different breed. They were like the brand infantry in the Army.
The infantry was supposed to be the tough ones who could take anything. That’s what the underground miners were. They could take anything.” As he says this, I feel glad to know that he belonged to something he considers to be special. Not long after that, though, I come to the conclusion that his inclusion in the group was special because it was the first and only time in his life when he was able to live in developing an essay involves which, his Socialist ideal. Thesis Brand. All the men were equal. There were no rich or poor among them–they were all the same, all trying to live a simple life. Each person took care of themselves and everyone else. Why it came to be this way, I do not know. Perhaps it was because they saw what he saw and they lived what he lived; they knew each other’s suffering, financial and physical. Maybe it was because they sometimes spent more than 70 hours a week in tight closed spaces together.
Who’s to mba admission essay services, say, but one thing is for sure: They were blue-collar men destroying their bodies for thesis brand a company that could care less about them as individuals and problems more as a commodity. They were brother-laborers linked together, attempting to shield themselves from an overbearing parent company. When I think of thesis clothing it like this, Alvarez’s drinking, smoking, and hearing don’t seem like problems to me. Oedipus Essay. I realize that they are only tolls on clothing his body; and that they have not affected his mind in the least. They may eventually cost him part of his life, but the life he has lived has brought the kind of wisdom most of us can only dream of ever gaining. He knows life and he knows how the world does and vs hamlet essay should work. All three are things that many can never find in thesis brand, lifetimes lasting a hundred years.
After 11 years in Bisbee, Alvarez was transferred to a new mine in his present home of Safford. As for the reason for the move, he says, “I got chosen to come over here. The big producers got chosen, the ones who put out the most tonnage.” Other than the comradeship of working underground, tonnage was another major part in his life as an underground contract miner. Tonnage is a slang term describing the mein zimmer essay amount of thesis brand copper a miner digs out. After working up the ladder from an entry laborer, or mucker, he made his way to the alluring money associated with contract mining. Basically, the idea behind contract mining was that teams of essay men, usually four per group, would work in split shifts to achieve a company set standard. The standard for the group took several factors of working conditions into consideration. Things like underground temperature, how far ore needed to be moved, how many times ore needed to be moved, how far underground the mining was being done, and if there was the thesis brand possibility of the new testament paper shaft caving in were all accounted for by the company in its decision of a standard. For Alvarez, a common standard set for brand his crews was 80 tons per day. Each man was responsible for 20 tons each. If the mba admission essay services 80 tons were met, a bonus of 50 cents a ton was awarded by the company for the miners’ hard work.
The system seemed reasonable enough for those motivated to work hard and clothing brand willing to be part of a team. However, problems often did arise in the arrangement. “Sometimes you got teamed up with some other crew that didn’t want to work.” When this happened, the solve business problems outcomes often resulted in ill feelings between co-workers. “It used to get bad to where the day shift guys would go into the bar and start drinking and at eleven o’clock they’d be waiting outside for clothing brand the other guys to get out. They’d start fighting.” The selection of which of the Alvarez for the Safford mine was a wise one. At one point in his work underground, he was pumping out 25 tons of ore a day.
This is when he says he was making the best money of his young life. Thesis Clothing Brand. “I was making really good money. Pongal Essay In Tamil. That in itself was motivating me to work harder,” he says. The money wasn’t everything, however. Thesis Clothing. During this time, he met his first wife, Alice. He was 24 and ready to settle down. She was 22 and significantly younger in terms of what she had seen in life compared to him. The two were married March 21st of 1967.
After eight months of marriage, Alice died during complications in childbirth. Alvarez, destroyed and distraught, was also out of work. A strike began the previous July and would continue up until the next April. He remained out of work until then. “It was a bad time in my life,” he says as he takes another drink from his beer. The strike ended quickly after and a few years later, Alvarez met his current wife, Anna.
The two instantly fell in love. Anna had a child from a previous marriage, and vs hamlet essay when the two married on March 21st, 1970, Alvarez adopted Gilbert Anthony as his own son. “I always thought of him as my boy. Thesis Brand. He was born the new testament paper same day my wife died.” Two years after their marriage, he and Anna had their first child together, Frederick Robert. Ironically, Fred was born on thesis brand Gilbert’s birthday, and the fifth anniversary of Alice’s death. With his second child, and essay writing services vancouver happy marriage, things were beginning to look up for Alvarez.
Incidentally, the March 21st wedding of thesis Robert and Anna coincidentally landed on the same day of his first wedding. Pongal In Tamil Language. Both weddings fell on brand a Saturday, Alvarez’s day off from work. From as far as Alvarez could remember, strikes were a regular occurrence at Phelps Dodge mines. “When I first started working in Bisbee, every three years there was a strike. Every three years, never failed.” He pauses to take a drink of his beer. “Every three years the writing services union would call a strike to negotiate contracts.” The union was something Alvarez never cared much for. He held a stereotype of thesis all union members based on zimmer his experiences with them.
Part of this stereotype came from his encounters with union representatives who pressured him to join the union. “The union guy would come over there and try to sign you up. When you signed up, they finally would leave you alone. As long as you sign, they can take that money out of your paycheck. Thesis. They used to take about $10 out. After that, they don’t bother you and you don’t bother them. I never made a union meeting in my life.” Other than the greed Alvarez saw in unions, the other part of the stereotype he held involved their indolence. “A lot of the union members were the lazy guys,” he says. He claims the vs hamlet union also prevented him from outputting tonnage by brand, the number of rules and regulations it set up. “The union used to make up a lot of rules that would keep you from pongal essay language, making money.” I ask for an example. “Like at lunchtime. You couldn’t blast more than ten sticks of dynamite because the union members said the thesis clothing smoke would fill up all over and people couldn’t eat in the tunnels.
It would be too much smoke for them. Vs Hamlet. For a lot of the real workers, the smoke would not bother them. Lunch was to eat not enjoy.” Alvarez’s solution to rules and regulations like this was to not get caught. “At lunchtime I would use 50 sticks of dynamite but only say I used 10. I wasn’t going to get less tonnage and lose my money for them.” Alvarez was turned in thesis clothing brand, a number of times by the union and developing idea which of the was dealt with by PD. “They just told me to stop,” he says.
He didn’t stop, however. “I’d just cool it down for a while. Thesis Brand. Then, the next chance I got, I would do it again.” Alvarez put up with the union for the next 15 years, but in developing idea of the following, 1983, the shape of thesis clothing brand unions at Phelps Dodge was undergoing a drastic change. More specifically, the company was in solve business, the process of eliminating them. Thesis Clothing. When Alvarez first started working in Safford in April of 1975, a union did not exist at the mine. “They didn’t have a union in Safford. PD didn’t want a union, so there wasn’t one. The union was still around and real strong in Morenci, though.” Indeed, the union in Morenci was strong and held a considerable amount of influence in developing an essay involves, the company.
Morenci is a 45-minute drive east of Safford. The town was, and still is, completely controlled by thesis, Phelps Dodge. The overwhelming majority of people who live there work for research the mine. The union had to be strong in clothing brand, such circumstances. Employees would fight not only for working conditions but also living conditions. Often times, or more accurately, every three years, clashes between the two factions arose. The most heated clash, and the strike which drew enormous national and an essay following world attention for its government-aided striker loss, began July 1, 1983. It eventually ended led to the fall of the union in Morenci. At the time of the strike, Alvarez had moved from the Safford mine, which had been closed in 1982, to a division of small mines being prospected by PD.
However, for the two weeks preceding the strike up to the first day of the strike, he was working in Morenci as a loan from small mines. “I was loaned by small mines to Morenci to thesis clothing, clean copper out of pongal a furnace. There were a few of us. We had to drill and blast it out. The first day of the strike was the last day I worked in Morenci. They asked me if I wanted to stay there after the strike started but I said no. I left the mine, and outside thousands of people were lined up. I didn’t get out of work until 7AM, but they left me alone because they knew I was leaving. If they thought I was a scab, they probably would have killed me. I didn’t want to be a scab. I just wanted to go back to thesis brand, small mines.” Alvarez did go back to small mines, but did not stay there long. Oedipus Vs Hamlet Essay. “With small mines, PD was trying to look into little, old mines, mining claims all around that had been closed for clothing brand decades.
They were leasing them looking for ore. The first place I went was Gallup, New Mexico. We went around looking in the hills looking for ore. PD thought that the old time prospectors had missed a lot of ore.” PD was wrong. Zimmer Essay. The old prospectors of the area, using only hand tools, cleaned the hills surrounding Gallup of nearly all the clothing ore. “The old miners dug out every little ounce of what there was,” recounts Alvarez. After PD decided small mines was a flop, Alvarez was asked to pongal in tamil language, work in Morenci. By this time, the thesis clothing strike was over business a year old.
He started in August of 1984. “By that time, there were a lot of clothing brand openings, and lots of miners from all over the state were taking the [positions] over.” Demonstrators still lined the essay gates of the mine, and they continued to yell and spit at scabs entering the compound, but Alvarez paid no attention to them. Initially, Alvarez felt compassion for the strikers. “When the strike first started, I felt sorry for the people, that’s why I didn’t stay to work there instead of small mines. Thesis Clothing. I didn’t want to vs hamlet, take their job away. They were just ordinary workers fighting for their cause.” After he says this, I ask him what caused the relapse in his judgment when he decided to work there a year later. To this he replies, “the people changed. I didn’t feel sorry for clothing brand them anymore. Pongal Essay In Tamil. A lot of the pushy, union strikers ended up going back to work a year later. The one’s who made the most noise were some of the first ones to come back. The strikers were outnumbered.
Most of them went back to clothing, work, and they weren’t as solid. They got hungry.” He takes another drink of his beer. Alvarez was called a scab but it did not disturb him a bit. People never approached him during his time off from work or threatened him like they did to other scabs. Mein Zimmer Essay. “I don’t give a damn about people or what they think of me. The strike was broken for all practical purposes and when I went in, I never had anybody come up to me.” Alvarez’s family, however, did feel some anxiety from others in the community. One of Anna’s closest friends told her over the telephone one day that she no longer wanted to clothing, associate with her ever again. Debbie, Alvarez’s next child after Frederick, claimed to be threatened on the playground many a time at school by oedipus vs hamlet essay, children of strikers. Gilbert said his Catechism teacher, a wife of a demonstrator, harassed him. All this did die, however, as the clothing brand strike came to an end and zimmer his life amid the strike that was famous for failing went back to normal.
Reflecting back on the strike, Alvarez takes another drink from his bottle and says this, “The union was going to break PD. It was too strong. No one was able to work because there were so many rules and regulations. Clothing. That’s why they got rid of it, and new testament research paper they went into a lot of debt to get rid of it. Looking back on brand it, though, I think PD had it all planned out for years.
They do need some kind of union, but they don’t need one no near as powerful as that one. Mein Essay. Under the new PD, it’s to the point to brand, where they can’t form a union. The still need someone to stick up for the ordinary worker. It was just too powerful at mba admission vancouver that time. “PD more or less dictates everything now for the worker. But, I think this was planned a long time ago.
One thing about PD, and that’s always been that way, is that they’re going to do what they want to do. It’s take it or leave it. You don’t like it, tough. You either keep working and not like it or you find another job.” Alvarez was able to raise five children and support his wife with his job at Phelps Dodge. Clothing. He was also able to send three of his kids to college and is planning on sending another next fall. He bought a house, 14 cars, and never missed a payment. Mein. He built a life with the money he earned at Phelps Dodge. He sacrificed his hands, his lungs, his hearing, and more especially his liver for thesis brand a company that paid him poorly for all he gave. Alvarez never complained about new testament paper his job and still doesn’t. Clothing Brand. “I made a living off of it. If they go broke tomorrow, I don’t care.
If they went broke when I was working there, I would have found a job somewhere else. I never thought of it as a career. I’m not the type of person who is ambitious. Solve Business. I’m not trying to come out ahead. Clothing. I’m just trying to make a life, that’s it.” After Alvarez tells me this, he takes another drink of his beer. As I watch him, I’m left breathless. I think to business, myself that the man sitting across from me is the living quintessence of thesis what the beaten up workingman is. He’s been dealt a less than average hand by life, but has been able to make the best of it. He’s a fighter who refuses to give up.
He’s independent and never depended on a union or anyone else to stick up for writing services vancouver him. He’s a family man who sacrificed himself to provide. The more I reflect on thesis brand this, the more I realize that he’s more than just the good guy who has been wronged by life. He’s a hero. Vs Hamlet Essay. But he’s a hero for more than just the workingman. He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is like to work hard and clothing get paid softly.
He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is like to combat life from all directions. He’s a hero for all those who can relate to the education life gives. I realize that this man deserves to language, have his story recorded even if he is not as rich as Bill Gates or as powerful as Jess Jackson (both of whom will be remembered in history). His story needs to be shared, and I’m not just saying that because he’s my father. He’s my hero too.
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1 timothy essay The authorship of the so-called “pastoral epistles” (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus) is thesis clothing brand more questionable than any other letters in the corpus Paulinum . Solve Problems? A brief examination of the thesis clothing brand arguments on both sides, therefore, needs to be given. Rather than repeat the evidence for each book—since most scholars either accept or reject all of them as a group—the data concerning authorship will be presented only for 1 Timothy. Although sometimes disputed, 1 “the external evidence for the Pauline authorship of the PE [pastoral epistles] is pongal essay in tamil as good as for any other of his letters except Romans and 1 Corinthians.” 2 Irenaeus is the first explicitly to cite them as Pauline, though there are virtually definite quotations from them in clothing, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Heracleon, and involves which following perhaps 1 Clement. Even though they are missing from Marcion’s Canon, “Tertullian says Marcion rejected them, which is no wonder, since the clothing brand content of 1 Timothy 4:1-5 is completely antithetical to Marcionism.” 3. Interestingly, in P 46 (the oldest MS of the Pauline corpus, dated c. 200 CE), although only the pastorals are missing, there were originally five leaves at the end of the codex. It has been estimated that the pastorals would have taken ten leaves.
Since codices were bound before being written in, it is possible that the scribe simply found himself in the embarrassing situation of having run out of room for the three pastoral epistles (which the scribe, with good reason, treated as a unit, hence leaving all of research them out). Thesis Brand? And even if the scribe were unaware of the pastorals’ existence, this could be accounted for on two bases: (1) these letters were the only Pauline letters sent to apostolic delegates (and would thus probably have minimal circulation); and/or (2) there is the possibility that P 46 should be dated in the 70s CE, rather than 130 years later, as one recent scholar has argued. 4 Nevertheless, “by the end of the research second century they [the pastoral epistles] are firmly fixed in every Christian canon in thesis, every part of the empire and are never doubted by anyone until the nineteenth century.” 5. The internal evidence is where the real issue of authenticity lay. Basically, there are three problems for authenticity: (1) historical, (2) theological, and (3) linguistic. a. The Historical Problem . The first problem is the fact that the historical evidences suggested within the mein essay pastoral epistles do not seem to fit in with any of the data supplied by Acts.
The pastorals indicate the following: (1) Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus, while Paul moved on thesis to Macedonia (1 Tim 1:3); (2) Paul likewise left Titus in Crete, after having spent some time with Titus on the island evangelizing the natives (Titus 1:5); (3) he is once again a prisoner in oedipus, Rome when he writes 2 Timothy (2 Tim 1:8, 16-17; 4:16). In response to the historical difficulty, there remain but two options for those who favor authenticity: either these letters should somehow fit into the Acts’ chronology, or else they were written after Acts. (1) J. A. T. Robinson attempted to place such events within the chronological framework of Acts, 6 though his views have gained few adherents. (2) The view that they were written by Paul after Acts was published was first mentioned by Eusebius and clothing brand has had a steady stream of followers since. There is a double difficulty with this view, however. First, it presupposes a second Roman imprisonment. Of course, since we only solve business problems have Acts as a primary record of any of Paul’s imprisonments (apart from his own letters), this cannot be ruled out. Second, “it is argued that Paul had intended to travel west from Rome, not east (Rom 15:23-29), that Luke could hardly have been silent about thesis clothing, such an paper, event, and that in thesis brand, any case it would have been highly unlikely for Paul to be either released from a Roman detention or, if released, re-arrested.” 7. However, there is good evidence that Paul was indeed released from his first Roman imprisonment, as he seems to indicate would be the case in essay writing, his last canonical letter written while in prison (cf. Clothing Brand? Phil 1:18-19, 24-26; 2:24).
And there is evidence that he changed his mind about going west (cf. the same references and an essay idea Philem 22). 8 Further, as we have argued at some length, Luke ended his tome precisely at the point where he did because Paul was about to thesis clothing go on idea of the trial and because part of the purpose of Acts was as a trial brief for thesis clothing Paul. In light of such evidence, as Fee has cogently argued, “the proponents of the above difficulties simply do not take the historical data seriously enough. . . . Furthermore, it seems highly unlikely that a pseudepigrapher, writing thirty to essay services vancouver forty years later, would have tried to palm off such traditions as Paul’s evangelizing Crete, the near capitulation to heresy of the Ephesian church, or a release and second imprisonment of brand Paul if in fact they had never happened.” 9. An Essay Which Of The? b. The Theological Problems . There are basically two theological problems in brand, the pastorals: one related to essay soteriology, one related to ecclesiology. 10 There are other theological problems, to be sure (such as eschatological and ethical), but these are the most important. Overall, “The [theological] problem lies not so much with their [the pastoral epistles’] being non -Pauline in theology—indeed Pauline elements are recognized everywhere—as it does with so much in them that seems un -Pauline, that is, unlike his characteristic way of thinking and thesis clothing speaking as reflected in the earlier letters.” 11. (1) Soteriology . Pongal? Although the author is concerned with the doctrine of salvation—indeed, this seems to be the driving force behind the writing of these letters (cf. especially 1 Tim 1:11)—the way in which the author speaks of this doctrine is decidedly un-Pauline. Essentially, there is a creedalism, an objective air to the pastorals with regard to clothing soteriology that is largely lacking in the homolegomena . The emphasis is more one of “belief that” than “trust in” (cf. 1 Tim 3:9; 6:20; Titus 1:13; 2:1; 2 Tim 1:14; 4:7; etc. where terms such as “the faith,” “sound teaching,” and pongal essay in tamil “the deposit” are used). In response to this problem it should be noted that. Brand? The basic reason for this kind of “objective” reference to the gospel, however, lies in the nature of problems these letters in contrast with the others.
The other letters (excepting Philemon, of course) were written to churches, to be read aloud and apparently to function as authority as though Paul himself were there. Clothing Brand? Therefore, it was necessary for developing involves which following him to reiterate the truth that was to correct or stand over against their waywardness. In this case, however, the letters are written to those who themselves both know fully the thesis clothing brand content of Paul’s gospel and are personally to take the essay place of authority in these churches that his letter had earlier done. This latter phenomenon is totally overlooked in scholarship. It is almost as if the real objection were that Paul should write such letters at all. 12. (2) Ecclesiology . More significant than the soteriological issue is the ecclesiological one. The reason that the pastorals have been questioned on such grounds is that they seem to reflect a period in church history which is later than Paul’s lifetime. In particular, they seem to reflect the early second century (cf. Thesis? Ignatius’ writings) in which a single bishop had elders and new testament research paper deacons. Furthermore, the strong emphasis in the pastorals on the leaders’ qualifications, regulations concerning church life, etc., seem decidedly un-Pauline. Not only this, but the function of the church leadership is especially to pass on a fixed tradition of the truth, an emphasis lacking in the earlier Pauline epistles.
Against this supposition is the fact that elsewhere Paul does display an interest in church order (cf. Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12; Rom 12:8; cf. Acts 14:23), though he is evidently not concerned about it nearly as much as he is in the pastorals. But there is thesis clothing brand a twofold reason for his concern here: (1) In all three letters, Paul is writing to an apostolic delegate—in effect, an intermediary between himself and the leadership of the church. Thus what he normally communicated in person as to church order (as he evidently must have in light of such casual references as Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12, etc.), he now must put in writing. (2) In each one of the letters there are extenuating circumstances which would bring about an emphasis on church order and creedalism: (a) in 1 Timothy, the church had been infected by idea of the, heretical and immoral leaders; hence, moral qualifications especially needed to be established; (b) in Titus, the church was newly planted; hence, some guidelines for thesis clothing selecting leaders needed to be given; (c) in new testament paper, 2 Timothy, Paul’s death is imminent; hence, an emphasis on a fixed tradition was in order. Thesis? Finally, there really is no good evidence that the pastorals reflect a single bishopric. Pongal Language? If these letters are authentic, then Timothy and thesis brand Titus are apostolic delegates , not bishops themselves. And 1 Tim 3:2 cannot be pressed into service for the mono-episcopate view, because the article (“ the bishop”) is most likely generic. 13. c. The Linguistic Problems . The last and easily most significant difficulty is linguistic in nature: “For most scholars it is the objection based on new testament research paper language which has tended to tip the thesis brand balance against the Pauline authorship of the pastorals.” 14 This, admittedly, has caused me the most problems with accepting the pastorals as well. Pongal? In general, the basic problem is that “the homogeneity of the Pastorals with one another and their dishomogeneity with the other Paulines must be regarded as an established fact.” 15 This can be seen in three ways. (1) New Vocabulary . There is quite a bit of thesis clothing new vocabulary found in essay in tamil, the pastorals—according to one scholar, over one hundred and thesis clothing brand seventy words (170) found in the pastorals are not found in other Pauline letters—nor even in the rest of the NT 16. (2) Lack of Key Theological Terms . But there is also a dearth in typical Pauline terms—terms in which his key theological ideas are normally expressed. For example, ?????????? “appears only in the sense of ‘uprightness’ and is a virtue to be pursued (1 Tim.
6:11; 2 Tim. Pongal In Tamil? 2:22), not a gift of right-standing with God.” 17. (3) Stylistic Differences . Finally, even in non-content “function” words such as conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns, the clothing brand vocabulary is radically different from research Paul’s other letters. Altogether, there are one hundred and twelve (112) such function words which occur in Paul’s earlier letters which are not found in the pastorals. Thesis Brand? This is coupled with a different use of the article, infinitive, etc., than what is seen in Paul’s other epistles. Such a stylistic difference cannot be brushed aside on the basis of a different occasion, for grammatical minutiae are intrinsic to the way an author thinks , regardless of what he is zimmer essay thinking about. Thesis Brand? The are part of the warp and woof of mba admission writing services vancouver his presentation and cannot be dismissed on the basis of audience or content shifts. Thesis Brand? Conservative scholarship has usually responded in one of three ways to this linguistic evidence. First, the statistics are seen as inconclusive since “the pastoral epistles do not contain enough text to furnish a satisfactory sample.” 18.
Second, “the main weakness of all attempts to calculate style statistically is that they cannot take sufficient account of mba admission services differences of subject-matter, circumstances or addressees, all of which may be responsible for brand the introduction of new words.” 19. It will be seen that these first two points really only deal with the essay in tamil language issue of vocabulary (both new vocabulary and lack of key theological terms), but they do not address the issue of grammatical minutiae. Thesis Clothing Brand? 20 If this were all that conservative scholarship had in response, my own doubts about Pauline authorship would still remain. But there is another piece of the pie to consider. Mein Zimmer Essay? Third, there is the distinct possibility that Paul used an amanuensis to whom he gave great freedom in the writing of these letters. 21 Longenecker (among several others) has shown that the nonliterary papyri display several different kinds of amanuenses at clothing, work—sometimes they wrote by dictation, other times, with greater freedom. His application to mein zimmer essay the Pauline epistles is illuminating: Just how closely the apostle supervised his various amanuenses in each particular instance is, of course, impossible to say. The nonliterary Greek papyri suggest that the responsibilities of an ancient secretary could be quite varied, ranging all the way from taking dictation verbatim to “fleshing out” with appropriate language a general outline of thought.
Paul’s own practice probably varied with the special circumstances of the thesis clothing case and with the particular companion whom he employed at the time. More time might be left to the discretion of Silas and Timothy (cf. 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) or to vs hamlet essay Timothy alone (cf. 2 Cor. 1:1; Col. 1:1; Philem.
1; Phil. Clothing? 1:1) than to Sosthenes (cf. 1 Cor. 1:1) or Tertius (cf. Rom. Problems? 16:22)—and perhaps much more to Luke, who alone was with Paul during his final imprisonment (cf. Thesis Brand? 2 Tim. 4:11) . 22. There are two other factors to consider in this issue of an essay in tamil language, amanuensis: (1) the occasion for the writing of thesis brand these letters (including the vs hamlet fact that Paul is in prison when he wrote 2 Timothy—with his freedoms apparently greatly restricted over his first Roman imprisonment 23 ), and (2) the fact that these are Paul’s last writings. On this second point it should be observed that the most disputed letters in the Pauline corpus are those which were written toward the thesis brand end of services vancouver his life . Apart from 2 Thessalonians (which is sometimes disputed), all of the disputed letters, if authentic, would be dated in clothing brand, the 60s. The significance of paper this may be that as time progressed, and as Paul dictated more and more letters (most of clothing them now lost), his long-time companions could be trusted more and more to work from an annotated outline, rather than copy down a verbally dictated letter.
If so, then any arguments from vocabulary or stylistic considerations which do not take sufficient account of an amanuensis at work are immediately suspect. 24 Still, the solve business problems final product would be Paul’s responsibility, and since he customarily appended a personal note at the end of each of his letters (cf. 2 Thess 3:17), there is ample evidence that he read over the letter carefully before it was sent. 25. The case for an amanuensis with the pastorals takes an interesting turn in that in 2 Tim 4:11 the writer flatly states, “Luke alone is with me.” This, coupled with “the large number of correspondences in vocabulary with Luke-Acts makes the hypothesis of Luke as this amanuensis an attractive one.” 26. We have seen so far that the three basic problems for Pauline authorship seem to be adequately answered. But the tables can be turned as well.
That is, there are major problems with the thesis pseudepigraphical views. Our discussion here will necessarily be brief, but at least four points can be made. First, the historical reconstruction behind a forgery is pongal language difficult to thesis brand imagine. Normally, critical scholarship has assumed that the occasion for writing these epistles was the mba admission writing need for church order at the beginning of the second century. Brand? Although just such an mein essay, occasion is thesis clothing possible for 1 Timothy and Titus, it thoroughly fails to handle 2 Timothy, as advocates of this view admit: “2 Tim poses a special problem, for a motive underlying its composition is mba admission essay not readily apparent…” 27. Second, if these letters are a forgery, why are there three of them ? As Fee has pointed out, “If one can make a good case for [the occasion of] 1 Timothy [outside the lifetime of thesis brand Paul], it is equally difficult to understand why then the author also wrote Titus, and above all why, given the alleged reasons for 1 Timothy, [he wrote] 2 Timothy—it simply does not fit those reasons…” 28. Mba Admission Services? Third, when one compares the Christology of clothing brand Ignatius with the Christology of the pastoral epistles, it is mein zimmer essay evident that Ignatius’ view is more advanced.
In Titus 2:13 the author speaks of ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? (“of our great God and thesis clothing brand Savior Jesus Christ”). This construction fits what is known as the Granville Sharp rule which simply indicates that both “God” and mein zimmer essay “Savior” refer to one person. Hence, Titus (and the author of the pastorals) embraces a high Christology. In making such an explicit identification of brand Christ with God, it certainly belongs to the later books of the solve business problems New Testament. However, none of the books of the NT are as blunt as are the early apostolic fathers . For example, Ignatius, writing in c. 110 CE, reversed the order, tightening the apposition between “Christ” and “God”: “our Savior and God, Jesus Christ” was a not infrequent phrase in his writings. On a trajectory of christological development (if it developed linearly), one would have to place the pastorals some time before Ignatius or even Clement (c. 96 CE). Although this does not prove Pauline authorship, it does seem to indicate a terminus ad quem for thesis the writing of these epistles. And if the date of the pastorals must be before, say, the 90s CE, then the occasion assigned to these letters by those rejecting authenticity has to be completely reworked.
Fourth, in 1 Tim 1:15 the essay in tamil author claims to be “the chief of sinners.” This is an interesting self-deprecating note which is fully consonant with Pauline authorship. Thesis? In 1 Cor 15:9 (a letter written c. 54 CE), Paul states, “I am the least of the apostles.” Then, in Eph 3:8 (written c. 59-61 CE) the author says that he is mein essay “less than the thesis clothing brand least of the solve business problems saints.” This makes an advance over the apostle’s similar statement in thesis brand, 1 Corinthians. When one compares 1 Tim 1:15 to these other two texts, the case for authenticity of mein zimmer both Ephesians and 1 Timothy is heightened, for in 1 Timothy the author now widens the circle of which he is at thesis brand, the bottom: “chief of zimmer essay all sinners.” This is brand a threefold cord: (1) not only is development seen in Paul’s self-awareness as a sinner (from 1 Corinthians to business problems Ephesians to 1 Timothy), (2) but the way in which he states his self-deprecatory remark is thesis clothing brand different each time; (3) finally, forgers always went in the opposite new testament paper direction, elevating the men whose names they took. This is a subtle, yet very powerful, piece of internal evidence on behalf of authenticity, for not only does Paul not merely mimic his earlier self-assessment (as a forger might be prone to do), but he evidences development in his own Christian walk. A careful reading of the later pseudepigraphical literature never reveals any forger following the thesis brand same track . In Tamil? In other words, if this is the work of a later writer, he is the only one of the brand scores of apostolic would-be copyists to have done this. Almost universally, later pseudepigraphists (as well as early patristic writers) elevate the apostles, placing them on untouchable pedestals. Unless parallels to Eph 3:8 and 1 Tim 1:15 could be produced in the later writings, the most objective reading of mba admission essay vancouver this verse is as an authentic statement of the apostle to the Gentiles. 29.
In sum, although the evidence against the authenticity of the pastorals is as strong as any evidence against the authenticity of thesis clothing brand any NT book (save 2 Peter), it still cannot overthrow the traditional view. The traditional view, however, must be modified by new testament research paper, the substantial linguistic evidence against thesis brand, authenticity: an amanuensis (possibly Luke) had great freedom in writing these letters for the apostle Paul. The date of 1 Timothy must be sometime after Paul’s release from his first Roman imprisonment (c. Mein Zimmer Essay? 61 CE) and, in all probability, shortly before his re-arrest and final imprisonment. Further, some time must be allowed for him to return to thesis clothing Asia Minor, evangelize with Titus on vs hamlet Crete, and perhaps winter in thesis clothing brand, Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).
Since, in our view, Paul dies in the summer of mein essay 64, 1 Timothy should probably be dated no earlier than 63 CE. 1. Timothy, one of Paul’s longtime companions, who joined the apostle on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:2), had been with Paul toward the end of the thesis clothing apostle’s first Roman imprisonment (cf. Phil 2:19-24). 2. When Paul was released, he took Timothy and business Titus with him back to Asia Minor, after they left Titus on Crete. Thesis Clothing? 3. They went by way of developing an essay Ephesus en route to Macedonia. Clothing? There, they encountered false teachers who had virtually taken over the church—just as Paul had predicted they would (cf. Acts 20:29-30).
Two of zimmer essay them, Hymenaeus and Alexander, were excommunicated by Paul (1 Tim 1:19-20). 4. Paul had to press on to Macedonia (cf. Phil 2:24), but the situation at Ephesus needed help. He left Timothy in charge of the church, giving him instructions to deal with the heretics who had become leaders in the church (cf. Thesis Clothing? 1 Tim 1:3-4). 5. In light of this, 1 Tim 1:3 seems to contain the purpose of this epistle: “As I urged you when I went into Macedonia, stay there in Ephesus so that you may command certain men not to teach false doctrines any longer…” As Fee has recently argued, “In contrast to that approach [which sees 1 Timothy primarily as a manual on church order], this commentary assumes that everything in the letter has to do with 1:3 . . An Essay Idea Involves Which Of The Following? . Thesis? , and that this expresses both the mba admission services vancouver occasion and the purpose of thesis clothing brand 1 Timothy.” 30 At this tentative stage in our thinking about this epistle, we are prepared to accept his thesis, though there is substantial difference in how we see this worked out in the exegesis of the epistle. 31. The theme of 1 Timothy is closely tied to its purpose (cf. 1:3, 18-19; 6:11-12, 20). In brief, it may be summed up as “godly leadership in the face of internal opposition.” Or, in pongal language, Paul’s words, “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the faith” (6:11-12).
After a brief salutation to Timothy (1:1-2), Paul immediately gets into brand the body of his epistle (1:3–6:21). This letter contains three major sections: negative instructions in relation to essay services vancouver the false teachers who had infiltrated the thesis brand church at Ephesus (1:3-20), positive instructions to vs hamlet the church at Ephesus (2:1–6:10), and personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-20). Although the brand last two sections have the church life and its leadership in mba admission services, the foreground, the clothing brand problem of the false teachers is always in problems, the background (explicitly in 4:1-5; 5:20-25; 6:3-10, 20-21; implicitly permeating the rest of the clothing brand epistle). New Testament Research Paper? The first major section is brand a reminder of why Timothy was left behind in Ephesus, viz., to stop the false teachers (1:3-20). These men were preoccupied with the OT Law, yet they had no idea of “what they are saying or the involves which following things they insist on so confidently” (1:7, NET). Paul explains what the proper use of the Law is: it is for sinners, to lead them to repentance (1:8-11).
The implication is that these false teachers were forcing the Law on believers (1:9). Then he follows this up with a personal illustration: the Law taught him that he was a sinner, but Christ showed him grace (1:12-17). Paul then repeats his charge to Timothy (1:18-20), though this time the emphasis is on Timothy’s perseverance and godliness in the face of opposition. The charge concludes with a note about Paul excommunicating two church leaders, Hymenaeus and Alexander (1:20). On this note, Paul now addresses the situation in the church directly.
The second major section (2:1–6:10) cannot be divorced from the purpose of thesis Timothy’s stay in essay language, Ephesus. These false teachers had wreaked havoc on the church in many areas. They had destroyed the atmosphere of public worship (cf. 2:1-7) and had stolen from the coffers of the church (6:3-10). They had especially influenced some of the women in the church—in particular the clothing brand unmarried and young widows (5:11-15; cf. 2 Tim. 3:1-7). The church was in disarray and essay writing services needed correction; it also needed new leadership (cf. 3:1!). Three broad areas of concern must be addressed if the church at Ephesus is to be repaired.
First, the conduct of the church needed to thesis clothing be restored (2:1–3:16). This involved two aspects: worship and leadership. (1) Regarding public worship (2:1-15), the atmosphere of the church first needed changing. The doctrinal controversies promoted by the false teachers (cf. 1:3; 6:20-21) created a judgmental and critical spirit within the congregation. The purpose of the Christian walk was lost in the shuffle. So Paul commands the church to refocus on prayer—and prayer for all people, especially those in authority (2:1-7). With this note on “authority” ringing in their ears, Paul addresses hierarchical roles within the body (2:8-15). The false teachers had especially persuaded women to follow them (cf. 5:11-15: 2 Tim 3:1-7).
What is interesting to oedipus vs hamlet essay note is that “Satan” is mentioned in this epistle only in connection with the false teachers (1:20) and clothing brand young widows (5:15). These false teachers who were involved in “godless chatter” (6:20) who did “not know what they [were] talking about” (1:7) had caused some of the women to “be lazy … talking about things they should not” (5:13, NET). Thus in 2:8-15 the apostle reminds especially the women of the proper hierarchical order in worship. It is no coincidence that he mentions Eve’s deception in the garden of Eden (2:14), causing her to teach Adam, for this is exactly what had happened at an essay involves of the following, Ephesus: women were following these false teachers and were becoming teachers themselves. Thus although Satan is brand not explicitly mentioned in this context, he is very much in an essay idea involves of the, the back of thesis clothing Paul’s mind. Mein Zimmer? Paul prohibits women from teaching men (2:12) because this is clothing a reversal of the God-ordained hierarchical order (2:13).
32. (2) Regarding church leadership (3:1-13), Paul places an emphasis on mein the ethical qualifications of overseers (a.k.a. bishops, elders) (3:1-7) and deacons (3:8-13), with a special appeal for some of the brand men to essay desire the office of overseer (3:1). This must be seen against the backdrop of the excommunication of two leaders (1:18-20). The church had been rocked and clothing brand needed new guides. Oedipus? Against this background qualifications such as “able to teach” (3:2; cf. 1:7), “not quarrelsome” (3:3; cf. Thesis? 1:4; 6:20-21), “not a lover of money” (3:3; cf. 6:3-10); “good reputation with outsiders” (3:7; cf. 5:20-25); and the references to the snare and judgment of the devil (3:6, 7; cf. 1:20; 5:15) make perfectly good sense. Paul then summarizes this segment on the conduct of the church (3:14-15), followed by a hymn to Christ (3:16), reminding Timothy that proper conduct cannot be divorced from the worship of Christ. Essay In Tamil Language? Second, Timothy is charged with guarding “the truths of the faith” in the light of apostasy (4:1-16).
The apostates had crept into the church, just as the Spirit had predicted they would (4:1; cf. Acts 20:29-30). Such apostates embraced an amalgamation of Jewish legalism and Greek asceticism, forbidding both marriage and restricting diets (4:2-5). Thesis Clothing Brand? Because of such men, Timothy is charged to warn the new testament research church to clothing stay away from them (4:6-7). Further, to mba admission prove that legalism-asceticism is not the route to godliness, Paul urges Timothy to clothing “train yourself to be godly” (4:7) and to set forth the true gospel of Jesus Christ (4:13) before the congregation. He summarizes the twin theme of 4:6-16 (and, indeed, of the developing an essay idea involves which of the whole book) by concluding: “Watch your life and clothing doctrine closely. Persevere in them…” (4:16). Third, Timothy needed to oedipus vs hamlet essay learn pastoral skills in addressing certain groups (5:1–6:10). The instructions given here are related especially both to Timothy’s youthfulness and to his inexperience in pastoral duties and clothing brand priorities.
As a young man, he needed guidance in how to essay address the various age and gender groups of the church (5:1-2). Because of the greed of the false teachers (cf. 6:3-10 and passim ) the church coffers were probably quite low. Thus Paul gives various instructions which focus on financial distribution to various groups on the church. Timothy needed to place a priority on the widows (5:3-16), especially regarding the church’s provisions for them (5:5, 9), though certain qualifications had to brand be met: in particular, young, able-bodied women and those whose children could take care of problems them should not be helped out by thesis brand, the church (5:4, 7, 11-16). Next in line should be the elders (5:17-25). Those who have remained faithful to the gospel should receive a “double honor” (5:17-18).
That such honor should include financial remuneration is seen in oedipus essay, two biblical illustrations (5:18). But those who have sinned (provided it is proved by at least two witnesses) earn a rebuke instead of “honor” (5:19-20). Prospective elders need to be screened quite carefully (5:21-25) because, most likely, many of them would be motivated by greed (cf. 6:3-10). Slaves are mentioned last (6:1-2). But rather than the church supplying their needs, they are to serve their masters well (since, by implication, their needs would be met by their masters). Paul then turns to the root of the problem of the financial distress in the church (6:3-10), viz., some of the elders “think that godliness is a means to financial gain” (6:5).
Greed was what motivated the false teachers and had caused not only them but others to wander from the faith (6:10). The epistle concludes with more personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-21). Thesis? He is to “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the faith” (6:11-12), a theme repeated throughout this epistle. But before Paul can finish the letter he turns to developing an essay idea of the following those who are wealthy and godly in clothing brand, the church (6:17-19). His warnings about the greed of the false teachers (6:3-10) might be taken incorrectly by some of the solve rich who had been quite faithful to the gospel (cf. 6:10). Paul corrects this impression by pointing out that wealth in thesis, itself is not evil (it is the love of money that is evil [6:10]), though those who are wealthy ought to be rich in good deeds, too (6:18), and thus lay up treasures for themselves in heaven (6:19). Research? The epistle closes with a reminder to Timothy to guard the gospel in the lives of the Ephesians, for this has been entrusted to him (6:20-21). I. Thesis? Salutation (1:1-2) II. Negative Instructions: Stop the False Teachers (1:3-20) A. Warning against False Teachers (1:3-11) 1. The Charge to Timothy Stated (1:3) 2. Their Wrong Use of the Law (1:4-7) 3. The Right Use of the Law (1:8-11) B. Paul’s Experience of Grace (1:12-17) C. The Charge to Timothy Repeated (1:18-20) III.
Positive Instructions: Repair the new testament research paper Church (2:1–6:10) A. Thesis Clothing Brand? Restoring the Conduct of the Church (2:1–3:16) 1. Oedipus Essay? Instructions on Public Worship (2:1-15) a. Concerning Prayer (2:1-7) b. Concerning the Role of Men and Women (2:8-15) 1) Men: Pray in a Holy Manner (2:8) 2) Women: Quiet Conduct (2:9-15) 2. Instructions on Church Leadership (3:1-13) a. Qualifications of Overseers (3:1-7) b. Qualifications of Deacons (3:8-13) 3. Summary (3:14-16) a. Conduct of the Church (3:14-15) b. Hymn to Christ (3:16) B. Guarding the Truth in the Church (4:1-16) 1. In the thesis clothing Face of Apostasy (4:1-5) 2. Timothy’s Personal Responsibilities (4:6-16) C. Dealing with Groups in the Church (5:1–6:10) 1. Men and Women, Young and Old (5:1-2) a. Older Widows (5:3-10) b. Younger Widows (5:11-16) a. The Reward of Elders (5:17-18) b. Research? The Reputation of Elders (5:19-20) 1) The Reputation of Elders Protected (5:19) 2) The Sins of Elders Publicly Rebuked (5:20) c. The Recognition of Prospective Elders (5:21-25) 5. False Teachers (6:3-10) IV. Personal Instructions: Pursue Godliness (6:11-21) A. Fight the Good Fight (6:11-16) B. A Final Word to the Wealthy (6:17-19) C. Guard What has been Entrusted (6:20-21) 1 Cf. M. Dibelius and M. Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles (Hermeneia), who argue that “the testimony of the early Church . . . is not very strong” (1). 2 G. D. Brand? Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus (in New International Biblical Commentary), 23. 4 See discussion of Young Kyu Kim’s article in new testament, Biblica in our introduction to 2 Peter.
This has now been refuted however by Bruce Griffin. 6 Redating the New Testament , 79-85. 7 Fee, 1 and thesis clothing brand 2 Timothy, Titus , 4. 8 It should be noted that Paul was prone to change his mind about his travel plans (cf. 2 Cor 1:12–2:4). 10 Technically, the ecclesiological problem is also a historical one, for it entails seeing the ecclesiological situation of the pastorals as occurring at a date later than Paul’s lifetime. But as the essential problem of ecclesiology is related to the author’s directives (thus propositional in an essay involves which of the following, nature), we felt it better to include it under our discussion of thesis theological problems. 13 See D. B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the new Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996) 229. Business Problems? Cf. also idem , “Who Should Run the Church? A Case for the Plurality of Elders,” available at thesis clothing, www.bible.org in the Pro f’s Soapbox. 15 Fee, ibid., 24, citing J. N. D. Kelly.
16 Julius Holtzmann, cited by Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 3. 18 Guthrie, 633. Idea Involves Which Following? Cf. also B. M. Thesis Clothing? Metzger’s excellent (and brief) critique of using word-statistics to solve problems of authorship (“A Reconsideration of Certain Arguments Against the Pauline Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles,” ExpT 70 (1958) 91-94. 20 Guthrie initially admits this difficulty (“many writers who are prepared to concede the possibility of changes in Paul’s vocabulary are reluctant to do so for Paul’s style” ), but he immediately downplays its thrust, not fully grasping its weight. 21 The following material is taken in toto from our introduction to Ephesians, but is duplicated here for the benefit of the reader. 22 “Amanuenses,” 294. Earlier in the essay Longenecker established the probability (via parallels with the papyri) of business problems Paul using an brand, amanuensis for virtually every letter except perhaps Philemon. 23 Cf. Mein? 2 Tim. 1:16; 2:9; 4:13 (where the request for the cloak is due, most likely, to his being in a cold dungeon).
24 By way of analogy, when I joined the faculty of Dallas Seminary in 1988, the NT secretary (Pamela Bingham) would need me to write out every word for letters that she would later type up. Clothing Brand? Now, after several years, I can use abbreviations, summaries, even verbal directions at times. The difference is due to the fact that the same secretary has been in the department the entire time and language is now more used to my style. There are times when she writes words and phrases which I would never write myself, but which communicate what I wish to say. Clothing? When I sign my name, I take responsibility for what was written, but this does not imply that everything must have been stated exactly in the way I would normally state things, just that the content is what I intend to communicate. It seems that this kind of oedipus essay thing must surely have happened with Paul over the years; hence, it is no mere coincidence that his later writings have a different style without differences in substance. 25 An interesting sidelight to this is seen in textual criticism. Bruce Metzger is representative of some scholars, for clothing example, when he suggests that Tertius heard Paul incorrectly when the apostle dictated Rom 5:1: Tertius wrote down the subjunctive ?????? when Paul meant the indicative ?????? . Metzger’s reasons for this view are related to the textual history of this verse.
But such a postulation does not go far enough: I would agree with him that Tertius may have heard Paul wrong and developing an essay of the following may have written the clothing subjunctive. But Paul would certainly have corrected it before the letter was sent! The reason, then, for the poor external attestation for the indicative may well be due to a misunderstanding as to who corrected the subjunctive. There is other evidence for this kind of activity as well. As is well known, although 1 Cor 14:34-35 are contained in every known MS, these verses are found in two locations: at this place and at the end of the chapter (in the Western tradition). Although Gordon Fee and Philip Payne have recently mounted the strongest campaign for their inauthenticity, the suggestion made by E. E. Ellis and others that Paul added the words in the margin before the zimmer original document was sent makes better sense: later scribes were unsure where the words belonged, though they recognized that they were meant to be part of the book.
Further, the well-known problem of ????? / ?????? in 1 Thess 2:7 may well have come about due to the amanuensis’ hearing error (especially since the clothing brand previous word ends with nu ). In essence, what we are arguing is this: textual criticism needs to pay more attention to the role of an amanuensis in new testament research paper, creating some of the problems of the text, especially those generated by hearing error. But since the author would certainly look over his letter before it was sent, the original text would most likely already have corrections in it. 26 Fee, ibid., 26. See especially C. F. D. Moule, “The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles: A Reappraisal,” BJRL 47 (1965) 430-52, for the evidence. 27 Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 1. 28 Fee, ibid., 25. Thesis Clothing? Elsewhere Fee elaborates: “Why three letters? For example, why write Titus or 1 Timothy, given one or the other, and why from such a considerably different perspective and historical context? And why 2 Timothy at solve problems, all, since it fails so badly to fit the proposed reconstruction?” (6; cf. also n. 14 on p. 28). 29 There is also a fifth argument, though it may presuppose too much. Hebrews 13:23 indicates that Timothy had just been released from prison.
In our reconstruction, Hebrews was written shortly after the death of Paul to Jewish Christians in brand, Asia Minor. Further, it was written from Rome (13:24 is naturally read this way). Solve Problems? Thus, Timothy, in c. 65 CE, was improsoned in Rome. Incidental corroborative evidence is found in 2 Tim 4:9-13, 21, which indicate that Paul had dispatched Timothy to come to him at Rome. With the thesis brand instructions, “Do your best to get here before winter” (4:21), coupled with the early external evidence (especially Clement’s testimony), it is doubtful that Timothy got to Rome before Paul died (for Paul would have died within weeks of the writing of 2 Timothy, since he would not have written such a comment in the spring, and he probably died in the summer). His release from pongal essay in tamil prison a few months after arrival (spring, 65 CE) would be most likely, since no real charges could have been brought against him. Nevertheless, the clothing incidental comments in both Hebrews and 2 Timothy are confirmatory of each other and fit nicely into essay our overall historical reconstruction. 31 Fee especially uses the very occasional nature of this letter to argue that the directive about women not teaching men (2:12) is thesis clothing brand due to the present crisis. Essay? Although we cannot develop it in this paper, it is our contention that Paul is making a more absolute statement. Further, the instructions about church order have been given primarily for two reasons: (1) the church is in disarray after the invasion of the heretical teachers; and (2) morally qualified leaders needed to be found to take the place of the defective elders and thesis clothing deacons.
Consequently, in our approach, Timothy’s job is to restore the pongal in tamil language church to what is normative. The crisis does not call for extreme, temporary measures, as some would have it, but for putting the church back in order. This can be seen in various ways (see, for example, our discussion of 2:8-15 in the “Argument”, as well as the many incidental comments in 1 Timothy which seem to refer to long-established practices [e.g., 5:9]). 32 In disagreement with Fee, I see the thesis clothing restrictions here as absolute, for Paul links them to creation (note the of the following “for” [ ??? ] in 2:13. Thesis Clothing Brand? “I do not permit” ( ???????? , 2:12) is almost certainly a gnomic present since generic nouns are used (see B. M. Fanning, Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek , 208-17). Further, Fee is quite wrong that ???????? (2:12) “has the connotation of essay in tamil language ‘to domineer’” ( 1 and thesis 2 Timothy, Titus , 73), for mein zimmer essay such a meaning is almost completely unattested until the fourth century CE and is not widely used until the brand ninth century! (Fee is here following the AV’s rendering “usurp authority” almost as though it had some ancient basis. In reality, the AV translators knew Latin better than they knew Greek and developing an essay idea involves the bilingual text they used to prepare the NT was essentially Erasmus’ text [Beza’s edition]. Erasmus published the first Greek NT [ Novum Instrumentum , 1516; later called Textus Receptus ] in clothing brand, order to defend his revised Latin translation. And since the meaning of ???????? had changed after Jerome translated the Vulgate, Erasmus used a different Latin verb to in tamil communicate the idea of “usurp authority.”) The real point of this passage is hard to miss: The original hierarchy of creation was: God—man—woman (Satan is out of the picture). But in Ephesus this order had become reversed: Satan—woman—man (God is out of the brand picture). The creation motif does, however, seem to new testament research paper have one restriction: it regards the thesis exercise of authority and teaching in spiritual things, though whether this is pongal essay language restricted to a church setting would be difficult to prove since there were no parachurch organizations in the first century.
Furthermore, since the hierarchical order is connected to the creation order and possibly constitutional differences between men and women (the “for” in 2:13 makes such a connection), to restrict this just to thesis the public worship of the church is to fly in the face of the context. (Incidentlly, Fee makes a quite unwarranted assumption when he sees the “for” of 2:13 as reaching back to 2:9 and mein essay referring to a woman’s modest dress. He does not explain why vv. 11-12 should be skipped over. If anything, 2:9 is thesis clothing brand not at all in view [the issue is not clothing but authority] because only after Eve was deceived did she put on any clothes at all!)
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Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Any honest conversation about Youth Voice must address the challenges that young people and adult allies face when they work to engage children and youth throughout our communities. By their very existence, Youth Voice programs are made to respond to clothing, these challenges; ignoring them is not being honest about the purpose of Youth Voice. Racism, sexism, classism, homophobia… the list of challenges facing young people is enormous. Idea Following? However, one of the core challenges is a common experience that all people face early in their lives. Thesis Brand? That challenge is discrimination against mba admission essay services vancouver, children and youth. Discrimination occurs anytime one thing is thesis clothing chosen before something else.
That is often a good thing – otherwise, why wouldn’t we all steal our food instead of growing it or buying it? We all discriminate everyday. Developing Idea Which Of The? However, discrimination often excludes people because of false bias or prejudice. Discrimination against children and youth is thesis clothing caused by the bias adults have for other adults that causes them to discriminate against young people. Mba Admission Essay Writing Services? Bias for adults is called adultism. When something is based on thesis brand, adultism, it is called adultcentrism.While adultism is sometimes appropriate, adultcentrism is problems often inappropriate. Compulsory education can force students to thesis clothing brand, disengage from the love of learning. Youth development programs can force youth to disconnect from adults. Almost every activity that is for developing an essay idea involves young people is decided upon, developed, assessed and redeveloped without young people. That is adultcentrism. Language, programs, teaching styles, and all relationships between young people and adults are adultcentric.
The most “youth-friendly” adults are often adultist, assuming that youth need them – which, while it may be true, is still centered on adult perspectives. Adultism is not always harmful – but adultism is always real. Adultism leads to a phenomenon of brand “little adults” – young people who are “adults-in-the-making”, rather than children and youth today. Pongal Essay? Adultcentrism leads to manipulating and thesis clothing tokenizing young people through Youth Voice activities. Despite the intention, that process often further disengages young people! Adultism exists for a lot of reasons, including beliefs about the abilities of young people, roles of different people throughout society, and the nature of society. Those beliefs have sometimes lead to the fear of children, called pedophobia, and oedipus essay the fear of thesis clothing brand youth, called ephebiphobia. These fears drive much of society to segregate young people from adults, demonize youth in mein zimmer the media, and ostracize children from elders. These fears have filled our culture with double standards that constantly challenge Youth Voice.
Identifying different forms of brand discrimination against young people throughout our society is important. Zimmer? Following are some of those forms. Discrimination against Youth Voice in Language. “Act your age.” “Children should be seen and not heard.” “What do you know, you’re just a kid!” “Do as I say, not as I do.” “You’ll understand it someday, just you wait.” Discrimination against Youth Voice in Youth Work. Programs designed by clothing brand, adults for paper youth without youth Isolation of children and youth from adults Professional language does not allow youth to easily understand what is being done to them Evaluations engage adult staff and not youth participants. Discrimination against thesis brand, Youth Voice in School. Students are forced by law to attend schools that may not be effective Classroom learning relies on adults as sole-holders of knowledge Decisions about students, including learning topics, activities, punishments, budgeting and mein essay teaching methods are routinely made without students Adults routinely grade students without giving equal weight to students’ perspectives on their own academic achievement Double-standards in clothing treatment, including when the belief that when teachers yell at students, they are controlling classrooms; when students yell at writing services vancouver teachers, they are creating unsafe learning environments. Discrimination against clothing brand, Youth Voice in Communities. People under 18-years-old are virtual non-citizens without the right to vote or any tangible political representation and minimal influence Community problem-solving that routinely neglects youth members Business policies that allow for discrimination, such as “Under-14s must be accompanied by solve business, adults,” and “Under-18s cannot be managers.” Local laws that target youth, including anti-cruising and anti-graffiti laws Media bias against clothing, youth that alternatively portrays youth as apathetic super-predators who are obese, stuck on computers, gang members.
How YOU Can Resist Discrimination Against Youth Voice. There are many ways that young people and solve their adult allies can challenge adultism. Addressing discrimination against Youth Voice is a challenge that many young people and adult allies should take personally, especially when armed with meaningful strategies for powerful action. Following are a few strategies for clothing resisting adultism: Adults should strive to be a role model for other adults. Vs Hamlet Essay? Demonstrate in your own conduct and the way you talk that you oppose attitudes and behavior that debase, degrade, inflict injury on or promote animosity against brand, young people of all ages. Youth should get to know your adults, no matter where they are – school, youth programs, the library, everywhere. Support those who actually show they care above all about young people, that they have integrity and that they can be objective.
Insist that your youth program/classroom/religious community/organization sets high goals and expectations for adults, no matter what positions they are in, where they come from or how much education they have. Pongal Essay In Tamil? Carefully examine the media in your community. See if it is realistic, democratic, and thesis clothing free of solve adultist biases. If they are not, demand coverage that is. Insist that youth development, educational, and behavior management practices be reviewed for effectiveness. These practices reveal what adults do not know, not what they do. Volunteer as an adult ally for a youth program or school. Talk with young people you know. Listen to them. Engage yourself in their lives as appropriate, and as you are capable.
Provide literature and resources about clothing brand Youth Voice to solve problems, young people themselves. Tips for Addressing Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Advocating for and sharing Youth Voice throughout a community often means being prepared for just about anything – on a moment’s notice. Thesis Clothing? When facing adultism head-on, it can be important to be intentional in your efforts. Zimmer? Following are some tips when addressing adultism: Seek understanding by encouraging adults to thesis, examine adultism. Explore the feelings adults have about young people. Youth and adults should work together to find the developing an essay idea involves which source of frustration, resentment or treatment towards youth. Acknowledge anger and let youth and adults know that it is thesis clothing okay to feel anger – but remind them they do not need to act out their anger towards young people. Engage allies by asking an adult ally to address and explore adultism with other adults.
If you are an adult trying to reach another adult, it can be powerful to bring young people directly into the picture. Remember that Youth Voice is for everyone, and that in easy times and struggling times, Youth Voice should be hard. There will always be adults and behaviors that discriminate against youth, and working against that resistance is challenging for everyone. You are not alone, and there are other people advocating for Youth Voice and struggling against mein zimmer, adultism. Thesis Clothing? Connect with others in your town, across Washington, and around the world – because they are out there! Stay focused, no matter how pointed the mein zimmer essay adultism might seem. Stay calm and try not to clothing, take it personally. Address behaviors, structures, and other things that can be changed. Create community by talking with others who challenge adultism, especially youth, even if it is just a brief comment or casual conversation.
Adultism affects or has affected every single person in our society, and it takes persistence and teamwork to resist it. Other tools are out there, too – share your thoughts in the comments below! For more information about how The Freechild Project can help support youth voice in your community or organization, contact us. I agree. Mba Admission Writing Services Vancouver? The fact of the matter is, if I were to say something political or anything involving issues in thesis the “real world” I would be told to stay out of it. But if Hilary Clinton or Bernie Sanders said the exact same thing I said, they would be praised for it. Research Paper? The cold truth is clothing that if a younger person challenges a older persons political view or statement, the younger person 9 out of 10 times will be told they are just a child, or that they don’t get it yet.
I don’t know how many times I hear adults talking about things like Obama care or just president Obama in vs hamlet general, that are false. That’s not me saying their ideas are wrong, that’s me literally saying that they say false things. For example I have heard an adult say that the thesis clothing brand United States found weapons of developing an essay idea of the following mass destruction in the middle east, which is false. I’m a democrat from Pennsylvania and my family moved down south so as you could imagine, I run into a lot of republicans. The thing is I cant challenge their views because they think I am too immature to say things about politics which is just wrong. Please continue to work to make sure we can end the discrimination against young peoples voices. The voting age is 18 for thesis a reason. It would not be appropriate to zimmer essay, enfranchise young children or very young adolescents due to the fact that there is a tendency for them to thesis clothing, lack the ability to understand the writing vancouver long term ramifications of who they may vote for clothing or how they voted. Usually adults have more of the essay services ability to understand the long term ramifications of thesis brand how they voted or who they voted for. It would be inappropriate to mba admission services vancouver, abolish the voting age.
I think it’s important to note that age and intelligence don’t always correlate. There are several adults who are so misinformed, immature, and overall lack understanding of politics that they shouldn’t be able to vote, but they do simply because they are over 18. Meanwhile there are several young individuals below the thesis clothing age of 18 that are so knowledgeable in politics and have strong opinions that they wish to be heard, and are not able to do so. This is the case with a number of writing services vancouver things. Ideally we wouldn’t use age as a way to quantify what an thesis individual is capable of but rather their overall maturity, regardless of age. Of course certain things would be exceptions to new testament paper, this rule (ex. age of thesis clothing consent) but overall I must disagree with you in thinking that “adults have a better understanding of the pongal in tamil language long term ramifications”. Hey, lets try judging people by “the content of their character” okay? Most adults aren’t capable of understanding long-term consequences either, and their way of clothing thinking is overly stubborn and closed-minded. Zimmer? People, on average are not really smart, thoughtful or empathetic creatures, no matter what age group we look at. So instead of this faulty, age-limited voting system, there should be some kind of political aptitude test with no age limit. About the role of basic political institutions and such.
You aren’t allowed to drive without a driver’s license, or perform surgeries without a medical doctorate. So why should politics work differently? Think of all political leaders nowadays that you know. Clothing Brand? More than half of research paper them are completely inept and/or psychopaths. I guess that’s a solid proof that being an adult by itself doesn’t make you capable of intelligent decision making.
…Also, (for 15 Alyx) I don’t think age of consent laws are reasonable either. Just think of it, if the child didn’t consent, there are regular anti-rape laws for that case. Thesis Brand? If they did, why would you want to oedipus vs hamlet, invalidate their choice? It is quite dehumanizing to thesis clothing brand, disregard a anyone’s opinion so blatantly. “You ARE a rape victim! I don’t care if you are in love!” How does this sound? And while we are at it, down with the pongal language movie/game/website age restrictions too! That’s anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of “preserving innocence”. But what is “innocence” even? I think it means “not being guilty”. Clothing? How is problems it guilty to watch/play/read bloody or sexual things.
Sex is clothing normal, no other living being is solve business problems so ashamed of it as humans. Animals do it in clothing front of their kids! (Well, even I find that squicky, still it’s just a cultural thing…) As for pongal essay in tamil the bloody stuff, kids can decide for thesis themselves if they are scared of it or not. Sometimes I was too, but my parents always used to let me watch and play whatever I wanted. Yet I didn’t turn out to be murderous or violent. (That’s usually the impact of domestic violence instead, which is business problems ironically disregarded, and even accepted as a way of parenting in brand too many countries…) Anyway, it’s difficult to be young and an essay which of the opinionated… …And sorry for the rant, I’m just happy that I found a website that cares about the discrimination of young people. #128512; What are the consequences of adultism? Adultism is sharing the brand common ground with domestic violence. Can people use free child. Org as a good argument to protect the children in family court for the judge to be aware of what’s going behind closed door. Using The Freechild Project website is paper your call – there are few citations on thesis, the site and its largely conjecture and inference.
However, the website is cited repeatedly in academic, psychological and popular media around the world. Research? I explore the consequences of clothing adultism extensively in my 2015 book called “Facing Adultism” – I’d suggest you check it out at http://amzn.to/2sfcU0k. @22, but still a kid at mein zimmer essay heart #128521; In regards to thesis brand, consent laws, here in CT (and most places) it’s set at 16. If an 8 year old consents to sexual acts, it would not be appropriate. Removing age of consent laws paves way for solve sexual acts with children, which I could only thesis clothing brand, hope you do not find okay. If you do believe that there should be an age set to prevent this, then that is still age based consent. (note there is exceptions in individuals close in age, or married). As for movie/game/website restrictions, these do not exist. It is not illegal for a minor to access porn online, you can see an R rated movie with parental permission or someone who is older (there is also the internet), and ESRB ratings are pretty fair. The majority of games fit under E for everyone, 10+, or teen.
If you really wanted a game rated M it is not illegal nor against the law in an essay involves the US. You can again, easily buy it online, or for clothing many places in essay language person. It deeply concerns me that you believe it is entirely fine for thesis brand kids to pongal essay, be exposed to certain things at clothing brand such a young age. This is not anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of pongal in tamil language “preserving innocence”. One thing is watching a documentary about animals that happens to have mating, or learning about a world war that inevitably is going to have violence, but you are talking about website, movies, and thesis brand video games that are rated that for new testament research paper content such as gore, drugs, alcohol, and strong sexual themes. Things that are not benefiting them in the slightest. Kids do not need to be exposed to this, especially via these mediums which tend to overglorify such things.
Again, one thing is watching a quality film (Such as Hayao Miyazaki’s Spirited Away) in which the character Yababa is seen smoking and it would be unfair for a child not to watch it on the basis of this. If the parent had a problem, they could just watch it and explain the dangers of smoking afterword. It is thesis brand entirely different from playing GTA or watching some inappropriate adult comedy filled with sexual innuendo and drugs. I think you have forgotten the role of a parent and are somehow under the belief that kids (and as an idea involves which following extent teens) should be almost entirely self regulatory. Parent derives from a latin root meaning “to bring forth”. It is there job to clothing, supply them with the necessary skills and knowledge to grow, thrive, and essay bring them forth as adults that will make the world better. The same way you are what you eat, you are what you feed your mind. Senselessly exposing it it to certain things will negatively your outlook on clothing, the world.
Don’t be so quick to assume the things you see have no affect. That goes for everyone, regardless of age. Hey Alex, and thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, I think you’re wholly missing the point of my page here. Rather than presuming that I’m talking about a world without parents, I challenge you to consider a world with young people as equitable members of society. Equity – not equality – is the essay writing vancouver key here.
While its absolutely true that adults (parents especially) have specific roles throughout our society, I believe its important to see that children and youth have roles too, and given the changing nature of our society, those need to thesis clothing brand, transform. Rather than being seen and treated as the passive recipients of adult-driven households, schools, governments and culture, all young people everywhere must be repositioned as active co-creators throughout all of the institutions that define where we live, how we live, and solve business what we do throughout our lives. That re-definition should include new opportunities to lead, teach and learn with adults as partners. This doesn’t mean taking anything away from thesis brand, parents; it means re-conceptualizing what our expectations are for ourselves and others. Research? That’s what The Freechild Project is about – acknowledging that indeed, parents have important positions – and that young people do, too. Its not either/or, its both/and.
Thanks again for your comment. @Adam Fletcher I understand and agree with that notion entirely. It is “22, but still a kid at thesis heart ;)” that my comment was directed at. I’m just a bit confused/concerned about zimmer some of the thesis clothing statements he/she is making. As someone with the face of a fifteen year old trapped in a 19 year old’s life, I can testify that Ageism is a huge factor in business many aspects of my life including employment opportunities, work situations, public interactions, and conversations with adults, especially parents. I work at thesis brand a camp and because of in tamil how young I look, the parents are reluctant to leave their child in my care and therefore the kids tend to thesis clothing brand, ignore my authority, I can’t really fault them because their own parents just discredited my right to lead when they asked if I was old enough to be left alone with children. My judgement is constantly undermined by solve, parents and many adult figures.
The other day I was flying home from thesis clothing, college and (after a gate agent had tried to get me to mein, board as a minor who needed a babysitter) an elderly man seated next to me instructed me to buckle up as we were sitting waiting for people to board the brand plane. I didn’t buckle immediately because 1) We weren’t moving 2) I had the middle seat and someone would eventually have to get to their window seat and 3) I was 19 years old and I’d buckle when I damn well pleased or if the seat belt sign was on. What bothered me though, was that had I looked a few years older, this old coot would have shut his mouth and buckled himself in if he felt a seat belt was necessary at developing of the following that time. Thesis? Instead, the pongal essay in tamil man felt that I was incapable of making the right judgement regarding the seat belt and felt the need to exert his dominance over me. Had I been in middle school I would have buckled my belt but as a college student; I worked minimum wage jobs to pay this man’s social security so he and his decomposing wife could spend their last summers in RV taking up parking space at Yellowstone.
The worst part was, I buckled the belt anyways because that’s what I had been taught to do, listen to clothing brand, adults and not question their authority. Then there’s the public situations, like I turn into a category 5 criminal if I’m at essay a park after sunset or the sign that says ‘Kids under 18 can’t carry a bag into our store.’ as if the 18 and under crowd are the only people who steal, and so help me god If I want to apply for a job. Clothing? The job front is the hardest because no one wants to take orders from zimmer, a little girl so I can rule out any management opportunities, secondly, if I work as a hostess or bartender I need to look the part which I’m sure is true for a lot of jobs, and finally, age equals experience so when I look like I’m fifteen, people automatically assume I don’t know or understand jack squat. Lastly, my parents. We’re in this awkward limbo of I’m an adult but they still can’t see it. Thesis Clothing Brand? I work, cook, clean, pay bills, watch other people’s children, drive, vote, drink, have sex, and I haven’t been arrested and yet I’m treated like a convicted criminal. I have a curfew, a to-do list, ridiculous repercussions for solve business problems my actions like being sent to my room, my feelings are automatically invalidated as “trivial” or a “temper tantrum” or “childish” and my reactions and actions are always taken into thesis clothing brand question like my parents are a higher power when the two of new testament them aren’t exactly standing on the moral high ground. I’ll never forget my mother’s face when I said something smart about my parents’ divorce: my father: You’re in trouble because you weren’t honest. me: So when you were screwing that whore in Canada without telling anyone, was that honesty? It’s like being an adult allows people to clothing brand, forget what being hypocritical is and solve problems gives them the ability to criticize the young people and target millennials for things that their generation started or took part in. Thesis? Ex.
Bill Gates – Kids these days, always on their phones. Ashley Madison Accounts / Divorce Rates – Kids these days just have sex with anyone. Global Warming / Environmental Issues — Kids these days, wasting water and developing an essay involves electricity. The media uses millenials as scapegoats and the under 18 population, as non-voting, non citizen party, is forced to not be taken seriously as the media bashes them without representation. The mission of The Freechild Project is to clothing, engage young people in social change. Our services include: All content © 2017 The Freechild Project. All rights reserved. MAIL: The Freechild Project, PO Box 6185 Olympia, WA USA 98507-6185. PHONE: +1 (360) 489-9680.
Freechild is a program of CommonAction, an independent education consulting firm. For more information, including permissions, please contact us.
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Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive To Learn. This study Compare and contrast the perspectives on learning presented by Zimmerman (2000), Wenger (2000) and Engestrm (2001). It provides conclusion that can be drawn from these learning theories and they how these influence human resources development. The study also investigates the thesis clothing different styles of continuous learning system and different approaches of adopting them. Essay In Tamil? Authors Wenger (2000), Zimmerman (2000), and Engestrom (2001) present the relation between social learning system, self- efficacy of employees and expensive learning at work. Clothing? It also shows that the success of organization depends upon two significant factors first how they design it and second how they acclimates the continuous learning processes into their routine. Etienne Wenger highlighted different methodologies of social learning system in an organization. Zimmerman deliberated the significance of self- efficacy and how it helps in motivating the employees in order to essay in tamil language, achieve their desired goals.
Yrjo Engestrom suggested that learning models are used in order to evaluate the thesis brand value of expensive learning at work place. Learning fosters creativity and innovative ideas and improves the old conventional approaches by adopting the continuous learning system for achieving the desired goals. In all these articles, authors mainly concentrated on three areas and an essay idea which following how they are related to each other Role of Self-Efficacy among employees, Communities of practice and social learning system, and Theoretical models of Expensive learning. Author's prime focus is to describe the importance of continuous learning system and benefits of employee's development. 3.Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to Learn. According to author Zimmerman Self Efficacy helps the students to motivate and take up new challenges in thesis, life by constant learning.
Self-Efficacy is different from several motivational concepts such as outcome expectations, self-concept and locus of control. It helps students to writing services, participate in their own choice of activities. Student with self-efficacy are more emotionally stable and can face and better handle any difficult situation in thesis clothing, their life as compared to the students without self-efficacy. Zimmer Essay? Self-efficacy helps student in accomplishing goals and their desired targets by providing ways of superior performance. Thesis Clothing? Zimmerman further added that student's self-belief about their academic capabilities play a vital role in motivating them to achieve the desired goals. Zimmerman used references from different authors to explain the concept of self-efficacy. Bandura (1977, 1987) described self-efficacy as individual capabilities to achieve the outcome or desired goals on pongal, the basis of his own personal judgment.
Moreover Self-efficacy also enables students to control their own learning activity. He also discussed human motivation in terms of outcome expectations. Author analyses that self-efficacy and outcome expectation both helps to motivate but self-efficacy plays significant role in thesis clothing, the human motivation as compared to oedipus vs hamlet essay, the outcome expectation as the type of outcome people anticipated depends on their judgment on how well they will be able to perform in any situation. He further described that Self-efficacy is personal judgment of ones own capabilities to execute task in order to accomplish desired goals. The level of Self-efficacy depends upon the difficulty of task. Strength of self-efficacy depends upon clothing brand, the amount of ones certainty about performing a given task. Zimmerman also specified that self-efficacy focus on individual performance capabilities rather than focusing on the individual qualities. Self-efficacy beliefs are not single character but are multidimensional. Shell, Marphy, and Burning (1989) described self-efficacy as individual capabilities to perform any task or activity like reading or writing activities depending upon his social hobbies, family life, educational background and pongal essay cultural diversity. Brand? He considered these elements as founding structure for accomplish any specific task. Developing Idea Which Of The? This supports Bandura theory that Self-efficacy plays vital role than outcome expectation in motivation.
Smith theory (1989) theory proposed that self-efficacy helps in reducing the stress and anxiety in students thereby improves the academic performance unlike the locus of control. 3.1Role of Self Efficacy in academic motivation. Zimmerman indicated that self ' efficacy play a important role for academic motivation as it helps students to participate in their choice of activities, enhances effort level, and personal achievement. Zimmerman take references from thesis clothing, different theories to support the relationship between self- efficacy and academic motivation. Bandura (1997) stated that students with self-efficacy can participate more readily, works harder, persists longer and are more emotionally stable as compared to students without self-efficacy. They have fewer emotional reactions when they face difficult situations. They can handle difficult tasks more easily. Schunk(1981) revealed that students with self efficacy have higher choice of new testament research paper, arithmetic activity. Zimmerman and Kitsantas (1997; 1999) added that self-efficacy is thesis, highly correlated with students' inherent interest.
Self-efficacy beliefs comprises of students effort of rate of performance and expenditure of energy. Salmon (1984) revealed that self-efficacy is directly proportional to student's intellectual efforts. It helps students to mba admission writing services vancouver, achieve the desired goals which is clothing brand, apparent difficult for students without self-efficacy. He further added that self-efficacy provides different approaches of learning and helps in motivate. 3.2 Self-Efficacy and self-regulation of solve business problems, learning. Self-efficacy beliefs also helps student to control and regulate their own activities by introducing certain self monitoring activities like goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation. Students take roles depending upon their self-judgment. Students with self-efficacy beliefs can monitoring their activities well and brand are better at solving conceptual problems as compared to one without self-efficacy belief in spite of having same abilities.
Author further categorizes self-efficacy into four types of experience: enactive attainment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Enactive experiences are the most important source of efficacy belief because they are based on the outcomes of personal experiences. Vicarious experiences depend on an observer's self-comparison. Verbal persuasion experience depends on vs hamlet, the credibility of the persuader and has less impact on self-efficacy. Students made their self-judgments on the basis of physiological reactions, such as fatigue, stress, and other emotions. 4. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems. Wenger (2000) stated that success of any organization depends on how they design and adopt the social learning system in their daily routine. He proposes three 'modes of clothing brand, belonging' by which an organization participates in social learning systems. Then he further introduced key elements of Social learning system: communities of practice, boundary processes among these com- munities, and employee's identities. According to pongal, Wenger, personal experience and individual competency helps an thesis individual to align with organization-desired goals.
4.1 Communities of Practice. Wenger defines communities of an essay involves which of the, practice as the basic building blocks of a social learning. Communities of practice are based on fundamentals of social learning and stress on shared cultural values and norms, background history, and social environment of the organization. Wenger (1998) defines the communities of practices by combing the following three dimensions: Engagement, Imagination and Alignment. 1. Engagement: The ways of how an individual get along with one another and with the world gives ones own identity.
It helps in gaining and learning new opportunities and how gives an idea of how other respond to our actions. 2. Imagination: Constructing self Image helps in interpreting self-participation in the social world. 3. Thesis Clothing Brand? Alignment: local activities are aligned with other processes so that they can be effective beyond ones own engagement. Furthermore Wenger (1998) defines the communities of which of the, practices by thesis clothing combing the three dimensions: 1. Joint enterprise- the developing involves following level of learning energy. 2. Mutuality- the depth of social capital. 3. Shared Repertoire- the degree of self-awareness. All above three elements work together in social learning system. Engestrom (2002) and Zimmerman (2000) discussed that individual background history, academic profile, and life style have high impact on the culture of organization. 4.2 Boundary of community of Practice.
Coordination, transparency and negotiability are the key elements for any boundary. The boundary of community of practice is directly linked with the social learning system in the organization. It provides different kinds of learning opportunities for their communities. Thesis? Boundary of community of practice helps the mba admission services vancouver communities in gaining and brand sharing knowledge and utilizing it within the organizational boundary and helps in writing services, connecting to the other communities as well. Thesis Brand? It also promotes the innovation. Boundaries are important to learning systems for two reasons. They connect communities and they offer learning opportunities. 4.3 Employees Identities. Employees Identity is crucial to social learning systems mainly for three reasons. Firstly Individual competency and personal experience both helps communities in mein, gaining and sharing knowledge and develop trust between employees.
It help in clothing brand, gaining learning opportunity thereby enhances social interaction and shows path of oedipus essay, getting along with each other. Not but the least Employee identities give new approaches and promote innovative thinking in organization. Thesis Clothing Brand? Employees foster and mein play a very vital part in the social learning in the organization, which in turn helps organization to develop new approaches of thesis clothing, fitting in an environment. Engestrom (2001) focused on multifaceted relation between the individual entity and their community. Vs Hamlet Essay? He also highlighted that expensive learning promotes innovative thinking in an organization. 5. Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization.
Engestrom (2001) explained the expensive learning at work with the help of Cultural-historical activity theory. He further examined the theory by proposing four questions: Subjects of Learning, Reason of Learning, Content of Learning, and Approaches of Learning. Engestrom also summarized theory of activity with the help of five principles: unit of analysis, multi-voicedness of activity, historicity of brand, activity, contradictions, and mba admission services expansive cycles. The first principle relates the clothing brand activity theory as a key element of analysis; second principle is multi- voicedness that relies on multiple views of new testament research, community. Third principle states that every activity system change and shape there proper image over the period of thesis brand, time. The fourth principle highlights the contradiction view and defines development and oedipus vs hamlet essay change within the activity system occurs due to thesis, contraction and defines it as driving force of change. The fifth principle announces the essay in tamil probability of expansive transformations in activity systems. Bateson distinguished between three levels of learning.
Level one of learning stresses on classroom training. Level two emphasizes on hidden curriculum in the classroom training that helps participants to think out of box by gaining and sharing the knowledge with each other. Thesis Clothing Brand? Last level of learning focuses on collective efforts of participants and it help individuals to learn from different work activities. Level two emphasizes on hidden curriculum in the classroom training that helps participants to think out of box by oedipus gaining and sharing the knowledge with each other. Last level of learning focuses on collective efforts of participants and clothing brand it help individuals to learn from different work activities. Each article gives the different perspectives of vs hamlet essay, learning and provides the capability of thinking different thereby fosters innovative thinking in the organization. These theories provide the importance of social learning system, motivation, and self- efficacy in any organizational processes and introduce new ways of adopting it into their daily routines. They enhance the competencies to clothing brand, adopt and survive the transformational change and enhance the individual skills by gaining and sharing knowledge.
All authors Wenger, Zimmerman and essay Engestrom discussed the clothing brand different perspectives and different approaches to analyze effective learning in developing idea involves following, an organization. They mentioned that organization could be successful when they adopt continuous learning approach in their system. 1. Engestrom, Y. (2001), Expansive Learning at work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of thesis clothing brand, education and work, 14(1), 135-155. 2. Wenger, E. (2000), Communities of practice and social learning systems. Organization Articles, 7(2): 225-246. 3. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000) Self Efficacy: An Essential to learn.
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