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Research papers on environmental issues

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article article Sign up now and start saving and research papers on environmental organizing your favorite architecture projects and phonosynthesis photos. Find the most inspiring products for your projects in our Product Catalog. Research! Get the ArchDaily Chrome Extension and be inspired with every new tab. Install here » SAIC and The University of graduate cover Chicago Are Appointed Co-Commissioners of the US Pavilion at the 2018 Venice Biennale. ChicagoThe School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC) and the University of Chicago jointly announced today their selection by the U.S. Department of State to serve as co-commissioners of the United States Pavilion at the 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale. Papers On Environmental Issues! As co-commissioners, the two institutions will organize Dimensions of Citizenship, the exhibition they proposed as the official United States contribution to the 16th International Architecture Exhibition, on view from May 26 through November 25, 2018. 15 Money-Making Side Hustles for Architects and Designers. What do a lot of recent architecture college grads have in common besides their degree? Student loans and disillusionment (see point 1 in Megan Fowler’s 11 Things You Learn at paper written for me, Your First “Real” Architecture Job to understand what we mean by disillusionment). But with the emergence of the digital age and “side-hustle economy,” millennials are learning how to monetize their passions, and now 1 in 4 Americans are making money digitally.

Side-hustling has become so popular that there is even a school for it. The difference between a side-hustle and a second job is that side-hustles aren’t just about giving yourself a raise. Your side-hustle is something you truly love to do, and would probably do anyway, but now you get to share it with the world and make a little extra cash in the process. So what side-hustle is right for you? Here is a list of side-hustles which suit the research on environmental skillset of i need paper written for me architects and designers. Research Papers On Environmental Issues! The Beauty of Bamboo: The Best Photos of the Week. Bamboo has been used by man as a construction material since ancient times. The amazing thing about bamboo, besides being a totally natural material, is i need a research paper written for me that it is sustainable, lightweight, flexible, and inexpensive.

Although not widely used in the construction world (at least not when compared to materials like timber), the use of Bamboo enables original and attractive results. This week we have made a selection of 17 photos from well-known photographers such as Julien Lanoo, John Gollings, and Pasi Aalto. 11 Nifty Measuring Hacks for Architects. Believe it or not, architects are just like everyone else! They love a shortcut in their tool belt to accomplish a task. Whether it's in papers issues, the office or out in the field, all architects have a handful of tricks up their sleeves. The following are ten measuring hacks you can introduce to your daily routine. You can thank us later.

Roberto Burle Marx#39;s Legacy Reveals The Role of Landscape Architects. There wasn’t much in the way of art that Roberto Burle Marx couldn’t do. About High School! He was a painter, print-maker, sculptor, stage designer, jeweler, musician, tapestry-maker and one of the leading landscape architects in the 20th century. Marx’s passion for research issues art, in all forms, strengthened his ability to design landscapes. Carbonized Wood: A Traditional Japanese Technique That Has Conquered the intro World. Ancestral, vernacular and minimalist; for many, these three words have come to define the papers on environmental issues architecture of Japan, a country that has served as a source of cultural and technological inspiration to countless cultures. In recent decades, popular Japanese techniques have spread throughout the world, not only in the field of write dissertation technology but also in technical and artistic areas. In architecture, the appropriation and reinvention of different materials and papers on environmental issues construction techniques, such as the carbonization of wooden facades, has been a continuing theme. A Virtual Look Inside Case Study House #4, Ralph Rapson’s Greenbelt House The fourth house in Arts Architecture ’s Case Study program departed from the trend with a noticeably more introverted design. Intended for i need a research paper a modestly sized urban lot, rather than the dramatic and research expansive canyon or forest locations of so many other Case Study homes, it couldn’t borrow drama from the landscape, nor would the residents welcome curious glances from their close neighbors—so the house looks entirely inward.

Rapson called his design the “Greenbelt House” for the glass-covered atrium that divides the living and sleeping areas. In his original drawings and model, as in Archilogic’s 3D model shown here, this strip is shown filled with plant beds in a striking geometric pattern. However, Rapson imagined that it could be put to i need a research written for me, many uses, according to the residents’ tastes: a croquet court or even a swimming pool could find their place here. This “brings the research papers on environmental issues outdoors indoors” rather more literally than, for instance, Richard Neutra’s expansive, open-door designs. Argumentative Essay Thesis! Are Smart Cities Doomed to issues, Promote Inequality? A city is smart when it makes better decisions, and student there are only two types of decision: strategic and tactical. Strategic decisions determine the papers on environmental right thing to do. Tactical decisions choose the right way to do it. SMART technology is not smart technology if it causes us as citizens to confuse strategy with tactics. In other words, there are many decisions about the operation of a city that we may delegate happily to technology. But there are questions of governance, of determining our fate, of deciding what is the right thing to essay about graduation day, do as populace, that if we delegate—we abdicate. “To govern is to choose,” John F. Kennedy once said.

If I were to have believed the many consultants and emissaries of research on environmental large technology companies that came to see me when I was the Chief Urban Designer of New York City, the SMART city they promised me was a place where the traffic lights always turned green and the elevator doors always awaited our arrival. Cover Letter! They promised a city that would anticipate our needs at every turn, given tantalizing form in the recent present of our connected personal devices and the apps that seem to know us better than we know ourselves. Now, with the advent of the internet of things on the near horizon, we are set to on environmental issues, make SMART cities a reality. Imagine the awesome power of an entire city synchronized to dissertation, our taste and movement! What Do The Cracks in Concrete Structures Mean? Cracks, which could be classified according to research papers issues, their thickness as fissures or fractures, are serious problems in the construction industry that can negatively affect aesthetics, durability and, most importantly, the structural characteristics of a project. They can happen anywhere, but occur especially in walls, beams, columns, and slabs, and essays on honesty usually, are caused by strains not considered in the design. Madrid#39;s Forgotten Geometries Through The Lens of Joel Filipe. After the first series of photographs revealing Madrid's architectural geometries, Joel Filipe shared his work with us again; this time the Into the Fog series . In these photographs, Filipe presents, through a layer of mist, well-known projects featuring the issues skyline of the essay Spanish capital. Sustainable Design Offers New Business Value for papers on environmental issues Dekker/Perich/Sabatini.

Dekker/Perich/Sabatini (D/P/S) has made a strategic business decision, one that architecture firms are starting to adopt as a means to help them achieve their own sustainability goals and about graduation drive more business. With the implementation of a Building Performance Analysis (BPA) team and equipped with time-saving design tools, D/P/S has been leveraging building information modelling (BIM) for energy analysis. Since joining the AIA 2030 Commitment last year, the firm has already analyzed and research issues reported nearly 1 million square feet in new construction projects. Dissertation! 9 of the Most Bizarre and Forward-Thinking Radical Architecture Groups of the 60s and 70s. The first moon landing, widespread anti-war protests, Woodstock and the hippies, rural communes and papers on environmental issues environmentalism, the Berlin Wall, the women’s liberation movement and so much more—the tumultuous decades of the Sixties and Seventies occupy an unforgettable place in history.

With injustices openly questioned and radical ideas that set out to methodology, unseat existing conventions and practices in various spheres of papers on environmental life, things weren’t any different in the architectural world. The grand visions dreamt up by the modernists were soon challenged by i need a research paper, utopian experiments from the “anti-architecture” or “radical design” groups of the 1960–70s. Reestablishing architecture as an instrument of research on environmental political, social, and cultural critique, they drafted bold manifestoes and designs, experimented with collage, music, performance art, furniture, graphic design, zines, installations, events, and exhibitions. Dj Irene! While certain individuals from this era like Cedric Price, Hans Hollein, and Yona Friedman remain important to papers on environmental, the realm of the radical and the unbuilt, the revolutionary spirit of these decades also saw the birth of write various young collectives. For eccentricity at its very best, read on research issues for a (by no means exhaustive) list of some groups who dared to question, poke, expand, rebel against, disrupt and redefine architecture in the 60s and 70s. Towards an Architecture of Light, Color, and Virtual Experiences. This essay by about school day, Space Popular references an installation currently on display at Sto Werkstatt, in London.

You can experience it in virtual reality, here. The Glass House has no purpose other than to be beautiful. Research On Environmental! It is i need paper for me intended purely as a structure for exhibition and should be a beautiful source of research papers issues ideas for dj irene “lasting” architecture but is not intended as such. According to the poet Paul Scheerbart, to whom it is research dedicated, the Glass House should inspire the thesis disillusion of current architecture’s far-too-restricted understanding of space and should introduce the effects and possibilities of glass into research issues the world of architecture. Paper Written For Me! Bruno Taut [above] described his Glashaus for the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne, Germany, as a little temple of beauty; as reflections of light whose colors began at the base with a dark blue and rose up through moss green and golden yellow to on environmental issues, culminate at the top in essays in othello, a luminous pale yellow.”[1] The Glass Pavilion, designed based on its potential effects on those who perceived it, was supposed to research on environmental issues, create vivid experiences. The site was the human mind. Porto#39;s Subway Through The Lens of Fernando Guerra. The following photo set by Fernando Guerra focuses on Porto's Subway, a project completed in 1996 and projected by essays on honesty in othello, the important Portuguese Architect Álvaro Siza Vieira. Research Papers On Environmental! Designing a subway station in Porto is about influencing the daily lives of thousands of people, where they daily circulate, establishing flows and routes, in a urbanistic and architectural intervention with large-scale dimensions.

Although it demands an extremely functional and austere design, it is dj irene possible to see the gestures of the architect through the details and surprises. On Environmental Issues! 20 Amazing Images of Architecture as Seen from the graduate letter Sky: The Best Photos of the Week. This week we have prepared a special selection of 20 images of architecture as seen from the sky. Research On Environmental Issues! This style of image, made possible by the emergence of drones, is phonosynthesis intro increasingly used in architectural photography. It makes it possible to understand, in a single image, the papers issues totality of a project, and to see how the project interacts with the context in which it is immersed. Read on to see a selection of renowned photographers such as Hufton + Crow, Fernando Guerra, NAARO, and Jesus Granada. Social Agenda vs Social Media: Reviewing the 2017 Chicago Architecture Biennial. While architecture exhibitions have a tendency to be drab affairs with poorly displayed poster boards and reams of intellectualized text spouting pseudo-complex ideas, the Chicago Architecture Biennial stands out for its undeniable sense of graduate student cover playfulness. From its central HQ to the fringe performance events, this exhibition is research papers on environmental issues bright, fun and Instagram-ready.

Chicago, like Venice, is essays in othello blessed when it comes to architecture, making the city an ideal home for a recurring architecture show. The importance of this year’s iteration, the second after its inaugural event in 2015 (thus confirming its status as an actual “Biennial”), is clear. And the curators, Sharon Johnston and Mark Lee from LA-based practice Johnston Marklee, seem determined to grab people’s attention. How Narinder Sagoo And Foster + Partners Are Turning Architectural Preconceptions On Their Head (With A Pencil) This short article, written by the author and papers critic Jonathan Glancey, coincides with the launch of the inaugural Architecture Drawing Prize – a competition curated by the World Architecture Festival, the Sir John Soane's Museum, and in othello Make. The deadline for the award has been extended to September 25, 2017, and successful entries will be exhibited in both London and Berlin. For architects, says Narinder Sagoo, Head of Design Communications at Foster + Partners, drawings are about story telling. They are also a highly effective way of raising questions about papers on environmental issues, design projects. Although the essay history of on environmental architecture—certainly since the Italian Renaissance—has been mapped by dj irene intro, compelling drawings asserting the primacy, and reflecting the glory, of fully resolved buildings, there is another strain of visualisation that has allowed architects to think through projects free of research papers preconceptions. Architecture City Guide: 20 Places Every Architect Should Visit in Madrid.

Madrid is unfathomable. If the city itself is immense, it´s examples of interesting architecture are overwhelming. For over a half a century, Madrid has been an thesis, experimental laboratory for modern and contemporary architecture in Spain. With numerous examples of innovative and experimental architecture, as well as many failures, few of which are valued and recognized. This selection seeks to show archetypal examples of architecture that have transcended time; it does not intend to be an exhaustive list of the city´s architectural works. Many will think that the list lacks important buildings and personally, I couldn´t agree more. Papers Issues! That is perhaps the beauty of graduate letter Madrid: there is a diversity of opinion, there are thousands of sites to see, the papers city surprises you with every step you take. 3 Reasons Why Excel is the Ultimate BIM Sidekick. This article was originally published by ArchSmarter. Have you ever played the i need a research party game “telephone”? You know the one, where you tell something to the person next to you and they pass it on to the research papers issues person next to them and so on down the line.

Inevitably, your original message is badly mangled and misappropriated by the time it gets back to you. Everyone gets a good laugh at how far the end message is from your original one. The Ambitious Project that Brings Together 44 Mexican and International Architects. In Baja California, Mexico, the 860 hectares that make up 'Cuatro Cuatros'a tourism development that for the past ten years has been overseen and dj irene phonosynthesis designed by Mauricio Rocha and papers on environmental issues Gabriela Carrillo of Taller de Arquitecturapresent an arid and mostly monochromatic landscape interrupted only by a research for me, stones and papers on environmental issues bushland. Vast as the site may seem, only 360 of animal argumentative essay its hectares will be destined for housing development, of which only 10% can be impacted by construction. The challenge will lay in mitigating the protagonistic stance architecture usually assumes when conquering previously untouched lands, by taking on a presence that disappears into the landscape. A New Generation of Tools: The 3D Visualization Multiplex. A 3D visualization multiplex is a system to instantly visualize 3D models on research papers issues multiple devices: desktop computers, smartphones, tablets, augmented reality gear, and virtual reality glasses. It's an everyday tool to streamline conversations between architects, engineers, contractors, their clients, and essay about high graduation the rest of the world. With the formidable combination of CAD software programs - e.g.

SketchUp or Revit - and a multiplex, 3D storytelling has never been simpler. It works on both high-end immersive headsets and on research papers on environmental issues smartphones with - or without - very capable $10+ glasses. Using augmented reality, a model can be directly integrated into the real world. 13 Weird, Surprising Architecture Facts You#39;ve Probably Never Heard. Testing Argumentative! The history of humans building shelters goes back over 10,000 years. Over this time, the human need to build was distilled into research papers on environmental issues the profession of architecture, and in the process it attracted all manner of eccentric, visionary, and stubborn individuals.

In light of both architecture's long history and its abundance of colorful characters, it's no surprise that it's full of surprising and unlikely stories. From Lincoln Logs and the Olympics to Ouija boards and 9/11, here are 13 architecture-related facts you may not have previously known. How Architects Dress vs How Normal People Dress. Does this come in black? is probably the in othello most used phrase during any architect's shopping trip, but nobody really knows why. Search the internet for the reason that architects wear black, you will find that numerous people have written about the subject,—there’s even a book about it! The fact is that other people don't quite understand how many shades of black there actually are like you do.

And it's also a common misconception that wearing black is all in papers on environmental, the name of convenience, since looking for a specific item in your wardrobes takes 5 times longer when everything looks the same. In short, architects will continue to wear black. at least until something darker comes out. Space Popular Reignite the Concerns of The Glass Chain Letters By Way of Virtual Reality. The Glass Chain ( Die Glaserne Kette in its native German) was an exchange of write written letters initiated by Bruno Taut in November 1919. The correspondence lasted only a year, and included the likes of Walter Gropius, Hans Scharoun, and Paul Gosch.

In the letters, the papers penfriends—thirteen in all—speculated and fantasized about the graduate student cover letter possibilities of glass, imagining, in the words of Fredrik Hellberg and Lara Lesmes (Space Popular), fluid and organic glass follies and colourful crystal cathedrals covering entire mountain chains and even reaching into research issues space.

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michael essay It has been suggested by Helga Kuhse and papers on environmental issues Peter Singer in their article #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia, Morality and the Law#039; (1995) 3 Journal of Law and intro Medicine 129, that the primary focus in determining the legal possibility of medical end-of-life decisions should be the issue of patient consent rather than the subjective intention of the doctor or nurses. Papers On Environmental! Comment critically with reference to the current legal position in Victoria and contrast this with the essay day, approach taken in some overseas jurisdiction. Whether or not euthanasia is issues, being practised in the community is no longer a topic of essay about high debate. Surveys of papers Australian doctors and phonosynthesis intro nurses have established that requests by patients for a hastened death are commonplace and that compliance with them occurs in research issues, around half of these cases 1 . At present, Euthanasia is hidden behind the notion of double effect, that is, that a doctor may legally administer drugs that he or she knows will hasten death if his or her primary intention is to alleviate the pain of the patient 2 . This is a flawed notion in that it is almost impossible to testing argumentative thesis disprove a doctor#039;s assertion of what his or her primary intentions were. It lends itself to the abuse of doctors who seek to hasten the death of a patient without their consent, no matter how altruistic their intentions for doing so are. It is completely undesirable for the death of on environmental a patient to be brought about high school graduation or hastened without their consent, and we must therefore change the way we view the issue of the legal-permissibility of euthanasia. Our focus must no longer be on the intentions of the doctors making medical end-of-life decisions, but on whether the rational consent of the patient whose death is research on environmental issues, being hastened has been obtained. Active voluntary euthanasia has become accepted by the majority in the community and can no longer be branded as an immoral and illegal practice.

Just as a there is a clear distinction between making love and rape, and between a gangster stabbing someone maliciously and a doctor making an incision during surgery, there is a clear difference between culpable murder and active voluntary euthanasia 3 (see below for definition.) In all three cases the consent of i need a research paper those involved deprives the on environmental issues, act of its anti-social character. 4. Euthanasia is often used as an umbrella term that lends itself to write confusion. For clarity#039;s sake it is research papers issues, important to distinguish between the different types that exist: (Please note that since non-voluntary and involuntary forms of euthanasia do not involve the dj irene phonosynthesis, procuring of consent, they will be disregarded in this essay.) Passive voluntary euthanasia: An omission or inaction by research papers on environmental issues, a doctor holding the consent of the patient that results in death. For example, the withholding of life-prolonging treatment. Active voluntary euthanasia: An act by intro, a doctor who has the patient#039;s consent that results in their death. Assisted suicide: The doctor provides the means by which the research on environmental, patient can commit suicide. 5. In this piece I will be mostly concerned with Active Voluntary Euthanasia, although references will also be made to the other two forms as well. In Victoria, those who practise active euthanasia can be prosecuted for murder or manslaughter and those who assist a terminally ill person to commit suicide can be sentenced to up to 14 years imprisonment under the Victorian Crimes Act.

6 While it is the same legal position as that for paper for me normal homicide and assisted suicide 7 , the way in research papers, which they are judicially treated differs. Most cases are not prosecuted at the discretion of intro either the police or the crown prosecution. The few cases that do make it to trial are treated extremely leniently, with either the jury returning a #039;sympathy verdict#039; of not guilty or the judge imposing an research issues, extremely lenient sentence for those who are found guilty. Phonosynthesis! 8. In 1988 #039;The Victorian Medical Treament act#039; was enacted to clarify the common law position regarding the refusal of treatment by a patient. The position is that a patient has an inalienable right to refuse any form of medical treatment notwithstanding the likely consequences of their doing so. Research Issues! 9 It is interesting to essays note that withholding treatment necessary to research preserve life is a form of passive euthanasia, and that patients are therefore already able to consent to a form of euthanasia. As yet, however, the realms of the law have not been extended to permit a terminally ill patient from consenting to active euthanasia. In Holland (The Netherlands), euthanasia has still not formally been legalised. They have, however, implemented a policy by which doctors who comply with strict regulations and guidelines will not be prosecuted for in othello practising active euthanasia or assisting a patient to commit suicide.

10 The guidelines that were put in place by the courts and the Dutch Medical Association are as follows: there must be physical or mental suffering that is unbearable to papers the patient. the decision to die must be the patient#039;s own. the essays, patient must fully and correctly understand his or her situation and must be capable of assessing the options available. Research On Environmental Issues! there must be no other solution acceptable to the patient. the suffering and desire to die must be lasting and not transient. the time and the way the patient dies must not cause unavoidable misery to others the doctor involved has to consult another professional. a medical doctor must be involved in the decision and in prescribing the correct drugs. the a research paper written for me, decision process and the actual treatment given to help the research, patient die must be carried out with the utmost care. the person does not have to be terminally ill. For example, they could be quadriplegic. the doctor must keep a full written record of the case the animal essay, death must be reported to the prosecutorial authorities as a case of euthanasia or assisted suicide, and not as a case of death by natural causes. 11. There was a concern that the papers on environmental, Dutch experiment would lead to an increase in the number of cases of involuntary euthanasia, but this has not been substantiated in methodology dissertation, any way. On the research issues, contrary, according to the Remmelink report the implementation of the i need a research paper written, new policy has reduced the number of involuntary (i.e.- without the on environmental, patient#039;s explicit consent) cases from 0.8% to 0.7% of the total number of in othello deaths in research on environmental, Holland. 12. Intention and the notion of double effect Intention bears considerable significance not only in the Criminal Law, but also in the way members of the general community assess the conduct and character of others. 13 Our continuing focus on the intentions of doctors involved in the treatment of the terminally ill is perhaps therefore understandable. At present, however, such a focus is misguided and requires urgent assessment. In order to highlight this problem, take the in othello, following examples:

Dr. Papers On Environmental! E is treating a terminally ill cancer patient. School Graduation! She is in considerable distress and pain and makes several explicit requests to have her life terminated. In the believe that her request is rational and that terminating her life is in on environmental, her best interest, Dr. E rapidly increases his patient#039;s morphine dosage and she dies within three days, a week earlier than would have normally been the case. Dr. M is treating a patient in a similar situation. She is in a great deal of pain and seems close to death. In order to alleviate her suffering he decides to considerably increase her morphine dosage in the knowledge that it may decrease her life expectancy.

She dies a week later. 14. While there is little difference in the results of their actions, according to the law as it stands the two doctors#039; conduct would theoretically be treated differently. While Dr. M was attempting to kill the pain rather than the student, patient and would not be criminally liable, Dr. E intended to kill his patient directly and could therefore theoretically be held criminally liable. The fact that Dr.

E#039;s patient made an explicit and rational request to have her life terminated would theoretically bear no significance in the eyes of the papers on environmental, law. Despite the fact that Dr. Dj Irene Phonosynthesis! E#039;s actions are illegal, however, it would be quite difficult to secure a conviction, even if his patient had not consented, for the following reasons: the majority (78%) in on environmental issues, the community have overall come to accept mercy killings as being morally acceptable. Paper For Me! 15 It would therefore be difficult to envisage a jury convicting Dr.E given that they are a representative body of the community. the test for criminal culpability is a subjective one and it would be difficult to disprove a doctor#039;s assertion of his medical intentions. 16. That there is little chance of on environmental issues a conviction in such a case sends a clear message to medical practitioners that active voluntary euthanasia is acceptable even in non-consensual cases. While it would be quite possible to discern the motives of a doctor who had used a non-therapeutic barbiturate from one who had used morphine, 17 those who use therapeutic drugs such as morphine even with the primary intention of killing their patient face little risk of prosecution.

It is submitted that there is therefore an phonosynthesis intro, unacceptable risk of abuse by doctors who seek for whatever reason to terminate the life or hasten the research on environmental, death of a patient without their consent. Moreover, where the illegal death of a patient is disguised by the notion of cover double effect, the infringement on the rights of the patient whose life is terminated puts at risk the rights of us all. 18. The fact that conviction of papers those who practice active euthanasia at present is high, a rarity contradicts a basic principle upon which the Criminal Law was based: that criminal culpability should serve and be premised upon community interests and values. 19 Culpable homicide is rightly forbidden by the Criminal Law, but Active Voluntary Euthanasia should remain criminal only if the community#039;s morality is opposed to its practice. 20 Morgan Opinion Polls indicate that support amongst Australians for active voluntary euthanasia has been growing steadily over the past two decades, with 78% in papers issues, support and testing thesis only 13% against research papers issues its practice in 1995. (8% were undecided). 21 Clearly there is overwhelming support in the community for active voluntary euthanasia and methodology dissertation convincing arguments must therefore be provided to justify its continued prohibition. Consent and the issue of morality. Consent has already been accepted as bearing legal significance in end of life decisions: it has long been a principle at Common Law that one may refuse any form of life-prolonging treatment, and the enactment of the Medical Treatment Act in 1988 affirmed this position in Victoria.

One can therefore consent to what would otherwise amount to unlawful homicide by a doctor who is under a professional duty of papers care. The question may then be asked why one can consent to one form of homicide but not to animal testing active voluntary euthanasia? Why are such arbitrary limits being placed on our consent? It is issues, generally the case that where an act is considered to be at odds with the morality of society, consent is on honesty, not an acceptable defence. Research On Environmental Issues! 22 Therefore, while one can consent to being kissed on the cheek notwithstanding that the essays on honesty in othello, kiss would otherwise constitute a common assault, one cannot generally consent to research on environmental issues conduct that results in bodily harm. 23 There are some notable exceptions such as surgery, tattooing of adults and legal sporting activities that are seen as acceptable and necessary in write methodology, the public interest. For all three activities consent can be used as a defence. 24. Lord Devlin#039;s comments in The Enforcement of Morals (1965) are quite pertinent when addressing the issue of consent: There are certain standards of behaviour or moral principles which society requires to be observed; and the breach of them is an offence not merely against the person who is injured, but against society as a whole.

25. The question is whether active voluntary euthanasia should fall into the category of research offences described by Lord Devlin as against society as a whole? Morality is ultimately determined by the general values and beliefs of a society, and since according to opinion polls the majority of Australians approve of dissertation active voluntary euthanasia, it would seem to have become a morally acceptable practice in Australia. 26 The only other possible justification that the research on environmental issues, government can have for continuing to a research paper written for me prohibit active voluntary euthanasia is papers on environmental issues, that it is harmful to i need paper society in ways that cannot be appreciated by the general public. But when a terminally ill adult of sound mind makes a carefully considered decision to have his or her life terminated by a medical practitioner also of sound mind, how can this be harmful to the community as a whole? There is no evidence that the Dutch have taken a slide down the proverbial slippery slope as a result of the implementation of their more liberal euthanasia policy. In fact, the number of cases of non-voluntary/involuntary euthanasia in Holland has decreased slightly according to the Remmelink report. 27 Rather than declining as a result of more liberal euthanasia laws, society will be enriched by the compassion and research papers respect for the autonomy of the individual that such a change of approach will encourage.

28. There seems no compelling reason why the practice of active voluntary euthanasia should remain criminal. Graduate Cover! It is considered to be a morally acceptable practice to which competent and informed adults should be allowed to research papers issues consent in a democratic society. There is a concern that terminally ill patients are in a state of depression and are therefore incapable of making such an essays, important and significant decision. It is understandable that a terminally ill patient will experience depression, and research issues if the thesis, patient is in a persistent depressed state as a result of on environmental issues their gradual physical degeneration then surely this can be seen as just another symptom of their debilitating illness. Like pain, a feeling of depression is likely to i need written influence their decisions, but as long as reasonable efforts are made to manage it, a patient#039;s depression should not be viewed as a reason to dismiss their continued pleas for a hastened death as irrational. The issue of depression is papers, not raised in relation to the right of a patient to refuse life-prolonging treatment under the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic), and it therefore follows that it should not preclude a terminally ill patient from seeking the positive assistance of a medical practitioner to end their suffering. 29 To deprive them of such a right to choose is the student cover, ultimate act of unjustifiable medical paternalism.

A common argument against papers on environmental the legalisation of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is that it is unnecessary; that greatly improved palliative care techniques can now cater for the majority (around 95% 30 ) of terminally ill patients. Dj Irene! Just because physical pain can be reasonably managed, however, still does not mean that patients are able to die comfortably and with dignity. Issues! To think that we can eliminate all suffering is an write dissertation, unattainable dream. Most patients suffer from progressive weakness and degeneration of their quality of papers issues life that results from drug dependence and loss of function. Student Cover Letter! In some cases patients can suffer from nausea, suffocation, incontinence, psychological distress and confusion, not to mention the papers, discomfort that those 5% for whom palliative care is ineffectual experience. 31 The cry for legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is school, a cry for the freedom to take control of ones time of death; a cry for a dignified end in a society where the ideological imperative to treat at all costs is compromising the quality of life of the on environmental, terminally ill individual. 32. The answer lies in a change of focus. No longer can we continue to make futile attempts to ascertain the intentions of doctors treating their terminally ill patient in methodology, the view that it makes a significant moral difference.

Such a focus is at research papers, odds with society#039;s values and testing argumentative lends itself to the abuse of doctors who seek to terminate the life or hasten the death of a patient without their consent. What we should strive for instead is that doctors act in the best interests of their consenting, terminally ill patients in issues, assisting them to dj irene die a dignified death. Voluntary euthanasia is no longer considered morally unacceptable by Australian Society, and no arguments have been put forward that reasonably justify the research papers, continued stifling of the consent of terminally ill patients to such a practice. With similarly strict restrictions as those implemented in the Northern Territory in 1995, active voluntary euthanasia will provide, in addition to student letter palliative care, a carefully monitored means for terminally ill patients to issues find a peaceful and dignified end to their suffering. Baume P and O#039;Malley E, #039;Euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners#039; (1994) 181 The Medical Law Journal of Australia 137 Johnstone M. Phonosynthesis! J, Bio-ethics, a nursing perspective , (1st ed, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group, Sydney, 1989) pp. 262-266 Hunt Dr. R, #039; The Limits of Palliative Care #039; (1996), [Internet- vesv/RogerHuntOct96.htm (accessed 13 May 2000.)] Young P. W, The Law of Consent , (1st ed, The Law Book Company Limited, Sydney, 1986) p.131 Sayers M, #039;Euthanasia: At the research papers issues, intersection of jurisprudence and the criminal law#039; (1997) 21 Criminal Law Journal 81 #039;The Legal Situation#039;, Voluntary Euthanasia Society of dj irene phonosynthesis intro Victoria , [Internet- vesv/legal.htm (accessed 1 May 2000)] Crimes Act 1958 (Vic.), s.3, s.5, s.6B(2) Otlowski M, #039;Mercy Killing Cases in the Australian Criminal Justice System#039; Crim L J (1993) 17: 10-39 as cited in Sayers op cit 80 Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic) #039;The World#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society , [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] Id #039;Guidelines#039;, Euthanasia in Holland , [Internet- (accessed 25 April 2000] #039;The World#039;, loc cit Gillet G. R, #039;Intent in law and medicine#039; (April 1991) New Zealand Law Journal 116 Kuhse H and Singer P, #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia#039; (1995), 3 Journal of papers Law and on honesty in othello Medicine , 129 Johnstone, op cit pp.253-254 Kuhse and Singer, op cit 133 Ashby M, Hard Cases, Causation and Care of the research papers issues, Dying (1995) 3 Journal of phonosynthesis Law and Medicine 160 Sayers, op cit 80 Waller L and papers Williams C. About! R, Criminal Law: Texts and Cases , (8th Ed., Butterworths, Melbourne, 1997), p.4 Biggs H, #039;Euthanasia and Death with Dignity: Still Poised on research issues, the Fulcrum of Homicide#039; [1996] Criminal Law Review 888 #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society , [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] Young, loc cit Waller and Williams, op cit , pp.75-79 Young, op cit 122 Lord Devlin, #039;The Enforcement of Morals#039; (Oxford University Press, 1965) pp 6-7, as cited in Young, op cit , p.132 #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039; loc cit #039;The World#039;, loc cit Hunt, loc cit Kuhse and Singer, op cit 134 Hunt R Palliative Care- The Rhetoric-Reality Gap in H Kuhse (ed), Willing to essay school day Listen, Wanting to Die (Penguin, Melbourne, 1994), pp.115-137, as cited in on environmental issues, H. Kuhse and P. Singer, #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia#039; (1995) 3 Journal of testing essay Law and Medicine 130. Hunt, loc cit McNamara B, Waddell C and Colvin M, The Institutionalisation of the Good Death, Social Science and papers issues Medicine , (1994) Vol. Graduate Student Cover! 39, No. 11, at pp.1501-1508, as cited in research issues, Biggs, loc cit.

Johnstone M.J, Bio-ethics, a nursing perspective, First Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group, Sydney, 1989 Jonsen A.R, Siegler M and Winslade W.J, Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1992 Kennedy I. and Grubb A, Medical Law: Text and Materials, First Edition, Butterworths, London, 1989 Waller L and Williams C.R, (Brett, Waller and Williams), Criminal Law: Texts and Cases, Eighth Edition., Butterworths, Melbourne, 1997 Young P.W, The Law of Consent, First Edition, The Law Book Company Limited, Sydney, 1986. Ashby M, Hard Cases, Causation and Care of the Dying (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 152 Baume P and on honesty in othello O#039;Malley E, Euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners (1994) 181 The Medical Law Journal of Australia 137 Biggs H, Euthanasia and Death with Dignity: Still Poised on the Fulcrum of Homicide [1996] Criminal Law Review 878 Buchanan J, Euthanasia: The Medical and Psychological Issues, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 161 Cipriani T, Give Me Liberty and Give Me Death, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and issues Medicine 177 Freckelton I, Withdrawal of Life Support: The #039;Persistent Vegetative State#039; Conundrum, (1993) 1 Journal of Law and Medicine 35 Gillet G. Essays In Othello! R, Intent in law and medicine (April 1991) New Zealand Law Journal 115 Gillett G, Ethical Aspects of the Northern Territory Euthanasia Legislation, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 121 Kuhse H. and Singer P, Active Voluntary Euthanasia (1995) 3 Journal of papers issues Law and Medicine 129. Mullen P.E, Euthanasia: An Impoverished Construction of testing argumentative thesis Life and Death (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 121 Sayers M, Euthanasia: At the Intersection of papers Jurisprudence and the Criminal Law (1997) 21 Criminal Law Journal 80. #039;Guidelines#039;, Euthanasia in Holland, [Internet- (accessed 25 April 2000)] Hunt Dr. Testing Argumentative! R, #039;The Limits of Palliative Care#039; (1996), [Internet- vesv/RogerHuntOct96.htm (accessed 13 May 2000.)] #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society, [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] #039;The Legal Situation#039;, Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Victoria, [Internet- vesv/legal.htm (accessed 1 May 2000)] #039;The World#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society, [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)]

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How to Write a Research Paper on Environmental Issues | The

RN Resume #038; Job Application Advice. Once nursing school is complete and the graduate has passed the research issues, NCLEX-RN exam he or she will receive a nursing license issued by a research written for me the State. Papers On Environmental? This makes the graduate eligible for employment in dj irene phonosynthesis that state. So, now the papers on environmental, fun really begins by building an amazing resume and a focused and essay about school day, purposeful job search. The graduate can work on dazzling the interviewer in-person, during the RN interview, but first, he or she needs to papers on environmental issues get noticed by submitting an exceptional resume. First and foremost an dj irene intro, outstanding nursing resume is professional and concise . These are required and absolutely mandatory to apply for any nursing position, even though filling out an online application is also required. Issues? The key to a successful resume is to keep it simple yet persuasive while always remembering to create the best possible image of oneself on paper. Many graduates choose to browse at images of resumes online before committing to a resume style. The style will affect which sections and words are bolded, centered, underlined, and other formatting variations.

Choosing a format that makes a strong impression is phonosynthesis intro, a good place to start. Here are a few guidelines to papers on environmental follow, whichever format is chosen: Make your name stand out The top of the essays, resume states name and contact information, this should be either bold, have a big font size, be underlined, or all three and research on environmental issues, if your middle name is unique it may be wise to animal testing thesis add it as this may catch the attention of the HR Representative Be sure to list an email address as well as phone number, address, and name Avoid listing any social media links for a nursing position It must be free of on environmental issues, grammatical and spelling errors Have a friend proofread the resume and write methodology dissertation, read it out loud more than once to yourself Hire a professional to papers on environmental issues proofread, usually for a nominal fee Keep it simple and concise Unless there are a lot of extras to list a new graduate nurse should not need more than one page Stick to basic fonts The preferred font is Times New Roman because it is easy to read and fits well on a page. The resume should be short and concise and portray the graduate's attributes in a positive and professional manner. The new graduate registered nurse without healthcare experience should not be overly concerned about his or her lack of experience as a nurse.

Employers are expecting this and written, look forward to papers issues teaching the new graduate nurse the policies and procedures of the organization. Write? Many employers embrace new graduates and appreciate the opportunity to research papers issues mentor. The image portrayed should be that of an eager and humble new nurse who wants to learn from write methodology, experienced nurses who are smarter and better at nursing he or she is. The arrogant new graduate does not get very far in nursing neither during the resume and papers on environmental issues, interview process nor on the job. The nursing resume usually consists of these sections. Objective Education Experience Licensure and Certifications Technical Skills Optional sections may include: Honors and Awards Achievements Languages Professional Memberships Volunteer Experiences.

This is intro, a general statement about the on environmental, directive of the graduate. These have evolved over the years from a brief phrase stating the graduate's intent to something similar to an abbreviated cover letter. Some objective statements may be as long as a short paragraph. It needs to be a clear and concise statement about the goals of the graduate and a quick sales pitch addressing accomplishments and education. Labeling this section with Objective is acceptable but using an animal argumentative essay thesis, attention-provoking section title is research on environmental, more desirable. Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse (section label) Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse holding ACLS and BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience. Testing Argumentative? Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care Units. Excels in multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner.

Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and perseverance. The education section should list high schools and colleges, including nursing school. These are best organized chronologically with most recently graduated school at the top of the list. Please include name of school, degree earned, and year of graduation. Research On Environmental Issues? Adding geographic location and areas of high school, study is also acceptable.

For any other nursing programs, such as Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), please add to this section as well, and be sure to highlight these accomplishments as they may prove to make the graduate stand out above others. Bolding, italics, or underlining may be a good method of doing so. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2015 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. The new graduate without healthcare experience may list clinical experiences and any work experience during or prior to on environmental issues graduation. Employers who hire new graduates understand this section will be smaller than that of an experienced nurse. The new graduate with healthcare experience may use this section as an opportunity to list these and any details about the position which may help relate them to the desired job. Any experience listed should contain the company name, geographic location, job title, area of experience within the company, dates, and paper written, a description. The description should be short and concise, however if the graduate needs to fill space on the page, creating multiple lines of papers on environmental issues, experience descriptors may be wise. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to student cover letter August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-­Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and research papers issues, drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff.

Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and dj irene phonosynthesis intro, drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. In this section, the graduate should list the state in which he or she is newly licensed as a registered nurse as well as CPR certifications earned during the nursing program, or otherwise. While listing the expirations dates is acceptable it is on environmental, not required, so if space is limited it's fine to high school graduation leave those out. All nursing programs require Basic Life Support (BLS) certification to participate in on environmental issues clinical hours and provide the class during school. Some programs may offer or require Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) certification towards the end of the nursing program when clinicals may be in critical care areas, such as the intensive care unit, labor and delivery, or operating rooms.

If hired into cover a critical care position, the research on environmental issues, ACLS certification is a job requirement and intro, many employers will provide the class during the papers on environmental, internship. However, to appear as a more desirable candidate, the graduate may become certified in ACLS prior to being hired. Other certifications are also available to an RN without experience, see Certifications in Nursing for more on this. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. This section is intended for electronic medical records (EMR) programs used during clinical hours, other computer software experience, and written, any medical equipment with which the graduate has had exposure.

Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and issues, Outlook, and day, Alaris IV pumps. Some optional sections include Honors and Awards, Achievements, Languages, Professional Memberships, and Volunteer Experiences, if applicable. Example of Nursing Graduate Resume. Now that we've discussed each piece of the nursing graduate resume, let's put it all together in this example resume using a simple format, 555 Main Street Seattle, WA 98052 • (555) 555-5555 • [emailprotected] Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse. Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse with ACLS and research papers on environmental issues, BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience.

Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care units. Excels in phonosynthesis multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and papers, Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Write Methodology Dissertation? Consistently demonstrates attention to research papers issues detail, compassion, and perseverance. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2015 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-­Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in animal Mock Code Blue and papers on environmental, received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of graduate cover, CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and papers on environmental, alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017.

Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps. While this is just an example the write, basic sections should be included on the resume but some may be added or changed to fit the stylistic approach the new graduate wishes to present. Cover letters, if the research papers, graduate chooses to submit one, are meant to be a one page summary of the graduate's intentions in seeking the position. Each cover letter should be customized to the individual facility and not use generic terms. For example, instead of writing, seeking a job in healthcare, the essay thesis, graduate should write, seeking a job at a fast-paced teaching hospital, or even, seeking a job at Brown University Hospital. A well-written Objective statement may take the place of on environmental, a cover letter for many facilities. Once the cover letter, resume is perfected and has been proofread, either by a professional resume assistant or a grammatically-gifted friend, it is ready for submission. The best method to find an RN job is to papers issues search online for in othello, a suitable position. The days of pounding the pavement by papers on environmental going door-to-door from one human resources office to another, are over.

Now the graduate can streamline the process by animal argumentative thesis simply applying online. Research On Environmental Issues? The only exception to this rule may be small non-hospital facilities. It's best for the graduate to find local facilities which he or she would love to work in and go down the list from there. Most graduates have an testing argumentative, idea of what area of issues, nursing they prefer from attending clinicals. For example, if you loved your clinical rotation in the busy intensive care unit at animal argumentative thesis, the large teaching hospital, apply there first then go down the desirables list until you've found a job. When searching hospital websites keywords to search for a new graduate registered nurse position include: Nurse Intern New Nurse Graduate Registered Nurse Intern Registered Nurse Graduate Critical Care Intern Medical-Surgical Intern Graduate Nurse RN Intern. Remember that when using hospital search engines less is more.

Simply searching, intern may list non-nursing positions along with nursing positions but having this broad scope to research issues read through is in othello, better than a scope which is too narrow and issues, missing a potential position. I Need A Research Paper Written? Starting with a narrow search term, such as Medical-Surgical Intern, then moving to broader terms, such as, intern, may produce good results. Large hospital chains, meaning one large company with many hospitals, will often allow for a user profile to on environmental issues be created and a resume and job application on file. Phonosynthesis Intro? This profile can be used for research papers on environmental, multiple positions. The most sought after new nurse graduate positions in hospitals include: medical-surgical orthopaedics oncology mom/baby emergency room intensive care unit operating room labor and delivery. The best ways to find non-hospital jobs is to search online, however, small facilities may not have up-to-date websites. Begin by searching for facilities in the area and checking out in othello, their websites. Apply online, if able, but if nothing is posted, call the research papers, facility to find out if any openings are available or drop by with a resume. With hospitals this usually won't work because the busy human resources departments rarely return phone calls of in othello, this sort and seldom accept resumes for positions which are not posted online. For the new graduate not seeking employment in research papers a hospital highly desired positions include:

skilled nursing facilities home health outpatient surgical centers physician's office aesthetics offices, such as laser hair removal or botox injections adult family homes. Like hospital positions for new graduate nurses non-hospital jobs will also require and provide training programs. Animal Argumentative Essay Thesis? Most nursing graduates have some experience in skilled nursing facilities and home health from clinical rotations. So if the new graduate is hired into these positions he or she will likely not need as much training as something totally new and different. Facilities should always be sure the graduate is papers on environmental, properly trained and safe before he or she is able to work alone. And if, after orientation and training is over, the graduate does not feel ready, do not be shy about saying so. While it's normal to feel nervous about starting as a new nurse the essays on honesty, graduate should understand whom to go to on environmental with questions and a research, have a basic understanding of how to work as a safe nurse in the chosen specialty. LinkedIn and research papers on environmental issues, Facebook are some popular sites to find nursing recruiters or job postings. Be sure to delete any questionable pictures or comments from your social media accounts. Facilities have been known to browse candidates before asking them to interview. Bring a Resume and Show up in animal testing Person.

This can work for big facilities with Human Resources departments but also for small facilities where the hiring manager may be available to meet. If the facility isn't hiring, don't be discouraged, simply leave a resume and fill out an research, application. A position may open up the following day! Keep in touch with fellow nursing students. All nursing graduates are going to looking for a new job and keeping in intro touch with them will let you know which facilities are hiring.

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Environment Issue Research Paper Topics - Paper Masters

Children’s Literature: the Bad Seed. Recently I began an address at Longfellow Hall, Harvard, by calling on the audience, most of research papers issues, whom were prospective teachers, to picket the English department. The teachers were trying to discover how to teach children’s literature, but they were getting no help at all from the English department in finding out what to teach. The English department at Harvard should be among those taking the intellectual leadership for the entire country in the study of the literature for the future generation. Yet it totally ignores the high school graduation day field of research papers, children’s literature—for children’s literature is not a genre but an entire field.

I am not alone in deploring the exclusion of essays on honesty in othello, children’s literature from the canon of most English departments. In the February, 1977 issue of ADE, A Journal for Administrators of Departments of English in research papers on environmental, American and Canadian Colleges and Universities, Professor Mary Agnes Taylor deplored the “outdated snobbery” of English departments which ignore the field. In an essay, “The Case for a Children’s Literature,” appearing in the journal, Children’s Literature, Clifton Fadiman noted that “literary historians leave out essay high school graduation day, children’s literature, as they might leave out the “literature” of pidgin-English”: The English novelist Geoffrey Trease offers a key example. On Environmental Issues. He refers to high school graduation day, “Legouis and Cazamian’s History of English Literature, in which no space is papers on environmental, found, in 1378 pages, for any discussion of children’s books and the only write Thomas Hughes mentioned is not the immortal author of Tom Brown’s Schooldays, but an on environmental obscure Elizabethan tragedian.” Further examples are legion. . Essay About High School Graduation. . C.Hugh Holman’s A Handbook to Literature (1972) is alert to inform us about weighty literary matters from abecedarius to zeugma, but not about children’s literature. In the on environmental same essay, Fadiman championed the validity of the on honesty field on the basis that it has a long tradition, many masterpieces, and that children’s literature is a medium nicely adapted to the development of certain genres such as fantasy to which mainstream media are less well suited. Why is research, it, then, that English departments generally sneer at children’s literature as “the literature with washable covers”? Through my experiences in i need paper written for me, teaching children’s literature for research 15 years in an English department, founding the initial seminar on children’s literature of the Modern Language Association, and establishing a journal in the field, I think I have confronted the major objections. I intend to mention them here and follow each objection with constructive suggestions. First, most children’s literature is regarded as shallow and essay high graduation day, silly, unworthy of issues, serious investigation. About School Day. Second, it is associated with women, who bear children and are close to research papers on environmental issues, them at home and in schools and libraries in intro, the early years.

Third, not only research papers scholars but other adults have subconscious resentment of those who will succeed them. Consequently, they minimize the importance of children’s literature. The first objection—that much of children’s literature is trash—is the easiest to animal testing, understand. Many children’s books are trash—but so are many books for adults. Papers On Environmental. I said “books” advisedly, because no real distinction is essay thesis, attempted yet between children’s literature of high seriousness and books that are trivial—at least, no such distinction is papers on environmental, attempted by animal argumentative thesis most scholars in English departments. Books like Alice-in-Wonderland, The Golden Key, The Wind in issues, the Willows, the Beatrix Potter books, and the more contemporary classics like A Wrinkle in Time, Charlotte’s Web, and Where the Wild Things Are are considered indiscriminately with such books as Mommy and Daddy are Divorced or Sometimes I Don’t Love My Mother, that is, books that are not literature but propagandistic treatises. Scholars of essay about high, English literature are understandably confused because they see these pedagogical books reviewed in popular and semi-popular journals as if they were literature. The first step, then, in gaining the respect of English departments for the field, is to differentiate between literature of quality for children and mere books. Only then can clear critical judgments be made. It might well be helpful to understand how this confusion between “literature” and “books” for children arose.

Actually, the problem was generated by on environmental issues the Calvinists, the paper merchant class, in research papers issues, the 17th century. Write Methodology Dissertation. Branching out research on environmental, from the stories, the ballads, and the plays which children and student letter, adults had heretofore enjoyed together, the Calvinists brought out pamphlets or chapbooks designed to keep young apprentices under control. Obviously, if apprentices stole or took time to smoke on the job, (see King James I, Counter-Blaste to Tobacco) the employer lost money. As a result, a number of books were published such as The marchants avizo (1589), The apprentices warning-piece (1641), and A Warning to young men (1680). The books must have been effective in controlling behavior, because at about the same time a large number of similar books were directed at research on environmental younger children, culminating in James Janeway’s A token for children (1671), an account of the agonizing deaths of 13 children. As an appendix to intro, Janeway’s famous work, Cotton Mather added accounts of seven children from New England, and this work was published in Boston in papers issues, 1700. (A unique copy is now in the Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts.) The publication of such books continued uninterrupted through the 17th and 18th centuries and essay about high day, led directly into research papers on environmental the Sunday School literature of the late 18th and 19th centuries. A Protestant businessman, Robert Raikes, began the Sunday School movement with the expressed purpose of write methodology, preventing millworkers’ children—the children “of the papers issues meaner sorte”— from vandalizing his ships, anchored at Gloucester, England. The children worked during the student cover letter week, and research, Sunday was their day off. Biographers of Raikes (W.

F. Lloyd, New York, 1891, J.Henry Harris, New York and Bristol, England, 1899, and Alfred Gregory, London, 1877), and other writers praise Raikes for beginning Sunday Schools, relate how the Sunday School movement spread to the United States through the support of the business community, and essays on honesty, sometimes regret the ingratitude of the little children of the sweat shops, who were paid a penny apiece to go to Sunday School and research papers issues, learn of the damnation that awaited them if they did not give their best work to their employers. The dividing line between the Joyful Death books of the phonosynthesis intro 17th century and papers issues, the Sunday School literature of the essays in othello 18th and on environmental, 19th centuries and the contemporary propagandistic books is almost imperceptible. The difference lies primarily in the focus: children had previously been threatened with hell if they did not behave in a certain way, and now they are promised success if they do behave in a certain way. A good example is The Queen Who Couldn’t Bake Ginger-bread. The sprightly illustrations by Paul Galdone lead one to expect a lovely fairy tale. On Honesty In Othello. Instead, one learns that it is all right to reverse sex roles: that though the Queen could not bake gingerbread, she could play the trumpet, and though the King could not play the trumpet, he could bake gingerbread. This kind of propaganda masquerading as literature has given the field a bad name. In 1968, Carmen Goldings, M. D. , a child psychiatrist at Harvard, wrote an papers on environmental issues article for essays in othello the Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (Vol.

VII, pp. 377—397) in which she castigated the heavy-handedness of much modern fiction for children. Research Issues. In the words of Narayan Kutty, a Hindu friend of mine, “It sits on the soul.” Of course, scholars in English should be perceptive enough to separate the wheat from the chaff, but, unfortunately, many of them are quite lazy. They already have a collection of books of criticism of adult literature which they can parrot to bored classes. Digging into starkly simple children’s literature and studying the theory behind it, the style, structure, and meaning, is a difficult thing when there are few helpful hints from previous critics. The simplicity of children’s literature stuns, leaves them speechless. Even with adult literature, simple things, like the Psalms, are difficult to teach. As a matter of fact, much of the best literature can be enjoyed by children and adults as well. But more time needs to be spent studying the reason for this—that literature which appeals to this dual audience rises to a higher sophistication in about graduation day, its absolute simplicity. Many “adult” novels are merely complicated spin-offs of children’s literature but with disturbing loose ends, unsatisfying resolutions.

Bruno Bettelheim quotes the poet, Louis MacNeice, as saying that “a fairy story at least of the classical variety is a much more solid affair than the average naturalistic novel, whose books go little deeper than a gossip column.” Only recently, with the work of psychologists at the Jung Institute, Zurich, and Freudian psychologists, including Bettelheim, has the tremendous depth and metaphorical meaning of folk tales been truly appreciated. These tales, which have hitherto been largely discarded as attic rubbish, in papers, Tolkien’s phrase, are beginning to be studied, but an enormous amount of work remains to be done. Essay Graduation Day. Those who have spent a lifetime studying them find that they are not only beautiful but that they feed the papers soul, instead of sitting on it. Write. Bruno Bettelheim has written on research on environmental, The Uses of Enchantment and high school day, James Hillman of the Jung Institute for 30 years, a depth psychologist in research papers, Zurich, prescribes folk tales to sick adults. He finds that adults are “adulterated” people, and, to restore them, one must “restory” them. Somehow it helps bring the jigsaw puzzles of their minds together. Folk tales, generally regarded as children’s literature, are not only on honesty satisfying but therapeutic. So much for the negative aspects of the field. On the positive side, there are good as well as bad books, just as in adult literature, and there is a tradition of at research issues least three hundred years—longer than that for the adult novel. Further, many famous writers of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries as well as of animal testing argumentative essay, our own times have shown a special interest in the world of the child.

Their interest might help to justify an interest in children’s literature which reflects that world. The many possible selections for a course in 17th-century children’s literature include ballads such as “Babes in papers on environmental, the Wood,” “Tom Thumbe,” “The Seven Champions of Christendom,” and “Robin Goodfellow.” In prose are Hugh Peters’ Milk for Babes, Benjamin Keach’s War with the Devil and various chapbooks, such as Robin Goodfellow. Then there are games in the oral tradition, such as “Ring a Ring o’ Roses,” while religious verse includes such books as John Bunyan’s A Book for Boys and Girls: or, Country Rhymes for Children, Isaac Watts’ Divine Songs for Children, and, in the Royalist tradition, a book of metaphysical poetry for children, entitled Apples of Gold in graduate, Pictures of Silver. (The Opies, in their Dictionary of research papers on environmental issues, Nursery Rhymes, list many children’s rhymes dating from the 17th century.) Then there are plays ranging from puppet shows to Milton’s Comus. Selections from Sir Roger L’Estrange’s two huge volumes of fables written especially for children are also to be found. Though written “only for childish eares,” as the introduction (1699) to written, L’Estrange specifically stated, a bowdlerized edition of these fables for adults was printed in Paris in the 1930’s, with Alexander Calder illustrations, and subsequently reprinted by Dover Press. It took 300 years, but adults are finally getting old enough to hear them, if the selections are carefully screened! The 18th century provides an papers on environmental issues equally rich course choice of texts ranging from the first school novel in English, Sara Fielding’s The Governess, to The History of Goody Two-Shoes (possibly by Goldsmith), Mother Goose’s Melody (nursery rhymes), Thomas Day’s The History of Sandford and Merton, Mary Ann Kilner’s The Adventures of a Pincushion, Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life, Maria Edgeworth’s The Parent’s Assistant, William Roscoe’s (still reprinted) The Butterfly’s Ball, and Samuel Johnson’s children’s story, “The Fountain.” In the 19th century we have Charles and essay about, Mary Lamb’s Mrs. On Environmental. Leicester’s School, Captain Marryat’s Masterman Ready, John Ruskin’s King of the Golden River, George MacDonald’s wonderful tales such as The Golden Key (a contemporary edition has an Afterword by W. H. Auden), The Light Princess, At the Back of the North Wind, and so on. Animal Argumentative. Then there is Lewis Carroll’s Alice-in-Wonderland, Charles Dickens’ Magic Fishbone, William Makepeace Thackeray’s Rose and the Ring, Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women, Thomas Hughes’ Tom Brown’s School Days, Charles Kingsley’s Water Babies, Mason Weems’ The Life of Washington the Great (particularly his fifth revised edition), Jacob Abbott’s The Franconia Stories (first important work of fiction for American children), Thomas Bailey Aldrich’s Story of a Bad Boy, Oscar Wilde’s The Happy Prince and Other Tales, and Eleanor Gates’ Poor Little Rich Girl, with its interesting uses of language.

These are pointed out in the Garland introduction by Marcella Spann, who co-authored with Ezra Pound From Confucius to Cummings (New Directions). Poetry includes Edward Lear’s limericks, Christina Rossetti’s Sing-Song, and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Child’s Garden of Verses. Papers On Environmental Issues. These are only suggestions. The list is formidable. To the 20th century belong Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows, Beatrix Potter’s books, A.A.Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh, Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Books (actually 1894 and i need paper written for me, 1895), C.S.Lewis’s Narnia series, P.L.Travers’ Mary Poppins, J. R. R. Tokien’s The Hobbit, E. B. White’s Charlotte’s Web, Ludwig Bemelman’s Madeline, as well as books for children by research papers on environmental issues Walter de la Mare, such as Three Royal Monkeys, and by lonesco, Barthelme, and other well known writers. Not even included are classics not in English such as the 17th-century Contes de ma Mere l’Oye by Charles Perrault and the volumes of fairy tales of essays in othello, Madame d’Aulnoy and Madame de Beaumont, as well as Madame de Villeneuve’s “Beauty and the Beast,” in her Cabinet des Fees (1785—89). From Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen’s tales could constitute a course in on environmental, themselves. And from Germany, of on honesty in othello, course, there are the pervasively influential tales collected by the Brothers Grimm.

As Graham Greene said, “Only in childhood do books make any deep impression on the human personality.” If this is so, then it would seem that the books children hear and read are worth study as literature. Recently, scholars in history have discovered that children’s books afford a special insight into the mores of a given period. Writers tend to write in a relaxed way and in conveying information to children convey information about papers issues, themselves. I have not even touched the essay about high school depth and research, breadth of the literature to be enjoyed and studied seriously. There could be courses—and there already are a very few—on fantasy, poetry, and fiction, as literature worthy of study as literature, not to mention the possibility of historical and social studies. So much for the first reason why children’s literature is not respected by English departments—that it is too simple. The second objection to the field is implied rather than voiced, and dj irene phonosynthesis, not so much time need be given to considering the objection because the papers on environmental issues feminist movement has already provided the refutations. Most professors in English departments are men, and they are unreceptive to high school day, children’s literature as a scholarly subject because they are unreceptive to women as scholars. Women and on environmental issues, children go together in argumentative essay, their minds. My own experience is a case in point.

So far as I can determine, I am the first woman to come up through the ranks to full professor in the large English department at on environmental the University of Connecticut since the school was established in 1881. In 1965, or just before the feminist movement became strong, I was flatly told at the University of Connecticut that if I wanted work, I would have to essay graduation day, discard my years of papers, study in the Renaissance, forget my publications, and teach children’s literature, as the legislature required a course, and the men refused to dj irene, teach it. The hostility to the field has abated somewhat because of its great popularity with students and research papers, the large enrollment it consequently commands at graduate cover letter a time when English departments need students. But, in spite of a supportive chairman, the research on environmental course has not yet been accepted truly on the undergraduate or graduate level. I have taught a graduate course in the field for several years; and though there is a great need to stimulate graduate enrollment, most of the men have long refused to methodology dissertation, circulate a pamphlet indicating that if students take the traditional courses, they can, with the research issues approval of their topic by the graduate committee, write their dissertations in the field of children’s literature. They give various reasons for phonosynthesis intro their attitude, but the fact remains that they are quite willing to accept such dissertations sub rosa, but they do not want to acknowledge it publicly, even though many schools, including Harvard, are now accepting dissertations in English departments in the field of children’s literature. Harvard recently approved a dissertation on Kipling’s children’s stories—a real breakthrough, because, as Clifton Fadiman has noted, a history of English literature can discuss the whole of research papers on environmental issues, Kipling’s works without noting that he was primarily a children’s writer.

The men in the department are willing to advertise their medieval offerings, even though much medieval literature is essentially literature for children and adults, as some medievalist freely acknowledge. Curiously, in argumentative essay, spite of the attitude of most male scholars toward the field, a number of the best male scholars have shown an interest in it. Oxford University furnishes the best example. John Ruskin, who taught architecture there, wrote a classic in research issues, the field of children’s literature. Lewis Carroll, who taught mathematics there, wrote Alice, perhaps the argumentative essay thesis greatest children’s book.

C. S. Lewis, professor of religious philosophy there, wrote a whole series of books for papers issues children and said that “a children’s story is the best art form for something you have to say.” W.H.Auden, who taught poetry at Oxford, wrote criticism of children’s books. And J. R. R. Tolkien, professor of animal argumentative essay thesis, Anglo-Saxon there, wrote, among other books, children’s stories. But these people were artists and not professors of English literature. On Environmental Issues. Because of their expansive imaginations, they may not have had the academic strictures against the field which inhibit less creative minds. The third reason why children’s literature is generally excluded from English Departments has to do with the emotional and psychological makeup of all adults, including scholars.

In the April, 1978 Harper’s, the editor, Lewis Lapham wrote: (Children) remind their parents of too much that is write, unpleasant—of death, time, loss and failure—and so they come to be seen as unwelcome messengers bringing bad news to the prince. He relates this attitude to papers on environmental, literature, in discussing the attitude of well-meaning friends: How is animal testing argumentative thesis, it possible, they say, that I should choose to read stories to my children when I might have the chance to see Norman Mailer throw a drink at Gore Vidal? The secret hatred and papers issues, fear of dj irene phonosynthesis, children on the part of adults is reflected in such popular movies as It’s Alive, The Bad Seed, The Exorcist, and so on, and authorities on psychohistory have related the practice of child abuse in many cases to adult envy and fear of children. Oedipus knew all about it—his father pierced his feet and gave him to shepherds to expose on papers on environmental, a mountain. Folk tales are full of it and are metaphorical representations of i need a research written, a continuing psychic condition. In the Brothers Grimm tale of “The Juniper Tree,” an envious stepmother shuts her stepson’s head in a chest, breaking his neck.

I recall a similar case in Paris in 1939 when a man, envious of his girlfriend’s little boy, stuck the child’s head in a door and then slammed the door, breaking the boy’s neck. Research Papers Issues. The man was convicted of murder. My husband, Jerome Butler, a newspaper-man for the New York Herald Tribune in Paris, covered the phonosynthesis intro guillotining. By failing to research papers on environmental issues, study or teach children’s literature in a serious way, scholars can do the future generation considerable harm. About Graduation Day. They leave the field wide open to ignorant critics and research papers, pseudo-experts who give bad advice which is passed on to parents and teachers and ultimately affects the psyche of children. Here is an example: In 1977 a book was published entitled, How Can Children’s Literature Meet the Needs of essay about high school graduation day, Modern Children: Fairy Tale and Poetry Today. It contained papers presented at research issues the 15th Congress of the International Board on Books for Young People, held at the Pandios School of Political and Economical Studies in Athens, Sept.

28 to Oct. 2, 1976. Some of the papers were very, very good, such as that by Walter Scherf on Magic Tales and the richly informative article by Virginia Haviland on Fairy Tales and Creativity. But unfortunately some of the i need a research essays were horrid. One in particular is the prototype of research, bad criticism. The essay, “The Poetry of write methodology dissertation, Early Childhood,” written by research on environmental Mary Jane Anderson, Executive Secretary of the Children’s Services Division of the American Library Association, illustrates the uninformed nature of much criticism of children’s books and the urgent need for scholars with a knowledge of literature to enter the field. The ALA official began by commenting that an acquaintance told her of his plans to animal testing argumentative thesis, raise his children on Shakespeare. “No Mother Goose rhymes for them, said he.” I assumed that she was going on to observe that there are a number of the rhymes now known as Mother Goose rhymes in research issues, Shakespeare, but instead of that she urged the banishing of most nursery rhymes as not “relevant” to “today’s” child. Miss Anderson was obviously unaware that Shakespeare, the supreme psychologist, uses several such rhymes in Lear. Essays On Honesty. Towards the end of research papers on environmental issues, Act III, when the whole world is tilting over for Lear, Edgar as Mad Tom, who is not mad at all but who has come out of the phonosynthesis heath to help Lear, repeats a variant of the rhyme, “There was an old woman / Lived under a hill / If she’s not gone / She lives there still. Papers On Environmental. . . .”—a rhyme that expresses the tragic indifference to old age.

The rhyme is “Pillicock sat on Pillicock-hill / Halloo, halloo, loo, loo.” After the rhyme about the lonely Pillicock, Mad Tom ends the scene with “Fie, fob, and fum, /I smell the blood of a British man.” In scene vi, Tom confronts Lear with: “Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? / Thy sheep be in graduate, the corn; / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm.” What Tom is saying to Lear is, Leonard Mendelsohn of research papers on environmental issues, Concordia University, Montreal believes, “Yes, the essay school day world— and the rhyme—are full of confusion, but there is an papers overall meaning. If nothing more, the structure of the rhyme itself holds the world together.” Anyone who knows anything about prosody will see on the most cursory scansion that the rhymes are not doggerel, but a varied and subtle mixture of essays on honesty, dactyls, anapests, spondees, iambs, and so on. For this reason, the essayist’s assertion is astonishing that “while some of the rhymes have rhythm, Mother Goose rhymes are, for the most part, simply rhymes: They do not, on the whole, have what fine poetry has, the papers on environmental power to make the write dissertation hearer “catch his breath in fear, gasp in wonder, smile with delight, or sit back and think.” Mother Goose rhymes are primarily jingles (Jump rope-type rhymes), narrative in research papers on environmental, form, appealing to some extent, therefore, for the simple story they convey simple rhythm. This fallacious assertion overlooks the fact that Mother Goose rhymes cling to the human memory long after other poetry or any other “simple story” is forgotten.

The mention of jump-rope rhymes touched a sensitive spot in my experience, for I have spent more than 30 years delving into the depths of these supposedly simply rhymes and have by no means completed my study. At the a research same time, I can remember when I had her attitude of contempt toward these rhymes and even denied that I was collecting them for myself because they fascinated me, but rather pretended I was collecting them for research my daughter—a dodge not new among adults. In the 17th century, Charles Perrault pretended it was his son who was collecting the Tales of a research paper written, Mother Goose. Ms. Anderson asked, “But of research papers issues, what relevance to today’s young child is “Mary had a little lamb”?

In the United States today’s Mary does not have a lamb, unless perhaps she lives on a farm.” She has apparently not observed the wooly lamb stuffed toys, the lamb-shaped cakes with cocoanut fur, or remembered the lessons many children are still taught about the lamb, stories drawn from the Old and New Testaments. After a comment about essays on honesty, not being able to take a lamb on a school bus, this literal-minded lady proceeded to research, attack other rhymes. Possibly the best comment on this kind of inanity is another quotation from the essayist herself: Do parents today really want to read to their children the rhyme that begins “Hark, hark the dogs do bark, the beggars are coming to town. . Write Methodology Dissertation. .”? Most parents, I think, would feel uncomfortable in transmitting that attitude toward poverty to their children. And then there is “the old man who wouldn’t say his prayers” who, at the rhyme’s end, is “kicked down the stairs.” The punishment does not fit the crime in today’s society, and papers, even if it did, should by its nature be repulsive. The beggars of the first rhyme still are arriving in Washington, D. C. by the hundreds, some of them in velvet gowns, and paper written, the children might as well know it.

And the old man in the second rhyme is kicked upstairs again in research papers on environmental, a topsy-turvy way in which Kornei Chukovsky would delight. She did suggest substitute rhymes for “today’s child” (as distinguished, no doubt, from yesterday’s child and phonosynthesis intro, the day-before-yesterday’s child). In so doing, however, she departed in some instances from the criteria she has listed for rhymes, including making the papers hearer catch his breath in fear or sit back and think. Here is one of write methodology dissertation, her suggestions—Laura Richard’s “The Baby Goes to Boston,” written originally in 1902, which is, at least, “today’s” century. What does the train say? Jiggle joggle, jiggle joggle!

What does the on environmental train say? Jiggle joggle jee! Will the little baby go. Riding with the locomo? Loky moky poky stoky. Smoky Choky chee! In my opinion, even fewer babies know about locomos than lambs, and there are too many critics like this in the field of children’s literature.

But at least the volume of criticism is increasing. People are taking more interest in the field. I Need A Research Paper. Even Harvard, which won’t permit a course in the subject to research issues, be taught in dj irene phonosynthesis, the English department, has nevertheless yielded a little to research on environmental issues, the current interest, and a volume of literary appreciation of animal argumentative thesis, Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E. B. White by the eminent critic, Roger Sale, has recently been published. Jonathan Cott, author of research issues, Beyond the Looking Glass and i need paper for me, of several articles on research, children’s literature which have appeared, in testing essay thesis, of all places— The Rolling Stone — has received a Guggenheim grant to do more work in the field. His interest is forward looking. He sees the great subtlety of the field and the limitless possibilities for developing it. “Critics of children’s literature,” he told me, “now have a kind of trembling innocence.

They are toddling bravely into a field which is frightening because it has not yet been carefully explored.” Those of us interested in children’s literature are toddling into it together. Hopefully, we will make the terrain more familiar to the next round of critics—and children, too. You have read 1 of 10 free articles in the past 30 days. Get unlimited access. By Siva Vaidhyanathan.

By Amanda Petrusich. By Ryan Bradley. Copyright 2017 The Virginia Quarterly Review. All rights reserved.