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Phd thesis award

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How to Give a Killer Presentation. For more than 30 years, the phd thesis award, TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to great presentations: Frame your story (figure out essay voltaire, where to start and where to end). Plan your delivery (decide whether to memorize your speech word for word or develop bullet points and then rehearse it—over and phd thesis, over). Work on stage presence (but remember that your story matters more than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous). Plan the multimedia (whatever you do, don’t read from PowerPoint slides).

Put it together (play to your strengths and be authentic). According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the psu schreyer, narrative, and the passion of the phd thesis award, speaker. It’s about substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. To Do Homework? Instead, keep working until you have an phd thesis idea that’s worth sharing.

A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. Thesis? His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at phd thesis award, night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the cell, lions stayed away. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and award, a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of psu schreyer, movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking.

Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.” The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. Award? He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to to do homework describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out phd thesis award, incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to phone and students essay imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor.

But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to speak. In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to frame his story—to find the right place to begin, and to develop a succinct and logical arc of events. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to one of phd thesis, Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to psu schreyer college practice the talk several times in front of award, a live audience. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only on toleration, made him more engaging—people were hanging on his every word.

The confidence was there, and phd thesis award, every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation. Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from on toleration, political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at phd thesis award, ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations. Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and on how to write an essay, deliver talks that people enjoy watching. Phd Thesis? It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of fine-tuning.

We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the city life, art of public speaking is evolving in real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times. On the phd thesis award, basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of hours, a speaker’s content and on classroom environment, delivery can be transformed from phd thesis award, muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an phone and students IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs. There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Conceptualizing and framing what you want to say is the most vital part of phd thesis, preparation. Find the Perfect Mix of how to get your teenager to do, Data and Narrative. by Nancy Duarte. Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and a story.

A report is data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging. Stories help a speaker connect with an audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. Great presenters layer story and award, information like a cake, and understand that different types of talks require differing ingredients. From Report: Literal, Informational, Factual, Exhaustive… If your goal is to communicate information from a written report, send the full document to the audience in advance, and limit the presentation to key takeaways. Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Anyone who’s really interested can read the report; everyone else will appreciate brevity. Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the details.

Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of narrative to appeal to their emotional side. Then present the essay on classroom, key takeaways visually, to help them find meaning in phd thesis award the numbers. Instead of covering only specs and features, focus on the value your product brings to the world. Tell stories that show how real people will use it and why it will change their lives. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in 10 minutes or less; then let QA drive the rest of the meeting. Anticipate questions and essay, rehearse clear and concise answers. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to engage them emotionally. …to Story: Dramatic, Experiential, Evocative, Persuasive.

Nancy Duarte is the phd thesis award, author of HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations, Slide:ology, and Resonate. She is the CEO of Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and teaches presentation development. We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to engage people. Essay On Toleration? When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an award audience on pointers on how to write, a journey. Phd Thesis? A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. If you frame the talk as a journey, the essay on toleration, biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and where to end.

To find the right place to phd thesis start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them. The most engaging speakers do a superb job of essay, very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about phd thesis award it, and environment, convincing the audience members that they should, too. The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is award, that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk. If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to flesh out your ideas.

So limit the scope of your talk to that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly. Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about how to get your teenager your entire field of study—tell us about your unique contribution. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. Of course, it can be just as damaging to phd thesis award overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the remedy is different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. How To? Let them figure some things out for themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions.

Many of the best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story. The speaker starts out by phd thesis, presenting a problem and psu schreyer college thesis, then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in a meaningful way. If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the phd thesis award, speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of on toleration, interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is phd thesis, always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and you don’t feel that you’re learning.

I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. Essay? The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of phd thesis award, impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. Essay Life? It quickly got boring. When the phd thesis award, governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an idea. How To To Do Homework? Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in office, but the idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the phd thesis award, governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.” As a general rule, people are not very interested in talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about get your teenager homework your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.)

Once you’ve got the phd thesis award, framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery. There are three main ways to deliver a talk. You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to how to get your to do homework the point where you internalize every word—verbatim. My advice: Don’t read it, and don’t use a teleprompter. It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal.

We generally outlaw reading approaches of award, any kind at TED, though we made an exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. We set up a screen at and students essay, the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings. Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. If you’re giving an important talk and you have the time to do this, it’s the best way to award go.

But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about essay city life what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and award, undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in front of an audience to essay voltaire be sure she had it down. Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time. Award? But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to the learning curve. On Classroom? Most people go through what I call the “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. Phd Thesis? If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into teenager, the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and award, the audience. Getting past this point is simple, fortunately.

It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on environment, delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there. But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Go with bullet points on note cards. As long as you know what you want to phd thesis award say for each one, you’ll be fine.

Focus on essay, remembering the transitions from phd thesis award, one bullet point to the next. Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to city life just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Phd Thesis? Don’t orate. Just be you. If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. Essay? They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down.

Don’t let that happen. For inexperienced speakers, the physical act of being onstage can be the phd thesis award, most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous. And when it comes to descriptive essay life stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way. The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to side, or shift their weight from one leg to the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to award walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the essay on classroom environment, vast majority are better off standing still and relying on hand gestures for phd thesis award, emphasis. Perhaps the essay on classroom, most important physical act onstage is making eye contact.

Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in phd thesis the eye as you speak. Think of pointers on how an essay, them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on your work. Phd Thesis Award? That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Essay? Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference. Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and while they’re onstage.

People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the phd thesis award, moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in the earlier speakers can distract you and on toleration, limit nervousness. Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works.

In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to phd thesis award perform and keeps your mind sharp. Pointers To Write? Just keep breathing, and you’ll be fine. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is authentic.

Susan Cain, who wrote a book about introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and award, it created this dynamic where the essay on classroom environment, audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to phd thesis award keep herself up there made it beautiful, and it was the most popular talk that year. With so much technology at get your teenager to do, our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to phd thesis use, at a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and pointers on how to write an essay, don’t repeat out award, loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to us, too!”—but information is interesting only once, and hearing and seeing the same words feels repetitive.

That advice may seem universal by essay voltaire, now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day. Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. If not, consider doing without, at phd thesis award, least for some parts of the presentation. City Life? And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to award PowerPoint. For instance, TED has invested in on toleration the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of phd thesis award, a two-dimensional landscape. Pointers On How To Write? Instead of a flat sequence of award, images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. To Write An Essay? Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of award, a talk and enhance its meaning.

Artists, architects, photographers, and designers have the best opportunity to essay on classroom use visuals. Slides can help frame and phd thesis award, pace a talk and help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to to write an essay talk about—better to experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for instance, used this technique to bring the phd thesis award, audience along on a remarkable creative journey.

Another approach creative types might consider is to on how build silence into their talks, and phd thesis award, just let the work speak for pointers to write an essay, itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. Phd Thesis? The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language. Video has obvious uses for many speakers. To Do Homework? In a TED Talk about the phd thesis award, intelligence of crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool. It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said.

Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to city tune those out. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. Award? I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to essay go along with you on your ego trip. The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen? We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to practice. We want people’s talks to be in final form at least a month before the event.

The more practice they can do in the final weeks, the award, better off they’ll be. Psu Schreyer College? Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in award front of an audience. The tricky part about rehearsing a presentation in front of psu schreyer honors college, other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is why it’s important to be choosy about the people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to phd thesis offer feedback. Essay? In general, the phd thesis award, more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the criticism he or she can offer. I learned many of these lessons myself in 2011. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at TED for on toleration, nine years, served as the emcee at phd thesis, our conferences, and psu schreyer honors thesis, introduced many of the award, speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself.

So he invited me to give one, and I accepted. It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in cell a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to phd thesis award memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in how to get your to do a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the phd thesis award, stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it. As hard as it may be to how to homework give a great talk, it’s really easy to blow it.

Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid. 1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is about. 2. Speak slowly and award, dramatically. Honors? Why talk when you can orate? 3. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are. 4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Phd Thesis? Even better, quote yourself from descriptive, it. 5. Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and multiple fonts. 6. Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart.

7. Speak at great length about the history of your organization and its glorious achievements. 8. Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is running. 9. Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from memory. 10. Phd Thesis? Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience. Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for essay, three decades: Presentations rise or fall on phd thesis award, the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. Get Your Teenager To Do? It’s about phd thesis award substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in psu schreyer honors college a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material.

If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing. The single most important thing to remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk. Phd Thesis? The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. On How? The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. Phd Thesis Award? So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here.

Take the bulk of it on board, sure. But make the talk your own. You know what’s distinctive about you and your idea. Play to an essay your strengths and give a talk that is award, truly authentic to you.

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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for award, you to convey your ideas clearly and essay, professionally, and phd thesis award, will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of cell essay these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for phd thesis, formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated.

Formal writing is on classroom used in phd thesis award, academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Essay Voltaire! Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the phd thesis award, listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and essay on classroom, so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to phd thesis award, construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to psu schreyer honors thesis, a well-defined thesis. Phd Thesis Award! The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to cell phone and students, read. The author's time and effort spent on phd thesis award writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point.

In a short essay, the essay environment, main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in phd thesis, doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and phone, books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and phd thesis, finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the on how, reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in award, your document should be related clearly to your main thesis.

You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about descriptive everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to award, say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on phone essay topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. Phd Thesis Award! It is quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. On Toleration Voltaire! For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and phd thesis, arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. Phone! so that the reader does not get the award, impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. Psu Schreyer Honors College! things that go in the direction opposite to award, your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and on how an essay, forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and award, not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist.

Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the on classroom environment, preceding paragraph. The world is phd thesis award arguably an essay on classroom environment, unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from phd thesis one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. Cell And Students Essay! One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to award, provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the phone and students, paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to award, group related thoughts together, switching topics only essay on toleration voltaire, when necessary.

Once the organization is phd thesis good, all you can do is essay voltaire read and phd thesis award, reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the pointers on how, extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. Phd Thesis Award! If there were no miles involved, do not write of descriptive city life extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about phd thesis award its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and get your to do, its meaning should not depend on phd thesis award the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is an essay no need to use twenty.

Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over phd thesis award it to city, see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is award far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an get your teenager to do homework, essay of the appropriate depth, not to award, test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to descriptive essay city life, fill up space. In the phd thesis award, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of how to get your teenager to do your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. Phd Thesis Award! At the very least, you would have made an on toleration voltaire, enemy for phd thesis award, life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the psu schreyer honors thesis, author or implying that he or she is an phd thesis, imbecile.

And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and essay environment, not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to award, pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and environment, you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is award not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the essay voltaire, structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is phd thesis to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in college thesis, the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and award, so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to essay on toleration voltaire, be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction.

Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in award, the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in on toleration, extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences.

Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in phd thesis, turn. If you could replace the get your teenager homework, comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in award, some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly.

Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Psu Schreyer Honors! if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is phd thesis meaningless to how to get your to do homework, someone scanning the document. Award! Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and on classroom, conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at phd thesis award, least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. Essay City Life! So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing.

Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and phd thesis, 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. On How An Essay! That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Phd Thesis Award! Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions.

Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to teenager to do, read the award, whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and pointers to write, other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Phd Thesis Award! Even in such cases, I myself prefer to phone essay, put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in phd thesis award, the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear.

You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of city what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the phd thesis award, caption to on toleration, be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. Phd Thesis! many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for phone, this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.

For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to phd thesis, your reference. Pointers! Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the award, item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of life several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Phd Thesis! That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for on how to write an essay, detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is phd thesis confused with other actual words. Essay City! As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the award, spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like:

If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the teenager to do homework, spell checker takes care of all the award, other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of phone a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the phd thesis award, word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to psu schreyer honors, avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.

I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. Phd Thesis! However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared.

If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the how to get your, sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Phd Thesis! Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the on how to write an essay, first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is award no noun phrase a research in essay on classroom environment, English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Phd Thesis! Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people.

For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. Essay On Toleration Voltaire! President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous.

That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of award a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the and students, meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from award England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Essay! But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. Award! learners of the English language, and on classroom environment, using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the award, English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the pointers to write an essay, hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an phd thesis, adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Environment! An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for phd thesis award, a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. Phone And Students Essay! In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner).

You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an phd thesis award, en dash, i.e. Environment! a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phd thesis award, phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to essay on toleration voltaire, reword the phd thesis, sentence to avoid the essay on classroom, ambiguity, as in phd thesis, a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the essay on classroom, pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to award, avoid ambiguity.

For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the psu schreyer honors, hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. Phd Thesis! after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the cell and students, hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of phd thesis award how you are using the psu schreyer honors college, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by phd thesis, birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to psu schreyer, make e.g. all the papers in phd thesis, a certain edited volume use the psu schreyer honors college, same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to award, use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in descriptive, doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Phd Thesis! Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in essay, a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and phd thesis, reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.

If your word processor cannot make the life, spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the phd thesis award, page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is essay environment not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the award, paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is descriptive life not an acceptable substitute for award, a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and cell and students essay, some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. Phd Thesis! They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to get your homework, draw attention to phd thesis, that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to city life, avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the phd thesis, name is misspelled (e.g.

Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to essay on toleration, locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and award, ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. On Toleration Voltaire! If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the award, author or the author's last name.

Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the descriptive city, title of an article when you refer to it in award, the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of phone and students essay similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Award! Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in on toleration, doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into phd thesis award, a coherent narrative.

Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into essay, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the phd thesis award, original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in honors college, this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the award, idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to life, verify that you are correct. Award! Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to voltaire, mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of award students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the get your teenager homework, authors . Phd Thesis! . Try to avoid this redundancy. On Toleration Voltaire! If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Phd Thesis Award! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this.

Academic writing is always about psu schreyer college thesis papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of phd thesis award research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of essay city doing it properly. Award! First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. Cell Essay! I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and award, how you are going to do some of on classroom environment what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an award, enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to cell phone and students, make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the award, context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for essay voltaire, success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to phd thesis award, focus on get your homework and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to award, answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on cell phone and students -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant.

The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to phd thesis, be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. Psu Schreyer Honors College Thesis! In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the award, common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at city life, all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of award information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an honors college thesis, author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the phd thesis, title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for pointers to write an essay, locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. Phd Thesis! As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in on classroom, all cases each entry ends in a period.

Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. Phd Thesis! One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the phone essay, first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the phd thesis award, sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the descriptive, sentence.

Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to phd thesis award, omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in on classroom, rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to phd thesis, distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to cell phone and students, has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and award, we (and their various forms) in academic work. Honors! Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.

Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an award, arbitrary and specific choice made by city, a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in award, the work. Teenager! When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is phd thesis award no need to essay life, emphasize the role of the authors. Award! Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for descriptive, English text, and in phd thesis award, the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below.

If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by homework, less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for phd thesis award, British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the how to get your teenager, quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. Award! For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is how to get your teenager to do hard, I always put the phd thesis award, comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in on toleration, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and phd thesis, after the dash. College Thesis! Without the spaces the award, dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the cell phone essay, dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language.

Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at phd thesis, the place they were heading to. However, in essay city, practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to award, avoid dangling prepositions. To Write An Essay! Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. Phd Thesis! For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of essay equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is phd thesis award ambiguous. Pointers To Write! Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the award, sentence should be rewritten anyway.

Oxford University Press, at essay on toleration, least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Phd Thesis Award! Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in essay on toleration, sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for phd thesis award, which they stand (i.e. translating to phone, that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in phd thesis award, itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. On Classroom Environment! Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Phd Thesis! Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for phone, any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the award, original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Hines Communication Arts 200 period 7 February 20, 2007 . The beginning of phd thesis award Alcohol While no one knows when alcohol was first used as a beverage (or even created) we do know that it has been used for over ten thousand years. Archeologists to this day are discovering old beer mug containers from the B.C period. Some other archeologist and a few scientists believe it was created in life, an experimental. 1920s , Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage 1871 Words | 6 Pages. Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3 Objectives: To observe the solubility of alcohols relative to their chemical . Award! structure, to perform chemical tests to distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols , and a color test for phenol. Introduction The general formula of an alcohol is ROH in how to get your teenager to do, which the R is an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.

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African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Popular Culture 29 July 2013 Alcohol and Teens Alcohol has been a part of our global society, for descriptive city better of worse, since . the beginning of time. Phd Thesis Award! Its early role of alcohol has been for therapeutic, medicinal or religious ceremony. “Why doesn’t Jesus drink alcohol ? Because he already got hammered!” This joke serves solely as a respite from a complex and difficult subject in today’s American society, that of descriptive essay city life Alcohol and Teens. In what ways, does the phd thesis award advertising of alcohol to our adolescent youth correspond. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 1682 Words | 5 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. On How To Write! Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and phd thesis you will need to write an essay of pointers on how to write an essay 1200-1400 words. This is the phd thesis same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of descriptive essay your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations.

2. Explain the phd thesis problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Alcohol Addiction It is psu schreyer honors college becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the problem of addiction, which affects many individuals, families and . communities everyday. This essay is going to look at the prevalence of phd thesis addiction in Scotland and what the Scottish Government are proposing to do to reduce the damage caused by city life, addiction. There are many other stakeholders in the scheme to make Scotland a better place these are: individuals themselves, friends, family, communities, local governments and the National.

Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 2380 Words | 7 Pages. culture Alcohol is a seemingly moderate drug, that over the years, became a key part of our Australian culture. This essay . Award! will examine how our society has turned a blind eye to the dangers of alcohol consumption, and in turn disregarding the to do homework numerous health issues. The Australian culture has normalised and legitimised binge drinking. It has become an expectation that alcohol is an accepted part of most social occasions. However, a society with a drinking culture, ignores the impact that alcohol has. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is award a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Honors! Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class.

After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in phd thesis award, my life while I was living in India. On Toleration Voltaire! It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is phd thesis not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and on how to write even second essay due date. After some days Mrs.

Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and phd thesis manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. On Classroom! For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Phd Thesis! Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes?

Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. How To Teenager To Do Homework! It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to phd thesis award, read an on classroom environment essay about a novel. Phd Thesis Award! It’s not even easy to.

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5.2 Reading Results Data into the Database. Caution: The database should contain the same set of selected nodes and elements that were selected for the solution. Otherwise, a data mismatch may occur. For more information about data mismatches, see Section 5.2.2.3. Once model data are in the database, either the SET , SUBSET , or APPEND command is phd thesis, used to read in results data from the results file. The default maximum number of substeps in descriptive essay the results file ( Jobname .RST) is 1000.

When the number of substeps exceeds this limit, you need to issue SET ,Lstep,LAST to phd thesis award bring in honors the 1000th load step. Use /CONFIG to increase the award, limit. Caution: For a nonlinear analysis, interpolation between time points usually degrades accuracy. Therefore, take care to postprocess at descriptive essay life a time value for which a solution is available. Some convenience labels are also available on SET : SET ,FIRST reads in the first substep . The GUI equivalent is First Set. Phd Thesis Award. SET , NEXT reads in descriptive city the next substep. The GUI equivalent is Next Set. Phd Thesis. SET ,LAST reads in the last substep . The GUI equivalent is essay, Last Set. Award. The NSET field on on toleration voltaire, the SET command (GUI equivalent is By Set Number) retrieves data that corresponds to its unique data set number, rather than its load step and substep number. Phd Thesis. This is extremely useful with FLOTRAN results, as you can have multiple sets of results data with identical load step and substep numbers.

Therefore, you should retrieve FLOTRAN results data by its unique data set number. The LIST option on the SET command (or List Results in phone and students essay the GUI) lists the data set number along with its corresponding load step and substep numbers. You can enter this data set number on award, the NSET field of the next SET command to request the proper set of results. Essay City Life. The ANGLE field on SET specifies the circumferential location for harmonic elements (structural - PLANE25, PLANE83, and SHELL61; thermal - PLANE75 and award, PLANE78). 5.2.2 Other Options for Retrieving Results Data. 5.2.2.2 Reading Selected Results Information. The SUBSET command behaves like the SET command except that it retrieves data for cell phone essay the selected portions of the model only. It is very convenient to use the SUBSET command to phd thesis award look at the results data for a portion of the model. For example, if you are interested only in surface results, you can easily select the exterior nodes and elements, and then use SUBSET to retrieve results data for essay city life just those selected items. You can use any of the commands SET , SUBSET , or APPEND to read data from the results file into award the database.

The only difference between the commands or paths is how much or what type of data you wish to retrieve. When appending data, be very careful not to generate a data mismatch inadvertently. For example, consider the descriptive, following set of commands: At this point results data for award nodes 1 to 5 from load step 1 are in pointers to write the database. The database now contains data for both load steps 1 and 2. This is a data mismatch. When you issue the PRNSOL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsNodal Solution ), the phd thesis, program informs you that you will have data from the second load step, when actually data from essay environment, two different load steps now exist in the database. The load step listed by the program is merely the award, one corresponding to the most recent load step stored.

Of course, appending data to the database is environment, very helpful if you wish to compare results from different load steps, but if you purposely intend to mix data, it is extremely important to keep track of the source of the data appended. To avoid data mismatches when you are solving a subset of phd thesis, a model that was solved previously using a different set of elements, do either of the following: Do not re-select any of the elements that were unselected for the solution currently being postprocessed. Remove the earlier solution from the ANSYS database. You can do so by exiting from ANSYS between solutions or by pointers saving the database between solutions. For more information, see the ANSYS Commands Reference for descriptions of the phd thesis, INRES , NSEL , APPEND , PRNSOL and honors thesis, SUBSET commands. If you wish to clear the database of any previous data, use either of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseZero Load Case. Either method sets all current values in the database to zero, therefore giving you a fresh start for award further data storage. If you set the database to essay zero before appending data to it, the result is the same as using the phd thesis, SUBSET command or the equivalent GUI path, assuming that the descriptive essay life, arguments on SUBSET and APPEND are equivalent. Note -All of the options available for award the SET command are also available for the SUBSET and APPEND commands.

By default, the SET , SUBSET , and APPEND commands look for one of these results files: Jobname. RST , Jobname. Essay Voltaire. RTH , Jobname. RMG , or Jobname .RFL . You can specify a different file name by phd thesis issuing the FILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocData File Opts ) before issuing SET , SUBSET , or APPEND . Think of the element table as a spreadsheet, where each row represents an element, and each column represents a particular data item for essay city the elements. For example, one column might contain the average SX stress for the elements, while another might contain the element volumes, while yet a third might contain the award, Y coordinate of the centroid for each element. To create or erase the element table, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDefine Table or Erase Table. 5.2.3.1 Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Name. Some items, such as the element volumes, do not require Comp ; in such cases, Item is VOLU and Comp is left blank. Identifying data items by cell phone and students essay an Item , and Comp if necessary, is called the Component Name method of phd thesis award, filling the element table. How To To Do. The data which are accessible with the component name method are data generally calculated for most element types or groups of element types.

The ETABLE command documentation lists, in general, all the Item and Comp combinations. However see the Element Output Definitions table in phd thesis award each element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference to see which combinations are valid. Table 5-1 is an example of such a table for BEAM4. You can use any name in the Name column of the psu schreyer honors, table that contains a colon (:) to phd thesis award fill the element table via the on classroom environment, Component Name method. Award. The portion of the name before the colon should be input for the Item argument of the essay city life, ETABLE command. The portion (if any) after the colon should be input for the Comp argument. The O and phd thesis, R columns indicate the availability of the on classroom environment, items in the file Jobname .OUT ( O ) or in phd thesis the results file ( R ): a Y indicates that the item is pointers on how an essay, always available, a number refers to a table footnote which describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available.

Table 5-1 3-D BEAM4 Element Output Definitions. 5.2.3.2 Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number. The data in the tables is broken down into item groups (such as LS, LEPEL, SMISC, etc.). Each item within the item group has an identifying sequence number listed. You load these data into the element table by giving the item group (such as LS, LEPEL, SMISC, etc.) as the Item argument on the ETABLE command, and the sequence number as the Comp argument.

This is referred to award as the Sequence Number method of filling the element table. For example, the maximum stress at node J for BEAM4 is Item =NMISC and Comp =3, while the initial axial strain (EPINAXL) for the element (E) is Item =LEPTH and Comp =11. 5.2.3.3 Notes About Defining Element Tables. The ETABLE command works only on the selected elements. That is, only cell phone, data for the elements you have selected are moved to award the element table. Psu Schreyer Thesis. By changing the phd thesis, selected elements between ETABLE commands, you can selectively fill rows of the element table. The same Sequence Number combination may mean different data for different element types. For example, the combination SMISC,1 means MFOR(X) for descriptive life BEAM4 (member force in the element X direction), P1 for SOLID45 (pressure on face 1), and phd thesis, FNTOT for CONTAC48 (total normal force). Essay Environment. Therefore, if your model has a combination of element types, be sure to select elements of one type (using ESEL or Utility Menu SelectEntities ) before using the award, ETABLE command.

The ANSYS program does not automatically refill (update) the element table when you read in a different set of results (such as for a different load step) or when you alter the results in the database (such as by a load case combination). For example, suppose your model consists of our sample elements, and you issue the following commands in POST1: At this point, the descriptive city, ABC column in the element table still contains data for load step 1 . To refill (update) the column with load step 2 values, you should issue the command ETABLE , REFL , or specify the award, refill option via the GUI. You can use the element table as a worksheet to do calculations among results data. This feature is described in pointers on how to write Section 5.4. Award. To save the element table, issue SAVE , Fname , Ext in homework POST1 or issue /EXIT ,ALL when exiting the ANSYS program. (If you are using the GUI, follow the prompts in the dialog boxes that appear when you choose Utility MenuFileSave as or Utility MenuFileExit .) This saves the table along with the rest of the database onto the database file. Phd Thesis Award. To erase the entire element table from memory, issue ETABLE ,ERASE ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableErase Table ). (Or issue ETABLE , Lab , ERASE to erase just the psu schreyer college thesis, Lab column of the element table). Award. The element table will automatically be erased from essay on classroom environment, memory if you issue a RESET command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocReset ). 5.2.4 Special Considerations for Principal Stresses. You have requested an interpolated time point or angle specification on the SET command. You have performed load case operations. In the above cases (including all cases for SHELL61), you must choose Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseLine Elem Stress or issue the phd thesis, command LCOPER ,LPRIN in order to calculate the principal stresses.

Then you may access this data through ETABLE , or any appropriate printing or plotting command. Contour displays Deformed shape displays Vector displays Path plots Reaction force displays Particle flow traces. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsNodal Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsElement Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsElem Table.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsLine Elem Res. The PLNSOL command produces contour lines that are continuous across the entire model. Use either for primary as well as derived solution data. Derived solution data, which are typically discontinuous from element to element, are averaged at the nodes so that continuous contour lines can be displayed. Sample contour displays of primary data (TEMP) and derived data (TGX) are shown below. If PowerGraphics is enabled, you can control averaging of derived data with one of the psu schreyer college thesis, following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp.

Any of the award, above allows you to specify whether or not results will be averaged at descriptive essay city life element boundaries where material and/or real constant discontinuities exist. For more information, see Chapter 10, Power Graphics. Caution: If PowerGraphics is disabled (which is the default for most element types), you cannot use the AVRES command to control averaging, and phd thesis, the averaging operation is performed at psu schreyer honors thesis all nodes of the phd thesis award, selected elements without regard to the attributes of the get your teenager to do homework, elements connected to them. This can be inappropriate in areas of material or geometric discontinuities. When contouring derived data (which are averaged at phd thesis the nodes), be sure to essay select elements of the same material, same thickness (for shells), same element coordinate system orientation, etc. See the PLNSOL command description for further information. The PLESOL command produce contour lines that are discontinuous across element boundaries. Phd Thesis. Use this type of display mainly for derived solution data. For example:

Figure 5-3 A sample PLESOL plot showing discontinuous contours. The PLETAB command contours data stored in the element table. The Avglab field on the PLETAB command gives you the option of averaging the data at nodes (for continuous contours) or not averaging (the default, for teenager homework having discontinuous contours). The example below assumes a SHELL99 (layered shell) model and shows the difference between averaged and non-averaged results. The PLLS command displays line element results in the form of contours. Phd Thesis Award. This command also requires data to be stored in the element table.

This type of display is commonly used for shear and moment diagrams in to do beam analyses. The example below assumes a BEAM3 (2-D beam) model with KEYOPT(9)=1: PLLS simply draws a straight line between values at the I and J nodes of an phd thesis award element without any regard to how the result item varies along the psu schreyer college thesis, element length. Award. You can use a negative scaling factor to descriptive essay invert the plot. You can produce isosurface contour displays by phd thesis award first setting Key on essay on toleration voltaire, the /CTYPE command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleContours Contour Style ) to phd thesis award 1. Pointers On How To Write. See Chapter 6 for more information about isosurfaces. Averaged principal stresses : By default, principal stresses at each node are calculated from averaged component stresses. You can reverse this, so that principal stresses are first calculated per element, then averaged at the nodes. To do so, use one of the following: Command(s): Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for award Outp. This method is essay on toleration, not normally used, but can be useful in phd thesis special circumstances.

Averaging operations should not be done at nodal interfaces of differing materials. Vector sum data : These follow the same practice as the how to get your, principal stresses. Phd Thesis Award. By default, the vector sum magnitude (square root of the sum of the squares) at each node is calculated from averaged components. Descriptive City Life. By using the AVPRIN command, you can reverse this, so that the vector sum magnitudes are first calculated per element, then averaged at the nodes. Shell elements or layered shell elements : By default, results for shell or layered elements are assumed to phd thesis award be at the top surface of the shell or layer.

To display results at the top, middle or bottom surface, use the SHELL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for cell and students essay Outp ). Award. For layered elements, use the LAYER command (Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp) to essay indicate layer number. Von Mises equivalent strains (EQV): The effective Poisson's ratio used in computing these quantities may be changed using the AVPRIN command. Command(s): Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results-Contour Plot-Nodal Solu. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results-Contour Plot-Element Solu. Utility MenuPlotResultsContour PlotElem Solution.

Typically, you would set the phd thesis award, effective Poisson's ratio to the input Poisson's ratio for elastic equivalent strain ( EPEL ,EQV) and to teenager homework 0.5 for inelastic strains ( EPPL ,EQV or EPCR ,EQV). For total strains ( EPTOT ,EQV), you would typically use an effective Poisson's ratio between the input Poisson's ratio and 0.5. Phd Thesis Award. As an city life alternative, you can save the phd thesis, equivalent elastic strains using ETABLE with the psu schreyer honors college, effective Poisson's ratio equal to phd thesis the input Poisson's ratio and save the equivalent plastic strains in another table using 0.5 as the effective Poisson's ratio, then combine the pointers to write, two table entries using SADD to obtain the total equivalent strain. Utility MenuPlotResultsDeformed Shape. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDeformed Shape. For example, you might issue the following PLDISP command: You can change the displacement scaling by issuing the /DSCALE command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleDisplacement Scaling ). Be aware that when you enter POST1, all load symbols are automatically turned off. These load symbols remain off if you subsequently re-enter the PREP7 or SOLUTION processors.

If you turn the load symbols on in POST1, the award, resulting display will show the loads on the deformed shape. To produce a vector display, use one of the essay city life, following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPredefined or User-Defined. To scale the arrow lengths, use one of the phd thesis award, following: Utility MenuPlotCtrlsStyleVector Arrow Scaling. You can also create your own vector quantity by specifying two or three components on the PLVECT command.

1. Define path attributes using the PATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine PathDefined Paths ). 2. How To Get Your To Do. Define the award, points of the path using the PPATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationDefine PathModify Path ). 3. Map the desired quantity on to the path using the PDEF command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsMap onto Path ) 4. Use the essay life, PLPATH and PLPAGM commands ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPlot Path Items ) to display the phd thesis, results. More details on pointers on how, this appear later in Section 5.3.4. Like reactions, you can also display nodal forces using labels NFOR or NMOM on the /PBC command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsSymbols ). These are forces exerted by an element on its node. Phd Thesis Award. The sum of phone and students, these forces at phd thesis each node is usually zero except at constrained nodes or at nodes where loads were applied. By default, the city, force (or moment) values that are printed and plotted represent the total forces (sum of the static, damping, and inertial components).

The FORCE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp ) allows you to separate the total force into award individual components. 5.3.1.6 Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces. A particle flow or charged particle trace requires two functions: 1. The TRPOIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDefi Trace Pt ). How To Teenager. Either defines a point on phd thesis, the path trajectory (starting point, ending point, or anywhere in between). 2. The PLTRAC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPlot Flow Tra ). Pointers An Essay. Either produces the award, flow trace on an element display. Up to 50 points can be defined and plotted simultaneously. A sample PLTRAC plot is shown below. Figure 5-9 A sample particle flow trace. The Item and Comp fields on PLTRAC allow you to see the variation of a specified item (such as velocity, pressure, and temperature for a particle flow trace or electric potential for a charged particle trace).

The variation of the item is displayed along the path trajectory as a color-contoured ribbon. Other commands are: TRPLIS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsList Trace Pt )-lists trace points. Environment. TRPDEL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDele Trace Pt )-deletes trace points. TRTIME command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsTime Interval )-defines the flow trace time interval. ANFLOW command ( Utility MenuPlotCtrlsAnimateParticle Flow )-generates an phd thesis animated sequence of particle flow. Notes. Particle flow traces occasionally stop for no apparent reason. This can occur in and students stagnant flow regions, near wall flow regions, or when a particle is tracking along an award element edge. To resolve the problem, adjust the initial particle point slightly in the cross stream direction. For charged particle traces, the variables Chrg and Mass input by the TRPOIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsDefi Trace Pt ) have units of columbs and essay environment, kilograms, respectively, in the MKS system.

The particle tracing algorithm could lead to an infinite loop. For example, a charged particle trace could lead to an infinite circular loop. Award. To avoid infinite loops, the essay city life, PLTRAC command argument MXLOOP sets a limiting value. Sample Listing of PRESOL,ELEM. 5.3.3.1 Listing Nodal and Element Solution Data. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsNodal Solution. To list specified results for selected elements, use one of these methods. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsElement Solution.

To obtain line element solution printout, specify the ELEM option with PRESOL . The program will list all applicable element results for the selected elements. Sample Listing of phd thesis, PRNSOL,S. 5.3.3.2 Listing Reaction Loads and Applied Loads. Listing reaction loads and pointers an essay, applied loads is a good way to check equilibrium. Phd Thesis Award. It is always good practice to check a model's equilibrium after solution. That is, the pointers on how to write, sum of the applied loads in a given direction should equal the sum of the reactions in award that direction. (If the thesis, sum of the reaction loads is not what you expect, check your loading to see if it was applied properly.) The presence of coupling or constraint equations can induce either an actual or apparent loss of equilibrium.

Actual loss of load balance can occur for poorly specified couplings or constraint equations (a usually undesirable effect). Coupled sets created by CPINTF and constraint equations created by CEINTF or CERIG will in phd thesis nearly all cases maintain actual equilibrium. Phone And Students. Constraint equations can also cause an apparent loss of equilibrium because, as stated previously, the reaction force at a constrained DOF that belongs to a constraint equation does not include the phd thesis, force passing through that equation. Get Your Teenager Homework. This would affect both the award, individual reaction force and the reaction totals. (This is a good reason not to constrain a DOF that belongs to a constraint equation.) Also, the sum of nodal forces for on toleration a DOF belonging to a constraint equation does not include the award, force passing through that equation, which affects both the individual nodal force and the nodal force totals. A separate listing of constraint equation reactions is available during a batch solution (and can be requested with the OUTPR command), but these reactions cannot be accessed in POST1.

For most properly connected constraint equations, these should total to zero in FX, FY, and to write, FZ. (The moment totals may not be zero because a proper moment summation would have to include the effect of forces.) Other cases where you may see an apparent loss of phd thesis, equilibrium are: (a) four-node shell elements where all four nodes do no lie in an exact flat plane, (b) elements with an elastic foundation specified, and (c) unconverged nonlinear solutions. See Section 15.8.2 of the cell and students essay, ANSYS Theory Reference. Another useful command is award, FSUM . FSUM calculates and lists the force and moment summation for honors college the selected set of award, nodes. Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal CalcsTotal Force Sum. The NFORCE command provides the force and moment summation for pointers on how an essay each selected node, in addition to an overall summation. Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal CalcsSum @ Each Node. The SPOINT command defines the point (any point other than the origin) about which moments are summed.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsElem Table Data. To list the sum of each column in phd thesis the element table, use the SSUM command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableSum of psu schreyer honors thesis, Each Item ). The PRVECT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsVector Data ) lists the magnitude and phd thesis, direction cosines of specified vector quantities for all selected elements. The PRPATH command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPath Items ) calculates and then lists specified data along a predefined geometry path in the model. You must define the path and map the thesis, data onto the path; see Section 5.3.4. The PRSECT command (Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsLinearized Strs ) calculates and then lists linearized stresses along a predefined path. The PRERR command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPercent Error ) lists the percent error in energy norm for all selected elements. The PRITER command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsIteration Summry ) lists iteration summary data.

To restore the original order of nodes or elements, use the phd thesis award, following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsUnsort Nodes. Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsUnsort Elems. 5.3.3.6 Customizing Your Tabular Listings. Note -You can define paths only in models containing solid elements (2-D or 3-D) or shell elements. They are not available for line elements. Three steps are involved in reviewing results along a path: 1. Define the descriptive essay, path attributes [ PATH command]. 3. Interpolate (map) results data along the phd thesis award, path [ PDEF command]. Once the data are interpolated, you can review them using graphics displays [ PLPATH or PLPAGM commands] and tabular listings or perform mathematical operations such as addition, multiplication, integration, etc. Advanced mapping techniques to handle material discontinuities and accurate computations are offered in college thesis the PMAP command (issue this command prior to PDEF ).

Other path operations you can perform include archiving paths or path data to phd thesis a file or an array parameter and environment, recalling an existing path with its data. Award. The next few topics discuss path definition and usage. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path On Working Plane. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDefine Path Supply the essay on classroom environment, following information for the PATH command: A path name (containing no more than eight characters). The number of path points (between 2 and 1000). Required only in batch mode, or when defining path points using the By Location option.

When picking is used, the number of path points equals the number of phd thesis award, picked points. The number of sets of data which may be mapped to this path. (Four is the minimum; default is 30. There is no maximum.) The number of divisions between adjacent points. (Default is 20; there is no maximum.) When using the By Location option, a separate dialog box appears for defining path points ( PPATH command). Essay On Classroom Environment. Enter the Global Cartesian coordinate values of the phd thesis award, path points. The shape of the interpolated path geometry will follow the pointers to write an essay, currently active CSYS coordinate system. Alternatively, you can specify a coordinate system for geometry interpolation ( CS argument on the PPATH command). Note -To see the status of path settings, choose the PATH ,STATUS command.

The PATH and PPATH commands define the phd thesis award, path geometry in the active CSYS coordinate system . If the path is a straight line or a circular arc, you need only the two end nodes (unless you want highly accurate interpolation, which may require more path points or divisions). Note -If necessary, use the CSCIR command ( Utility MenuWorkPlaneLocal Coordinate SystemsMove Singularity ) to move the coordinate singularity point before defining the path. To display the path you have defined, you must first interpolate data along the path (see Section 5.3.4.3), then issue /PBC ,PATH,, 1 ( Utility MenuPlotCtrls Symbols ) followed by the EPLOT or NPLOT command ( Utility MenuPlot Elements or Utility MenuPlotNodes ) . ANSYS displays the path as a series of straight line segments. Voltaire. The path shown below was defined in a cylindrical coordinate system: Figure 5-11 A node plot showing the phd thesis award, path. 5.3.4.3 Interpolating Data Along the Path. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath Operations path operation. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsUnit Vector.

These commands require that the path be defined first. Using the PDEF command, you can interpolate virtually any results data along the essay environment, path in the active results coordinate system : primary data (nodal DOF solution), derived data (stresses, fluxes, gradients, etc.), element table data, FLOTRAN nodal results data, and phd thesis, so on. The rest of this discussion (and in other documentation) refers to descriptive essay an interpolated item as a path item . For example, to award interpolate the thermal flux in on toleration the X direction along a path, the command would be as follows: The XFLUX value is an arbitrary user-defined name assigned to the path item. TF and phd thesis, X together identify the life, item as the thermal flux in the X direction. Note -You can make the results coordinate system match the active coordinate system (used to define the phd thesis award, path) by issuing the following pair of commands: The first command creates a user-defined parameter (ACTSYS) that holds the value defining the currently active coordinate system. Phone And Students Essay. The second command sets the results coordinate system to award the coordinate system specified by ACTSYS. To clear path items from the cell essay, path (except XG, YG, ZG, and S), issue PDEF ,CLEAR . For instance, you can save path items from one path, define a parallel path, and calculate the difference in path items between the two paths by using the PCALC command ( Main Menu General PostprocPath Operations operation ).

The PVECT command defines the normal, tangent, or position vectors along the path. A Cartesian coordinate system must be active for this command. For example, the phd thesis, command shown below defines a unit vector tangent to city the path at each interpolation point. TTX, TTY, and TTZ are user-defined names assigned to the X, Y, and Z components of the vector. You can use these vector quantities for fracture mechanics J-integral calculations, dot and cross product operations, etc. Award. For accurate mapping of normal and tangent vectors, use the ACCURATE option on the PMAP command. Issue the PMAP command prior to honors college thesis mapping data.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPlot Path Items. To get a tabular listing of phd thesis, specified path items, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPath Items. You can control the path distance range (the abscissa) for to write an essay PLPATH and phd thesis, PRPATH ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsPath Range ) or the PRANGE command . Path defined variables may also be used in psu schreyer place of the path distance for the abscissa item in the path display. You can use two other commands, PLSECT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsLinearized Strs ) and PRSECT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsLinearized Strs ), to calculate and review linearized stresses along a path defined by award the first two nodes on on toleration voltaire, the PPATH command. Typically, you use them in pressure vessel applications to separate stresses into individual components: membrane, membrane plus bending, etc. The path is defined in the active display coordinate system. You can display a path data item as a color area contour display along the path geometry.

The contour display offset from the path may be scaled for clarity. To produce such a display, use either of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot ResultsPlot Path ItemsOn Geometry. 5.3.4.6 Performing Mathematical Operations among Path Items. The PCALC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath Operations operation ) lets you add, multiply, divide, exponentiate, differentiate, and integrate path items.

The PDOT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDot Product ) calculates the dot product of two path vectors. Phd Thesis. The PCROSS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsCross Product ) calculates the cross product or two path vectors. 5.3.4.7 Archiving and life, Retrieving Path Data to award a File. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive Path -Store-Paths in file. To retrieve path information from a file and store the data as the currently active path data, use the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Path-Retrieve-Paths from file. You can opt to archive or fetch only the path data (data mapped to path ( PDEF command) or the path points (defined by get your teenager homework the PPATH command).

When you retrieve path data, it becomes the phd thesis, currently active path data (existing active path data is replaced). If you issue PARESU and have multiple paths, the pointers to write an essay, first path from the list becomes the currently active path. Sample input and award, output are shown below. 5.3.4.8 Archiving and Retrieving Path Data to an Array Parameter. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive.

To retrieve path information from an essay array variable and store the data as the currently active path data, use one of the following: Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsArchive. You can opt to archive or fetch only the award, path data (data mapped to path ( PDEF command) or the essay, path points (defined by phd thesis the PPATH command). Get Your. The setting for phd thesis award the POPT argument on cell and students essay, PAGET and award, PAPUT determines what is stored or retrieved. You must retrieve path points prior to homework retrieving path data and labels. Award. When you retrieve path data, it becomes the currently active path data (existing active path data is replaced).

Sample input and output are shown below. Figure 5-12 A sample PLPATH display showing stress discontinuity at a material interface. Main MenuGeneral PostprocPath OperationsDelete Path. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcDelete Path You can opt to delete all paths or choose a path to delete by name. To review the current list of path names, issue the command PATH ,STATUS. In the postprocessor, the program calculates an energy error for college thesis each element in the model.

The energy error is phd thesis, similar in concept to the strain energy. The structural energy error (labeled SERR) is a measure of the essay, discontinuity of the phd thesis award, stress field from element to voltaire element, and the thermal energy error (TERR) is a measure of the phd thesis, discontinuity of the on toleration voltaire, heat flux from phd thesis, element to element. Using SERR and TERR, the ANSYS program calculates a percent error in energy norm (SEPC for structural percent error, TEPC for thermal percent error). Note -Error estimation is cell phone essay, based on stiffness and conductivity matrices that are evaluated at the reference temperatures (TREF). Error estimates, therefore, can be incorrect for elements with temperature-dependent material properties if those elements are at a temperature that is significantly different than TREF. In many cases, you can significantly increase program speed by suppressing error estimation. This improved performance is most evident when error estimation is turned off in a thermal analysis.

Therefore, you may want to use error estimation only when needed, such as when you wish to determine if your mesh is phd thesis award, adequate for good results. You may turn error estimation off issuing ERNORM ,OFF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for Outp ) . By default, error estimation is active. On How. Since the award, value set by the ERNORM command is not saved on Jobname .DB, you will need to reissue ERNORM ,OFF if you wish to again deactivate error estimation after resuming an analysis . In POST1 then, you can list SEPC and TEPC for pointers on how to write all selected elements using the PRERR command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocList ResultsPercent Error ). Phd Thesis. The value of SEPC or TEPC indicates the relative error due to a particular mesh discretization. Descriptive. To find out where you should refine the mesh, simply produce a contour display of phd thesis, SERR or TERR and look for high-error regions. Using this error estimation technique, you can set up an automated scheme whereby the mesh is how to get your, automatically refined in high-error regions.

This is called adaptive meshing . See Chapter 3 of the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide . For theoretical details about error estimation, see the ANSYS Theory Reference . 5.4.1 Rotating Results to a Different Coordinate System. Using the RSYS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocOptions for award Outp ), you can change the active results coordinate system to global cylindrical ( RSYS ,1), global spherical ( RSYS ,2), any existing local coordinate system ( RSYS , N , where N is the essay on classroom, local coordinate system number), or the nodal and phd thesis, element coordinate systems used during solution ( RSYS , SOLU ). If you then list, display, or operate on the results data, they are rotated to this results coordinate system first. You may also set the results system back to global Cartesian ( RSYS ,0 ). Figure 5-14 illustrates how displacements are reported for several different RSYS settings. The displacements are in terms of the nodal coordinate systems (which are always Cartesian systems), but issuing the and students, RSYS command causes those nodal systems to be rotated into the specified system. Phd Thesis Award. For example, RSYS , 1 causes the results to be rotated parallel to the global cylindrical system such that UX represents a radial displacement and UY represents a tangential displacement. (Similarly, AX and AY in a magnetic analysis and VX and VY in a fluid analysis are reported as radial and phone and students, tangential values for RSYS ,1.) Caution: Certain element results data are always output in the element coordinate system regardless of the active results coordinate system. Phd Thesis Award. These are miscellaneous result items that you would normally expect to be interpreted only in the element coordinate system. They include forces, moments, stresses, and strains for beam, pipe, and spar elements, and member forces and moments for some shell elements. In most circumstances, such as when working with a single load case or during linear combinations of multiple load cases, rotating results data into pointers on how to write the results coordinate system does not affect the final result values.

However, most modal combination techniques (PSD, CQC, SRSS, etc.) are performed in the solution coordinate system and involve squaring operations. Award. Since the squaring operation removes the essay on toleration, sign associated with the data, some combined results may not appear as expected after being rotated into the results coordinate system. In these cases, you can use RSYS , SOLU to avoid a rotation and to award keep the essay city, results data in the solution coordinate systems. As an example of when you would need to award change the results coordinate system, consider the case of a cylindrical shell model, in essay on toleration voltaire which you may be interested in the tangential stress results. The SY stress contours before and after results coordinate system transformation are shown below for such a case. See the RSYS and PLNSOL command descriptions for further information. Figure 5-15 (a) SY in global Cartesian system (b) SY in global cylindrical system (note that nodes and elements are still in global Cartesian system) Note -In a large deformation analysis (for example, if you have issued the NLGEOM ,ON command and the element has large deflection capability), the element coordinate system is first rotated by award the amount of rigid body rotation of the element. Therefore the component stresses and strains and other derived element data include the effect of the rigid body rotation. The coordinate system used to display these results is the honors thesis, specified results coordinate system rotated by phd thesis award the amount of rigid body rotation . The exceptions to environment this are HYPER56, HYPER58, HYPER74, HYPER84, HYPER86, and HYPER158.

These elements always produce stresses and strains in the specified results coordinate system (no rigid body rotation added). The primary data (for example, displacements) in a large deformation analysis do not include the phd thesis award, rigid body rotation effect , because the nodal coordinate systems are not rotated by the amount of rigid body rotation. 5.4.2 Performing Arithmetic Operations Among Results Data. The procedure to do calculations among results data requires three simple steps: 1. Use the ETABLE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDefine Table ) to bring one or more result items into pointers the element table or worksheet. 2. Perform the desired arithmetic operations using commands from the CALC module ( SADD , SMULT , SEXP , etc.). 3. Review the outcome of the operations using PRETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table ) or PLETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TablePlot Elem Table ). A discussion of the element table appears earlier in phd thesis this section.

The ETABLE command moves specified results data for all selected elements into the element table. One value is stored per element. For example, if you select 10 elements and issue the command shown below, an average UX value is calculated for each element from the nodal displacements and stored in the element table under the ABC column. The element table will be 10 rows long (because only 10 elements were selected). Essay. If you now want to double these displacements, the command would be: For further information, see the SMULT command description in the ANSYS Commands Reference . The element table now has a second column, labeled ABC2, containing twice the values in column ABC. Phd Thesis. To list the element table, simply choose PRETAB ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableList Elem Table ).

Another example of arithmetic operations is to essay calculate the phd thesis, total volume of selected elements. To do this, you might store all element volumes in the element table, select the desired elements, and pointers an essay, sum them using the SSUM command: See the phd thesis, ETABLE , ESEL , and SSUM command descriptions for further information. All operation commands ( SADD , SMULT , SSUM , etc.) work only on the selected elements. ANSYS does not update element table entries automatically when a different set of thesis, results is phd thesis, read into the database. An element table output listing displays headers which indicate the status of essay voltaire, each column relative to phd thesis the current database. CURRENT indicates that the column data is from the current database, PREVIOUS indicates that it is from a previous database, and MIXED indicates that it results from an operation between previous and current data. (Once a column is labeled mixed, it will not change status unless you erase or redefine it with all elements selected.) The following commands cause column headers to change from essay on toleration voltaire, CURRENT to PREVIOUS: The ETABLE ,REFL option, which refills (updates) the element table with values currently in the database, does not affect calculated items. In the above double-the-UX example, if you read in phd thesis a different set of results and then issue ETABLE only the ABC column will be updated (current status). The ABC2 column remains as is (keeps its previous status).

You can use the fact that ANSYS does not update the to do homework, element table automatically after a new SET command to phd thesis award good advantage: for example, to compare element results between two or more load steps, or even between two or more analyses . The following CALC module commands apply to calculations using the element table: The SABS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableAbs Value Option ) causes absolute values to be used in psu schreyer honors thesis subsequent element table operations. The SADD command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableAdd Items ) adds two specified columns in phd thesis award the element table. How To Homework. The SALLOW command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety Factor factor type ) defines allowable stresses for award safety factor calculations. The SEXP command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableExponentiate ) exponentiates and multiplies two columns in the element table. The SFACT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorRestore NodeStrs or Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorSF for essay on classroom environment Node Strs ) defines which safety factor calculations will be performed during subsequent display, select, or sort operations. Award. The SFCALC command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorSF for and students essay ElemTable ) calculates safety factors (for ETABLE items). The SMAX command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableFind Maximum ) compares and stores the maximum of two columns. The SMIN command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableFind Minimum ) compares and stores the minimum of two columns. The SMULT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableMultiply) multiplies two specified columns in the element table. Phd Thesis. The SSUM command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableSum of to write an essay, Each Item ) calculates and prints the sum of each element table column. The TALLOW command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorReset Temps or Main MenuGeneral PostprocSafety FactorTemp-depend ) defines the temperature table for safety factor calculations.

The VCROSS command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableCross Product ) calculates the cross product of two vectors stored in the element table. The VDOT command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElement TableDot Product ) calculates the dot product of two vectors stored in the element table. 5.4.3 Creating and Combining Load Cases. A load case is a set of results data that has been assigned an phd thesis award arbitrary reference number. For instance, you can define the set of results at load step 2, substep 5 as load case number 1 , the set of cell phone, results at time=9.32 as load case number 2 , and so on. You can define up to 99 load cases, but you can store only one load case in the database at a time. A load case combination is an operation between load cases, typically between the load case currently in the database and a load case on a separate results file (or on the load case file , explained later). The outcome of the phd thesis, operation overwrites the results portion of the database, which permits you to display and list the load case combination. A typical load case combination involves the following steps: 1. Define load cases using the LCDEF command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseCreate Load Case ). 2. Read one of the load cases into on classroom environment the database using the LCASE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseRead Load Case ).

3. Perform the desired operation using the award, LCOPER command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad Case operation ) . As an cell example, suppose the results file contains results for several load steps, and you want to phd thesis award compare load steps 5 and cell and students, 7 and store the award, maximum in memory. The commands to pointers an essay do this would look like this: The database now contains the maximum of the two load cases, and phd thesis, you can perform any desired postprocessing function. Note -Load case operations ( LCOPER ) are performed only on the raw solution results in the solution coordinate system. The solution results are: Element component stresses and how to get your teenager to do homework, strains in phd thesis the element coordinate systems Nodal degree-of-freedom values, forces and city, reaction forces in award the nodal coordinate systems To have a load case operation act on the principal/equivalent stresses instead of the component stresses, issue the essay on toleration, SUMTYPE ,PRIN command. It is phd thesis, important that you know how load case operations are performed. Many load case operations, such as mode combinations, involve squaring, which renders the on how to write, solution results unsuitable for transformation to award the results coordinate system, typically the Global Cartesian, and unsuitable for how to teenager to do homework performing nodal or element averages. A typical postprocessing function such as printing or displaying average nodal stresses [ PRNSOL , PLNSOL ], for example, involves both a coordinate system transformation to the results coordinate system and a nodal average. Furthermore, unless SUMTYPE ,PRIN has been requested, principal/ equivalent stresses are not meaningful when computed from squared component values.

Therefore, it is recommended that you use only untransformed [ RSYS ,SOLU], unaveraged [ PRESOL , PLESOL ] results whenever you perform a squaring operation, such as in award a spectrum (SPRS, PSD) analysis. writing the data to a load case file appending the data to psu schreyer college thesis the results file. Phd Thesis. Use the LCWRITE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseWrite Load Case ) to write the essay on toleration, load case currently in memory to a load case file. The file is named Jobname. Phd Thesis. L nn , where nn is the load case number you assign. Using nn in subsequent load case combinations will refer to the load case stored on how to teenager to do homework, the load case file. The following example illustrates the use of the LCWRITE command: Using the RAPPND command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocWrite Results ), you can append the load case currently in memory to the results file. The data are stored on phd thesis, the results file just like any other results data set except that:

You, not the on how to write an essay, program, assign the phd thesis award, load step and substep numbers used to identify the data. Only summable and constant data are available by default; non-summable data are not written to the results file unless requested ( LCSUM command). The following example illustrates use of the cell and students, RAPPND command: Tip: You can use the RAPPND command to combine results from two results files (created with the phd thesis award, same database.) You can use the POST1 FILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocData File Opts ) to toggle between the two results files to alternately store results from psu schreyer honors, one and phd thesis award, append to the other. You can define a load case by setting a pointer to a load case file with the LCFILE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseCreate Load Case ). Then, you can use the LCASE or LCOPER commands to read data from the file into memory. To Do. You can erase any load case by issuing LCDEF , LCNO ,ERASE, where LCNO is the load case number. To erase all load cases, issue LCDEF ,ERASE. Phd Thesis. These options not only city, delete all load case pointers, but also delete the appropriate load case files (those with the award, default file name extensions). To zero the results portion of the database, issue LCZERO ( Main Menu General PostprocLoad CaseZero Load Case ) or LCOPER ,ZERO . The LCABS and LCFACT commands ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseAbsolut Value and Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseScale Factor ), allow you to specify absolute values and on classroom, scale factors for award specific load cases. The program uses these specifications when you issue either LCASE or LCOPER . ANSYS applies scale factors after it calculates absolute values. Cell Essay. Results data read into the database from the results file (via SET or LCASE commands) will include boundary condition information (constraints and force loads).

However, load cases read in phd thesis award from a load case file will not. Therefore, if boundary conditions appear on graphics displays after you issue an LCASE command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseRead Load Case ), they are from a previously processed load case. The LCASE command does not reset the on toleration, boundary condition information in memory. After a load case combination is performed for phd thesis award structural line elements, the cell essay, principal stress data are not automatically updated in phd thesis the database. Cell Phone. Issue LCOPER ,LPRIN to recalculate line element principal stresses based on the current component stress values.

You can select a subset of award, load cases using the LCSEL command ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocLoad CaseSele Ld Cases ). Once a subset is selected, you can use the label ALL in place of a load case number on load case operations. You cannot use load case combinations with FLOTRAN results data. 5.4.3.2 Combining Load Cases in Harmonic Element Models. 5.4.3.3 Summable, Non-Summable, and to write an essay, Constant Data. Load case combinations (using LCOPER ). Reading in a load case with active scale factors (using LCFACT or LCASE ). Reading in results data and modifying them using the FACT or ANGLE field on the SET command. Summable data are those that can participate in the database operations. Phd Thesis. All primary data (DOF solutions) are considered summable.

Among the derived data, component stresses, elastic strains, thermal gradients and fluxes, magnetic flux density, etc. are considered summable (see Table 5-4). (For an get your teenager to do homework inclusive list of summable data, see the description of the ETABLE command in the ANSYS Commands Reference . ) Note -Sometimes, combining summable data may result in meaningless results. For example, adding nodal temperatures from two load cases of a linear, pure-conduction analysis gives meaningful results, but if convection is phd thesis award, involved, the essay on toleration, addition of phd thesis award, temperatures is not meaningful. Therefore, exercise your engineering judgement when reviewing combined load cases. Non-summable data are those that are not valid for linear superposition, such as nonlinear data (plastic strains, hydrostatic pressures), thermal strains, magnetic forces, Joule heat, etc. (see Table 5-5). These data are simply set to zero when the programs performs a database operation. You may combine non-summable data using LCSUM,ALL before your LCOPER commands, but you are cautioned on interpreting these values appropriately. Constant data are those that cannot be meaningfully combined, such as element volumes and element centroidal coordinates (see Table 5-6). These data are held constant (unchanged) when the program performs a database operation. Table 5-4 Examples of summable POST1 results.

5.4.4 Mapping Results onto a Different Mesh or to a Cut Boundary. POST1 offers two options for mapping results to a different mesh: Main MenuGeneral PostprocSubmodelingInterpolate DOF. Main MenuGeneral PostprocSubmodelingInterp Body Forc. The CBDOF command maps degree-of-freedom results from the coarse model to the cut boundaries of the submodel. BFINT maps body force loads (mainly temperatures for a structural analysis) from the coarse model to the submodel. Psu Schreyer Honors College Thesis. Both commands require a file of nodes to which results are to award be mapped, and both commands write a file of appropriate load commands. These mapping functions or commands do not apply to offsets used with SHELL91 or SHELL99 (KEYOPT(11)0]. Details of the submodeling technique are presented in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide . 5.4.5 Creating or Modifying Results Data in the Database. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElem Results. Main MenuGeneral PostprocElemTabl Data.

Main MenuGeneral PostprocNodal Results. Once the data are defined, you can use almost any postprocessing function: graphics displays, tabular listings, path operations, etc. Note -Issuing the essay, DNSOL command requires that you have placed the data type (stress/strain) in the element nodal records. Phd Thesis Award. To get around this requirement, use the DESOL command to add a dummy element stress/strain record. ANSYS performs all load case combinations in the solution coordinate system, and the data resulting from load case combinations are stored in the solution coordinate system. The resultant data are then transformed to on toleration the active results coordinate system when listed or displayed. Therefore, unless RSYS ,SOLU is set (no transformation of results data), you may see some unexpected results such as negative values after a square operation or negative values even when you request absolute values. This feature is mainly intended for reading in data from your own, special-purpose program. By writing output data from phd thesis award, that program in the form of the above commands, you can read them into essay environment POST1 and process them the same way you would ANSYS results. If you do have an ANSYS results file, it will not be affected by these commands. CURR2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcCurrent ) calculates current flow in a two-dimensional conductor.

EMAGERR ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Error Eval ) calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis. EMF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcEMF ) calculates the electromotive force (emf) or voltage drop along a predefined path. FLUXV ( Main Menu General PostprocElecMag CalcPath Flux ) calculates the flux passing through a closed contour. FMAGBC ( Main MenuPreprocessorLoadsApplyFlag Comp. Force ) applies force boundary conditions to an element component. FMAGSUM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Comp.

Force ) summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components. FOR2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcMag Forces ) calculates magnetic forces on phd thesis award, a body. HFSWEEP ( Main MenuSolutionElectromagnetFreq Sweep ) performs a harmonic response (over a range of frequencies) for a high-frequency electromagnetic waveguide analysis, and performs postprocessing calculations. HMAGSOLV ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Harmonic Analys-OptSolv ) specifies 2-D harmonic electromagnetic solution options and initiates the solution for to write a harmonic analysis. IMPD ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcImpedance ) calculates the impedance of a device at phd thesis a particular reference plane. LMATRIX ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Static Analysis- Induct Matrix ) calculates the inductance matrix for essay environment an arbitrary set of conductors. MAGSOLV ( Main MenuSolution-Solve-Electromagnet-Static Analysis-OptSolv ) specifies magnetic solution options and award, initiates the solution for a static analysis. On Classroom. MMF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcMMF ) calculates magnetomotive force along a path. PERBC2D ( Main MenuSolutionApplyBoundaryPeriodic BCs ) generates periodic constraints for 2-D planar analysis. PLF2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocPlot Results2D Flux Lines ) generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.

PMGTRAN ( Main MenuTimeHist PostproElecMagMagnetics ) summarizes electromagnetic results from a transient analysis. POWERH ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Power Loss ) calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body. QFACT ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcQ-factor ) calculates the quality factor for award high-frequency electromagnetic resonators from a mode-frequency solution. RACE ( Main MenuPreprocessorCreateRacetrack Coil ) defines a racetrack current source. Voltaire. REFLCOEF ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc ReflCoeff ) calculates the voltage reflection coefficient, standing wave ratio (VSWR), and phd thesis award, return loss in a coaxial device. SENERGY ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcEnergy ) determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy. SPARM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc S-Parameters ) calculates the life, scattering parameters between two ports of phd thesis, a rectangular waveguide with a TE10 mode excitation or a coaxial waveguide. And Students. SRCS ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcTerminal Par ) calculates terminal parameters for phd thesis award a stranded coil in a linear analysis. To Do. TORQ2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag CalcTorque ) calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field.

TORQC2D ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElecMag Calc Circular Torq ) calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field based on a circular path. TORQSUM ( Main MenuGeneral PostprocElec Mag Calc-2D-Comp. Torque ) summarizes electromagnetic Maxwell and Virtual work torque calculations on element components for phd thesis 2-D planar problems. See Chapter 11 of the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for more information on ANSYS magnetic command macros.

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Imagine that each year, your organization inventories assets in each employee's office. Then, an Excel report is run to phone and students essay help decide how to allocate the equipment budget for next year. The following diagram is an overview of how you can gather, track, and report asset data in your department. 1. The Asset Tracker form template is created. 2. The schema file is mapped to an Excel table and the table layout is award, customized. 3. A blank PivotTable and PivotChart summary report is created.

4. The Asset Tracker form is used to on how to write collect data from phd thesis award, users. 5. All form data is exported into cell phone and students essay the Excel table and the PivotTable and PivotChart reports are refreshed. This solution involves the phd thesis award, following user roles and products: = Required = Not required. Office InfoPath 2007. Office Outlook 2007. Office Excel 2007. Step 1: Customize the Asset Tracker form template. The Asset Tracker form template, which is included in InfoPath, enables you to gather information about each asset in an employee's office, the get your, department that the employee belongs to, categories of assets, and details about each asset. In this solution, a form designer submits the form template to the decision-maker's e-mail account by using Office Outlook 2007. Task 1: Open and customize the Asset Tracker form template.

Because you cannot publish a form template to a list of e-mail recipients if it has a rich text box control containing linked images, you need to make a small change to the Asset Tracker sample template form. On the File menu, click Design a Form Template . In the Design a Form Template dialog box, under Open a form template , click Customize a sample . In the Getting Started dialog box, click Sample - Asset Tracker , and then under Form Tasks , click Design this form . Right click the phd thesis award, assetNotes control, point to how to to do homework Rich Text Box properties, click the award, Display tab, and then under Available formatting , clear the Linked Images check box. The next task is to essay city life define the Submit options so that the employees can submit a uniquely named form file (.xml) to the decision-maker's e-mail account as an attached file. On the Tools menu, click Submit Options . In the Submit Options dialog box, select the phd thesis award, Allow users to submit this form check box. Click Send form data to a single destination , and then, in the list, click E-mail . The Data Connection Wizard appears. In the an essay, To box, type the alias of the decision-maker who will receive all the submitted forms. To specify a unique subject line, in the Subject box: Click Insert Formula . Type the following formula: Click Verify Formula , and phd thesis then click OK twice. In the Introduction box, type an appropriate message or add important instructions for this solution.

On the next page of the wizard, click Send the form data as an attachment , and then select the voltaire, Attach the award, form template to ensure that users can open the form check box. This helps ensure that employees have access to the form template file (.xsn) in descriptive essay city case they cannot access it from it's network location. To specify a a unique file name for each form file (.xml) in the Attachment Name box: Click Insert Formula . Type the phd thesis, same formula as the environment, one on the Subject line: Click Verify Formula , and then click OK twice. On the next page of the wizard, in the Enter a name for this data connection box, type a descriptive name for this submit data connection. Verify that the information is correct in the Summary section, and then click Finish . Save the form it to a public network folder accessible to the decision-maker and to all employees.

Step 2: Map the schema file and customize the table layout in phd thesis award Excel. Setting up the connection between InfoPath and Excel requires three tasks: extracting the schema file for the Asset Tracker form template, mapping this schema file in Excel, and customizing the cell and students, default layout of the Excel table that will contain all the imported XML form data files. Task 1: Extract the phd thesis award, schema file from InfoPath. In InfoPath, open the Asset Tracker form template file. On the Tools menu, click Design this Form . On the essay on toleration voltaire, File menu, click Save As Source Files . In the Browse for Folder dialog box, select a folder or create a new folder where you want to store the schema file. Note the phd thesis award, location of the folder where all of the essay on classroom, source files are saved and the name of the schema file, in phd thesis this case, myschema.xsd , which contains the schema definition of the on how to write, form XML data. Task 2: Map the InfoPath schema file in Excel.

Create a new Excel file, and then save it to a location accessible to the decision-maker. In Excel, if the phd thesis award, Developer tab is not visible, do the following: Click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Excel Options . In the Popular category, under Top options for working with Excel , select the Show Developer tab in the Ribbon check box, and then click OK . Note: The Ribbon is psu schreyer college, a component of the award, Microsoft Office Fluent user interface. On the Developer tab, in the XML group, click Source . The XML Source task pane is displayed. Click XML Maps , and then in the XML Maps dialog box, click Add . On a computer that is running Windows Vista. In the Address bar , click the drive or folder that contains the myschema.xsd file that you created in step 2 of the honors college, section, Task 1: Extract the schema file from InfoPath. On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP. In the Look in award list, click the drive or folder that contains the get your to do homework, myschema.xsd file that you created in step 2 of the section, Task 1: Extract the schema file from InfoPath. Click the file, and award then click Open . When the Multiple Roots dialog box appears, click the assetTracking root node that is defined in psu schreyer honors thesis the myschema.xsd file, and then click OK . The XML map is displayed in the XML Source task pane.

Drag the ns1:asset node element, which is a repeating XML element, to the worksheet location where you want the Excel table to appear. Task 3: Customize the layout of the Excel table. By default, Excel uses the XML element names as column headings for the table. Phd Thesis Award? However, you can change the column headings by editing the column header cells. To modify the default column headers, keep the Excel table selected, find the following string prefix, ns1:asset , and remove it. For example, you would change ns1:assetID to how to get your to do homework ID . To adjust the column width, click the Select All button, and then double-click any column heading boundary.

Step 3: Create a PivotTable and phd thesis PivotChart summary report. Decision-makers use PivotTable and PivotChart reports to cell and students analyze, explore, and phd thesis award visualize summary data. On Classroom? By setting up the PivotTable and PivotChart reports you want to phd thesis award use in this scenario ahead of time, it will be a simple operation for a decision-maker to run the report with the essay on classroom, completed data later. Select a cell in phd thesis award the Excel table. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable , and then click PivotTable . Excel displays the Create PivotTable dialog box. To place the PivotTable report in a new worksheet starting at cell A1, click New Worksheet , and essay voltaire then click OK . Excel adds an empty PivotTable report to phd thesis the specified location and phone displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields, create a layout, and customize the PivotTable report.

To create a cross-tabular report of the data, drag the ID field to the Values area, the Department field to the Column labels area, the Category field to award the Row labels area, and the AssignedTo field to the Report Filter area. Click the PivotTable report. On the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click the Bar chart type. Under 2-D Bar , select Clustered Bar . Adjust the size and location of the pointers to write an essay, PivotChart report to phd thesis your preference. Step 4: Collect asset information from users. Now, that the homework, form template is phd thesis, ready to essay be filled out by all of the employees, you need to phd thesis award publish the form and send it to each employee. When each employee submits the completed form, it is sent as an XML data file (.xml) attached in an e-mail message to the decision-maker's e-mail account. The decision-maker can then move all of the messages to a dedicated InfoPath folder in Outlook. Descriptive Life? In this scenario, it is recommended that you assign a specific time-period for all users to complete the forms so that the decision-maker can run the report with all the completed forms when the data-gathering deadline has been reached.

On the phd thesis, Tools menu, click Design this Form . On the File menu, click Publish . In the Publishing Wizard, click To a list of e-mail recipients , and then click Next . On the next page of the wizard, in the Form template name box, type a name for the form template, and then click Next . The form template name will appear in the subject heading of the message that is sent to your e-mail message recipients. Optionally, on the next page of the wizard, you can create columns that will appear in get your homework your Outlook folders to help organize your e-mail messages. After the Publishing Wizard finishes publishing the form template, an e-mail message with the form will open. Fill out the message, type in the employee names or use a distribution list, and then send the message. In Outlook, the decision-maker can organize all of the submitted XML forms in one of two ways: If the InfoPath Form folders message box appears the first time the message opens, click Create Form Folder . Create a rule in award Outlook to move all of the related InfoPath forms to an InfoPath folder.

Because you already created the Excel workbook steps 2 and 3, it's a simple matter for the decision maker to export and review the form data. Cell And Students? The decision maker simply needs to export the phd thesis award, xml files (.xml) from Outlook, import all of the form files (.xml) into the Excel workbook, and then refreshing the data. Task 1: Export the forms from Outlook to essay a Windows folder. In Outlook, select the folder that contains all of the forms that you received from employees, and then press CTRL+A to select all of the form e-mail messages. Right click the selection, point to InfoPath Actions , and phd thesis award then click Export Forms . In the Export Forms dialog box, select a folder, and pointers on how to write an essay press OK . Task 2: Import the forms into Excel. In the Excel workbook that you created in phd thesis award Step 2: Map the schema file and customize the table layout in Excel, select one of the mapped cells in the Excel table. On the Developer tab, in the XML group, click Import . The Import XML dialog box is on toleration voltaire, displayed. On a computer that is running Windows Vista. In the phd thesis, Address bar , click the folder that contains the XML data files (.xml) created in Task 1: Export the forms from Outlook to a Windows folder. On a computer that is running Microsoft Windows XP.

In the Look in list, click folder that contains the XML data files (.xml) created in Task 1: Export the forms from Outlook to a Windows folder. Do one of the following: If the files are contiguous, press SHIFT, and then click the first and the last file in the list. If the files are not contiguous, press CTRL, and then click each file that you want to import in the list. By default, Excel overwrites any existing data in the mapped cells, which is the desired final outcome for this business solution. However, a decision-maker could, for example, import the cell, data several times to gauge progress before the scheduled deadline. Note: In Excel, you can also append the data by using the phd thesis, Append new data to existing XML tables option (on the get your to do, Developer tab, in the XML group, click Map Properties ), which may be appropriate for other solutions. Task 3: Refresh the PivotTable and PivotChart reports. Click a cell in the PivotTable report.

On the phd thesis, Options tab, in to write an essay the Data group, click the arrow next to Refresh All , and phd thesis then click Refresh . The Excel workbook now contains all of the data and summary reports that you need to help you allocate the equipment budget for next year. Of course, you can do further analysis in your Excel workbook if necessary, such as sorting, filtering, or conditionally formatting the data. Final thoughts: Consider using a SharePoint list or Access database. As an alternative, consider using a SharePoint list or Access database, instead of XML, to transfer data between InfoPath and essay on classroom environment Excel. From InfoPath, you can easily use a SharePoint list as a read-only data source.

You can do one of two things: From the SharePoint list, export the data to Excel, which automatically creates a data connection in phd thesis Excel. From Excel, explicitly create a data connection to the SharePoint list. Once a data connection is created, you can refresh the data in Excel to retrieve up-to-date data. You can use a SharePoint list to how to get your homework add and update the data, use an InfoPath form to display an item from the list (for example, a complex or long item best displayed vertically), and then use Excel to phd thesis further analyze the data. 1. Display a single item for easy review in InfoPath. 2. Add and update data in a SharePoint List. 3. Refresh and report up-to-date with Excel. From InfoPath, you can create a read/write connection to college an Access database. From Excel, you can explicitly create a data connection to the Access database that you can refresh to retrieve up-to-date data.

You can even define the connection to award automatically refresh when the workbook is opened, or periodically refresh, such as every 5 minutes. You can use an Access database as an intermediary between InfoPath and Excel. When you submit an InfoPath form to Access, you update the Access database. When you refresh the data connection in Excel, you retrieve updated data from Access. In effect, you are submitting data indirectly from InfoPath to an Excel workbook. 1. Essay? Display and submit a form to phd thesis award an Access database. 2. Store data in an Access database. 3. Refresh and report up-to-date with Excel.

Tip: Did you know that you can create an InfoPath form directly from Access 2007? If your users have Outlook 2007 and essay life InfoPath 2007 installed on their computers, you can gather data from diverse users directly from Access 2007 by using the Collect data from e-mail messages wizard. Award? For more information, see the phone, Acess 2007 help topic, Collect data by using e-mail messages.