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Changes made to 2018 Extended Essay Assessment by Salma - Prezi

Abstract extended essay

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How to write an excellent Extended Essay Abstract - YouTube

Annotated Bibliography Writing Service. Many young people experience stress due to a large load and big amount of assignments, abstracts, course works, descriptive essays and tons of other academic works that they receive daily, and essay not many can cope with these tasks. And last thing you want to do after finishing your essay is writing an annotated bibliography. Pleasure Book Essay! Modern students face numerous questions in abstract extended essay the course of studying. What is the and response essay distinctive feature of the MLA and APA citation style? Does the first line need to be indented? What is an optimal text length?

What format and style to follow? What to do if you need to abstract essay, write a paper but can’t do it yourself? The most obvious solution is to get consulted by your professor or scientific instructor, but what to do if you have already consulted with someone but lack time or knowledge to complete the task? There is one more solution! You can search for research a reliable and professional writer, who uses original writing methods, or specialized writing service where you can buy a high-quality paper.

What Kind Of Academic Assistance Do Our Services Provide? Writing services are Internet-based companies that are engaged in the distribution of essay, academic help. As a rule, a professional service employs a bunch of qualified writers who can cope with any college work, be it a descriptive or controversy essay, research paper, dissertation or other paper. When a student reaches out such service with a request “please, write my paper for me”, he or she places an order request, and a company finds a suitable person, who is expert in the required field of study. EduBirdie.com is one of athenian democracy, such services. We have vast experience in academic assistance, and our company has gained reputation for a trustworthy service throughout the years of our existence. Being one of the leading companies that are engaged in the distribution of abstract, academic help, we give our clients a number of undeniable benefits. Our annotated bibliography writing service is created to help college and university students reach their academic goals and book reading boost their performance. We offer a broad range of services. Abstract! Our specialists can assist you at any stage of the process. They can help you: to conduct an in-depth research and and response find valid sources, to formulate a proper thesis, to write any part of your assignment (or the whole paper) for you, to create properly structured annotated bibliographies, to proofread , edit and polish your work!

EduBirdie.com hires only specialists that are engaged in the delivery of high-quality academic assistance, and abstract extended we had already gained flawless reputation as a reliable and good professional assistant. Extended! What makes us a good choice for you? High-quality at essay, affordable prices. If you are looking for a place to buy annotation or academic work of excellent quality EduBirdie.com is just for you because our team strives to provide only premium quality academic works. At the same time, prices for our assistance are lower than on extended, many similar sites and thus, is affordable for anyone who needs help! Experienced writers. Our experts are educated and skilful people.

In addition to summary essay, the fact that writers are forbidden to use aboriginal writing methods, it is also worth noting that they all are native speakers with university degrees! How To Write An Annotated Bibliography? For some students writing an extended essay, annotated bibliography is the topics biggest challenge. Why? Because the essay majority of essay, young people simply don’t know what types of essay, sources to include and what citation format to athenian democracy, use. First of all, you have to know the definition of annotated bibliography. Bibliography or annotated bibliography is not the same as works cited page - this is the first mistake that many students make. In fact, while works cited page is a simple list of sources that should inform a reader about what sources the author used to create his work, the bibliography is a list of each reference source that summarizes, evaluates and draws conclusions from them. As a rule, an abstract extended, annotation is you answer prove a thesis, created by MLA or APA formats, sometimes an annotation may also be designed in Chicago style, but this happens in rare cases, so we offer you to abstract extended essay, review the rules of essay, two main formats. MLA annotated bibliography. A modern language association citation style is one of the most commonly used ones; however, official MLA Handbook doesn’t provide guidelines for extended essay creating an annotated reference page.

Still, if your professor requires you to write an book reading, annotated bibliography in abstract extended essay MLA style, here are a few tips to keep in mind: Use double spaces. Adjust your bibliographic list to alphabetical order by author’s name. If you don’t know the author’s name, list sources by titles. Italicize titles of scholarly journal articles and athenian democracy books. But if you are creating annotations for essays, short stories or books’ chapters put their titles in quotation marks.

The first line of every source has to extended essay, be indented. APA annotated bibliography. American psychological association or APA style is another one very popular format of citations. You can easily find an pleasure book essay, official handout, which summarizes all the extended essay rules and requirements of this style on the Internet. Annotations in research paper this form also require you to summarize and assess every source.

Such an essay, annotation includes the following information: name of the author of the source, date when the source was last edited, its web address or number of pages. The main distinctive feature is format of this page. You have to review a guidelines given by your teacher, or find them on how do, the Internet, and ensure that you structure your annotations in a proper manner, following all the rules, setting correct spaces, etc. What Structure Annotations May Have? All students know that different types of essay, work have quite similar structure. No matter if you have to essay, create abstracts, research works, descriptive or ACT essays, the abstract essay structure will be almost the same: Introduction short paragraph that introduces readers to the topic and contains thesis statement and hypothesis.

Main part. The main body of any text usually consists of several parts. Each paragraph of this section must present an argument that supports your hypothesis stated in book intro, explains the problem and offers solutions. Conclusion. In this part of the text, a student reminds every argument and concludes it. Abstract Extended Essay! The main goal of this section is to highlight critical messages and draw one or a few logical conclusions that confirm or deny your thesis statement. Research Paper Topics! However, the abstract structure of how do you answer, bibliographies may differ. Thus, you must ensure that you read and abstract understood all the requirements of your teacher and use the required writing methods to structure it properly. Where To Look For Examples Of Bibliographies?

Not all students are ready to pay for prove their works. And even in this case, our team can assist you. Extended! At our service, you can not only request help with creating citations for your annotation page but also find many useful citation information and athenian democracy essay sample annotations! Thus, if you are looking for a high-quality sample of citations for annotated bibliographies in PDF format that are designed in accordance with a right format and style then EduBirdie.com is a good source for you! Choosing a good topic is a key to creating a successful work.

Your whole research will be based on the theme you choose unless you are creating an ACT paper. Thus, if the selected theme is too complicated, it will be harder to complete this task. Before selecting a theme for your work, you must carefully read the given guidelines. In this matter, everything depends on essay, the course that you are studying. If you are performing an ACT essay, as a rule, a theme will be given to you. Pleasure Book Reading Essay! In this case, you will not have a possibility to choose another theme, but you have to carefully review the extended essay requirements to ACT essays and strictly follow them. In other cases, you have a chance to choose the subject of your work yourself. We advise you to approach this process seriously. Start a discussion around a certain problem.

Works that are based on a controversy always draw attention. Such themes make people think, defend their opinion and come to summary, logical conclusions. Choose a theme that wasn’t fully studied yet, for example; you can explore aboriginal healing methods, evaluate them and offer new solutions. What Subjects Require An Annotation? Creating an annotation page is usually required when you are working on a more complex work. For example, a simple essay will not require you to include annotations, but if you are writing a dissertation, research or course work on serious subjects like Medicine, History, Economics and other you will have to include this page.

Why? Annotation is intended to explain to abstract extended essay, the reader why chosen sources are relevant and important to your work. Email for customers: No matter what type of essay you need, we’ll get it written, so let’s get started. Placing your order is totally free. Place new orders and track progress on current orders anytime and anywhere.

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Changes made to 2018 Extended Essay Assessment by Salma - Prezi

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By accepting these Terms and abstract extended essay, Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by a level verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources. Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is authentic and that the cardholder is extended essay, aware of macbeth gcse charges by placing a phone call to them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to be submitted for verification to our Risk Department. In order to ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers. Extended Essay! Failure to verify an macbeth gcse, order may result in order cancellation or the extended, order being placed on hold. You consent to our processing your personal information for democracy, the purposes of providing the Services, including for abstract extended, verification purposes as set out herein. You also consent to the use of such data for communicating with you, for statutory and accounting purposes. You acknowledge that you have read and consented to athenian essay samedayessay.org's Privacy Policy. LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY.

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We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on.

When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include:

Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a level mathematics coursework, a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in abstract extended essay order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. A Level Mathematics! We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and extended essay, record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in macbeth essay the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Extended Essay! Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and essay, Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the abstract extended, Website.

Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for research, a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase;

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Three Reasons Why SAP Supply Chain Planning Is a Risk to extended essay, Your Business. I am writing this blog post in mathematics, the air, sitting in seat 4c, somewhere over abstract extended, the Midwest en route to Philadelphia. As I look below, I see field after field of United States farmland. The land looks like a giant puzzle. After a busy week with high-tech and electronics clients, my fingers are itching to summary, help others solve a different type of puzzle. The goal of this blog is to help business users maximize their current SAP Investments in extended, a time of change. High-tech manufacturers in the Silicon Valley of the United States are some of the best at supply chain planning. With changing product profiles, short life cycles, constraints with downstream suppliers, and changing markets, being good at supply chain planning matters. Research Paper Topics! In this tough market excellence in supply chain planning is a critical element to essay, be competitive.

In high-tech, supply chain planning is a level mathematics more important than in other industries like chemical, pharmaceutical, consumer packaged goods and retail. Over the course of the abstract extended essay last decade many clients implemented supply chain planning but have struggled to maximize the value. The reasons are numerous. Planner turnover, time to plan, ability to get to data, system usability, and talent gaps are all major issues. Macbeth! Getting good at planning requires executive leadership. Business leaders need to support a new way of doing business. It requires investing in planning talent, and the recognition of planning as a core competency. Most companies fail before they succeed. Getting good at supply chain planning also requires the adoption of a different cultural paradigm. Abstract Extended Essay! How so? Most organizations reward the urgent.

The urgent gets in the way of the athenian important. Planning is abstract important, and planners need time to plan. When companies reward fire fighting, they never get good at planning. Supply chain planning and the discipline and rigor is a different way of working. To get good at planning, it requires focus and discipline. At Supply Chain Insights, we complete 25-30 quantitative studies a year.

Most of how do you answer prove our work is focused on supply chain planning. The respondents vary by study; but during a year, we will collect about 3,000 unique responses. In the research I notice three trends: 1) Demand Planning Is Stronger than Supply. We have made more progress in forecasting than supply planning. Organizations are happier with their systems in the areas of demand planning than supply. Demand planning processes are less industry-specific and the principles can be more widely applied than those of supply planning. Abstract! Satisfaction with supply is much lower.

Constraint-based modeling and “what-if” analysis are major gaps. 2) Increased Dependency on Excel Spreadsheets. Despite large investments in supply chain planning, today, the global multinational is more dependent on book reading, Excel. Due to usability issues, Excel is the planning system of choice. While companies have deployed large planning systems, Excel ghettos have popped up in abstract essay, most organizations. Planners plan in Excel and write the results to the supply chain planning system. The gap has grown. Film Paper Topics! Most organizations struggle to use the planning technologies.

Few realize that they will never be able to model the complex, non-linear supply chain relationships in an Excel spreadsheet. 3) Business requirements Are Changing. Forecastability (the ability to forecast a product line) has gotten worse, demand error and bias is increasing, and supply is more complex. Abstract! The rhythms and cycles of business have increased. Essay! Organizations want better decisions faster. As a result, organizations struggle to match the cadence of planning to the required cadence of the business. So, bottom line, most organizations are looking to improve their supply chain planning systems; but at the core of this discussion with my clients that have chosen SAP supply chain planning technologies, the question is, “What should we do with our supply chain planning systems from SAP?” While the name of SAP’s Supply Chain Planning suite has changed to SCM7 (the old name was SAP APO), the gaps are glaring. I council clients to stabilize their investments in the SAP Supply Chain Planning technologies, and recognize SAP APO with the abstract extended CIF Interface as a planning system of a level coursework record. Essay! For SAP users, it is the book essay best and a much needed system of record. Why a planning system of record?

Most organizations have 2-3 demand and supply instances and 5-7 ERP systems. The IT world of abstract extended essay a large multi-national is essay complex. I then recommend that the abstract essay business augment the how do you answer prove SAP SCM functionality using best-of-breed, industry-specific optimization. I recommend using best-of-breed solutions to write to the current SAP APO framework. Here is my advice. Why I Believe SAP SCM Is a Risk to Your Business. In these sessions I always encounter a discussion around IT standardization. Most business users must justify to their IT teams that they need to justify doing something other than SAP supply chain planning. This article is written to help organizations better address this question. In many companies, SAP has a lock on the decision processes. The SAP team is extended masterful at selling the value of SAP everywhere to the C-suite, and the system integrators, with deep bench strength in SAP, will nod in agreement. (The dirty little secret is that the system integrators make more revenue and profit on SAP deployments than other planning options.

So, it is in their best interest to support the book essay implementation of SAP Supply Chain Planning software.) For the record, let me state a few facts that I strongly believe. SAP is one of the best, if not the extended best software vendor, at writing software code when they are clear on the requirements. The SAP solution is better than the Oracle SCM solution for planning. Pleasure Essay! The problem is that supply chain planning is just not a hot market for SAP to abstract extended essay, invest in, and mathematics coursework the culture struggles to attract and retain thought leaders. I also believe that SAP is abstract essay one of the best, if not the pleasure book best, ERP system for most process manufacturers. So, why do I not believe in SAP SCM 7? Why am I so bold as to pen an abstract article to paper, state that the investment in SAP SCM 7, and the migration from SAP APO, is a risk to your business? I have three primary reasons. It is extended essay centered in the now, the ten-year vision, and the opportunity. 1) SAP Supply Chain Planning Is a Poor Supply Chain Planning and essay gcse Optimization Technology . Let’s face facts. When SAP launched APO in 2002, the optimization technologies were inferior to most best-of-breed technologies in the market.

Over the years, as technology innovation has improved, staying current on supply chain planning optimization has not been a focus for SAP. Relative to other technology development areas, the opportunity for SAP was not as great. They quickly became a market leader, and then shifted resources to extended essay, other areas. As a result, the most successful SAP Supply Chain Planning implementations layer on optimization technology from a specialist vendor or University. It is an good essay expensive workaround. In addition, the SAP Supply Chain Planning solution is extended more expensive, has a longer time to value, and is harder to use than alternative solutions. In a study of 187 supply chain planning instances, we found a correlation at a 90% confidence level that SAP APO implementations were longer to implement, lower ROI and book essay user satisfaction than best-of-breed technologies from JDA, Kinaxis, Logility, or OM Partners. The data from this study is shown in Figure 1. While consultants will often rationalize the abstract extended difference away stating that an 80% fit is good enough, the wise business leader knows that supply chain planning is not a game of horseshoes. Model fit and speed are essential to plan.

The SAP Supply Chain Planning suite of products is not competitive. This is especially true for the core business user/planner. Figure 1. Relative Comparison of Best-of-Breed Providers versus ERP Expansionists like SAP/Oracle. 2) SAP Is Discontinuing Support of the Current Supply Chain Planning Technologies. Film Research! At first the announcement by SAP was that SAP APO would be discontinued in 2020. Following a customer uproar the date was extended until 2025.

Assuming that it takes 3-5 years to build an effective planning organization in a global multinational, the rewriting of the SAP Supply Chain Planning platform is an extended opportunity cost to the business implementing the solution. It is not an evolution. Instead, it is a re-implementation. While SAP is busy redefining the architecture, a reimplementation has risks. This movement from SAP APO to SCM 7 is a redesign of supply chain planning by SAP. It bundles Integrated Business Planning, a Supply Chain Control Tower, Inventory and how do a thesis Demand/Supply planning into a new cloud-based architecture based on HANA. The solution is evolving, and extended will take time. Macbeth! In my calls I find that current references report significant issues—roll-up and roll-down of hierarchies, and depth of demand functionality.

They are actively partnering with SAP to make the new architecture work. They will get there, but the progress is slow. Mature SAP manufacturing IT and line-of-business teams have been testing the functionality for abstract essay, more than a year and currently do not consider it mature enough for rollout. Consideration of the new technologies is currently recommended by only mature SAP/line-of-business teams used to working through implementation issues with SAP. The rewrite extends to research, redefining ECC architectures. Current functionality of SAP GATP and abstract extended essay SAP APO PPDS (production planning) will be moved into the ECC ERP frameworks. Since most companies have 5-7 ERP instances, this approach will fragment the functionality slowing the implementations and making it more difficult to build multitier ATP and summary essay visibility solutions. Multitier optimization is critical for optimizing the outsourced network. SAP SNC will be moved into the Ariba Network.

SAP is abstract pushing for the adoption of the Ariba network for B2B connectivity and inter-enterprise business process management. The adoption rate is slow. Ariba, while mature for indirect procurement, is still not the preferred method for direct material management. I wish the SAP team luck in film, this endeavor. If history is our guide, competitors’ rate of success of abstract extended essay re-platforming a supply chain planning solution is low. I know of no time in a level coursework, the history of supply chain planning where a rewrite of the supply chain planning platform has been successful. Abstract Extended! The launch of Manugistics 7.1/7.2 was a failure, and was a nail in the coffin for a struggling supply chain planning vendor 15 years ago. In parallel, the rewrite of the Numetrix software by Oracle was also problematic. History shows that a major rewrite of supply chain planning platform will take five to six years to good summary and response essay, stabilize. So, while the shift in adoption will happen in 7-10 years, the issues with bugs and bug-fixes will take much longer. The new redefinition of the SAP architecture is a better fit for casual users than for core planners.

With the increase in business constraints and essay the complexities in demand, companies that are good at planning will need to how do prove a thesis, focus on the systems for essay, core planners first, and then augment for casual users. The design of the new SAP solution is summary and response essay a better fit for extended, the casual user than the core business planner. If I were a SAP line-of-business user, I would use this time to prove, find a better planning solution than SAP APO or the promise of SCM 7.0. Figure 2. Supply Chain Planner Continuum. 3) Opportunity Cost. Essay! Supply Chain Planning is moving in new and exciting directions. The redeployment of SAP SCM is an opportunity cost for SAP to take advantage of this innovation. We are entering into macbeth essay gcse a period of rapid change for essay, planning and the redefinition of supply chain planning architectures. Concurrent optimization, unstructured text mining, streaming data and sensing, and cognitive learning are converging. I believe that these forms of innovation will redefine supply chain planning into learning systems within five years.

What does this mean? Using cognitive learning, our supply chain planning solutions will think and athenian essay resolve exceptions as we sleep. Abstract Essay! Sensing through pattern recognition and sensors will shorten cycles for how do you answer a thesis, response. This will transform planning, making the extended essay system less reliant on summary essay, manual data touches and the traditional business planner. This technology advancement will happen concurrently with the relaunch of the new SAP Supply Chain Planning Software. Abstract Essay! As a result, I believe that SAP innovation will lag and SAP will play catch-up in 2025. Book Essay! Investment in the SAP rewrite is an opportunity cost for the average business user to embrace new and abstract extended more promising technologies. The second area of rapid change is the use of canonical B2B operating networks to improve B2B flows. As this happens, we will see multitier Available to macbeth essay gcse, Promise (ATP) solutions, online network performance benchmarking, and much more advanced multitier sensing and modeling.

SAP is an enterprise system. Abstract Extended Essay! It is not a one-to-many or a many-to-many data model. The movement of significant pieces of athenian essay SAP planning into ECC architectures will make it more difficult to move to support multitier functionality. So, if you are in an SAP shop with an SAP dictate, socialize this blog post. I think that blindly following the SAP-only path for supply chain planning is a major risk to the business.

At the end of the debate, let me know your thoughts. If you believe that I am wrong, I will re-write this post. I know that this is a contentious and political debate in most organizations, but, I think that it is abstract extended essay a discussion that needs an open forum in the industry. As the debate ensues, what do I recommend? 1) Stabilize your SAP investments. Implement the SAP supply chain planning systems as a system of record. Use the SAP APO solution with the CIF interface without the how do you answer prove a thesis optimization engines as a system of record.

Write to the SAP planning system of abstract record from best-of-breed solutions for research paper, optimization and cognitive learning. 2) Use in-memory visualization tools to drive insights from data. Don’t limit yourself to the SAP BI technologies. Invest heavily in visualization technologies like Qlik, Tableau, and Spotfilre to drive value and insights. 3) Invest in extended essay, technologies that can model your business and that your planners will use. Supply chain planning is very industry specific and 80% is not enough. Spend time testing and refining the planning systems. 4) Actively follow the SAP rewrite and redeployment of the SAP SCM 7. Stay involved, but watch from the sidelines. If there are pieces of this solution that interest you, be a late follower.

Let others work out the issues. 5) Stay connected in pleasure reading, the industry. In the evolution of the essay industry, trust but verify. Actively network with SAP users and watch the deployments. A Level Mathematics! Sidestep the hype and marketing rhetoric, and stay focused on the delivery of abstract extended real business results. These are my thoughts. Book Reading! I would love to hear from you! Life is busy at Supply Chain Insights. We are working on the completion of our new game—SCI Impact!—for the public training in Philadelphia in August and the content for the Supply Chain Insights Global Summit in September. Our goal is to help supply chain visionaries, around the world, break the mold and drive higher levels of improvement. The conference will feature case studies on demand sensing, rules-based ontologies, and extended the use of sentiment analysis.

Lora Cecere is the Founder of Supply Chain Insights. She is trying to redefine the industry analyst model to make it friendlier and good more useful for supply chain leaders. Lora has written the books Supply Chain Metrics That Matter and abstract Bricks Matter , and is currently working on her third book, Leadership Matters. She also actively blogs on her Supply Chain Insights website, at the Supply Chain Shaman blog, and for Forbes . When not writing or running her company, Lora is training for a triathlon, taking classes for her DBA degree in athenian essay, research, knitting and quilting for her new granddaughter, and essay doing tendu (s) and Degage (s) to dome her feet for pointe work at the ballet barre. Lora thinks that we are never too old to learn or to push the organization harder to drive excellence. As a longtime SAP APO consultant I find much of this article to a level, be true. A few points where I disagree: 1. The system of record is the system that is actually performing the activity. So for instance, if APO is not being used for demand planning, then APO is not the system of record for demand planning data.

SAS or DemandWorks or whatever is being used is. 2. Abstract Extended Essay! I agree that high tech does tend to be quite a bit better at planning than the average. The best planning department I ever worked with was Texas Instruments. However, a big factor is that most likely (I have not seen the paystubs) high tech values planning and is willing to pay planners. At most companies planning is a relatively low paid occupation, especially when one considers the skills required. Film Paper! Companies repeatedly make the mistake of only allowing a few functions to be well paid. That is more of a limiting factor than math education, which companies love to abstract, talk about, but you have to pay above average if you want above average or specialized skills. Athenian Democracy Essay! Secondly, it is amazing how little so many planning departments have to offer new planners in terms of training.

If the head of the abstract essay planning department does not have the skills, how are the new planners to be trained? This is a huge problem that is book reading I think unacknowledged, and it is not resolved by abstract, sending people to topics, APICS training. 3. Extended! SAP is nowhere close to the best system for process manufacturers. I would award this prize to ProcessPro. A Thesis! PP-PI’s process orders are not much better than normal production orders in terms of extended essay their fit for prove, process industry manufacturing, and things like batch management functionality -which is commonly activated in process industries — take a lot of effort to activate, but this functionality is essay absolutely native in ProcessPro.

However, no large consulting company introduces ProcessPro to its clients because it is not profit maximizing in terms of consulting and therefore may as well not exist to and response, these companies. 4. There is no doubt in my mind that SAP APO takes longer to abstract, implement in any module than any other advanced planning system. Film Paper Topics! You also have to be willing to invest more time in training than in other planning systems. 5. SAP’s statements regarding the abstract extended essay future of gcse APO should be taken with a giant grain of salt. I have seen many projections that never came true. SPP and EWM were supposed to abstract, be major lines of business for APO, and athenian essay neither of them ever became popular in the market. Supposedly APO is to be replaced by IBP.

But really who knows? 6. I would disagree with the article with respect to innovation, in that I see very little innovation in planning. Lora works with executives primarily, and this gives a distorted view of innovation. This is extended essay because its much easier to talk about doing innovative things than actually doing innovative things. Companies also constantly overestimate their uptake of innovation, and if you talk to 100 companies, 100 will say they are innovative or implement innovation. I point to the many areas that were to athenian democracy, hold great promise for planning — such as optimization and allocation that proved too complex, or the abstract extended essay software too difficult to implement. Most companies still cannot master statistical forecasting. Most also cannot master collaborative forecasting.

Production scheduling is still predominantly performed with spreadsheets and lengthy explanations are required – and often not accepted — to explain by ERP systems are hopeless at doing production scheduling. There is a lot of software out there that is impressive in one way or another for planning, but if we are talking about actual uptake of the software, its not a pretty picture. 7. Towards the end of the article Lora gets back to APO being the good summary and response system of record. I think this is problematic and I don’t understand the emphasis upon it. It makes no sense to pass data to APO that APO is not actively planning. Abstract Essay! APO, as within any system, should be the research system of record for those things it processes. It would be far better for extended essay, APO to simply be considered as one spoke in the wheel. It is mathematics not a hub, it simply offers various planning modules which companies can decide to activate or not activate. But I do think that Lora’s point regarding using best of breed applications along with APO is quite a good idea.

You cannot get this advice from any consulting company, but it is the right approach. Thanks Shaun. Let’s see what happens. Bouncing on abstract essay, Shaun’s comment, and to avoid confusion: when Lora refers to SCM 7, does she mean SAP SCM 7.0 or IBP? Thanks for the commentary. I edited the post to macbeth, reflect SAP SCM 7.0. Step 5 — “Trust but Verify”. This is great advice. After 25 years in the planning and scheduling market developing systems, I think there’s a huge canyon between what vendors promise and what customers really experience. It’s too easy to gloss over extended, the details that make or break a successful system. Essay! A “pilot” or “proof of concept” is what we always recommend since the only way to know if this stuff will work for a particular company is to go do it. (The challenge is to make the “doing it” fast and affordable.)

Thanks for abstract, the article…let’s see what 2025 brings in reality. Lora: As a long time follower of your blog , a consultant in the Supply Chain field and athenian essay a person who pursues all things Planning, I found the title of the article a little bit interesting! Hi Tech does well in planning because they understand probability of outcomes better, hire talent and pay better. In Tech, SC Velocity matters as opposed to old line companies where investment models determine need for efficiency ROI. So the need for an effective Supply chain is subsumed by efficiency driven thinking in most old line industries. Planner turnover, ability to abstract, plan, getting data are emblematic for how do you answer a thesis, an org not just SAP. Mindset is the abstract essay reason most are not satisfied with supply. The general thesis everyone accepts is,: “Forecast is not accurate and prove a thesis so Demand planning is wrong,” “Supply Planning is abstract essay under my control and should be a certainty”. Dependency on Excel is a universal phenomenon, regardless of the planning system you use. Coursework! Nicer UI, or cleaner UI ignores the real reason planners migrate to excel.

The need to extended essay, easily model a decision, and the ability to flatten the decision criteria seem to be the primary criteria. Essay! Look at abstract, new tools from Steelwedge, ANAPLAN, TRADESHIFT, and research paper O9. How they address the essay modeling requirement counts some part for their success. As long as executives do not ask the impact of excel based decisions, there will be no impetus to deliver a integrated data driven decision so planning will be certainly enriched by research, Excel regardless of whose tool you use. I found a disconnect on the business requirements paragraph to extended, be incongruent to the notion Demand is stronger.

Gaps between Planning execution systems are glaring not just SAP SCM. But understand your perspective why you expect SAP to do better. Agree that IT standardization and a drive to cost arbitrage under the guise of common talent in pleasure reading essay, IT is part of the problem. Cost wise, most Planning implementations are a smidgen of SAP ECC or BW projects. SCM7 is about APO. IBP is a new platform and provides solution not offered in SCM 7. We have published 2 white papers (Dec 2014 June 2015) highlighting the differences between the abstract essay two SAP Planning components.

Our team has implemented more IBP projects (SOP, Inventory ,SCT) than any other team in the SAP world. IBP has ability to create hierarchies. More than happy to connect you to clients who are doing well with IBP. Lora, I agree : Planning is moving in different areas and mathematics bringing ideas into play that will dis-intermediate the old linear thinking. SAP will get its share and so will others. We are in for changes all around.

Padman thanks for abstract extended, your comments. I would love to research, connect to your positive references using SAP IBP. My contacts in the industry are very positive on abstract, initial implementation, but the sentiment wanes through the long pilots. I see delayed implementations and how do you answer missed expectations. I also find a gap. When I work with an organization, I will see that the CIO will remain positive through these long implementations, but that the supply chain leaders have high frustration levels. The pilots that I am following have been testing for many months and have delayed final roll-outs due to essay, the issues that I mention in the post.

As you know, I write for the supply chain leader and try to good and response, convey their sentiment. I look forward to connecting with your references. Lora: I will connect separately. Our IBP implementations are driven by SC Leaders mostly from operations. Interestingly most often the abstract IT team is peripheral to our conversations. We have reached out research, a couple of times by email. Sorry that we have not been able to connect one-on-one.

I was looking forward to sharing insights from your references. I am sorry that you have not been able to provide the references, but I am still open to talking to them if they are available. Thanks for your article. I am co-founder of Bizbrain tech, a company formed by Ex-SAP colleagues and extended which focuses only on book, IBP implementations. All our planners (Not CIO) at our implementations are very happy. We have done most complex implementations and in essay, a record time.

I am happy to connect you with our customers to hear direct feedback from customers.. I am not trying to change your opinion just wanted you to hear from our IBP customers… Thanks. I would love to interview your references. I will send you a direct email.

Thanks for paper topics, the help! My direct contacts working on the pilots are not so positive, so it would be great to extended essay, discuss the solution with those that are having success. I appreciate your help! Krishna I have reached out a couple of times to connect to your references. Sorry that you were not able to provide them. Thanks for your response. I have reached out a couple of times to get contacts at your references, and a level mathematics coursework I am sad that this has not worked out. We want to get this right, and essay would love to still hear what your references have to say. All the best! APO is a tool. It is democracy fairly well documented in what it does and what it does not.

One can literally buy a book (or books) that explain how it works. It can be extended by custom development if you choose so or not if you don’t feel like it. If you don’t like APO, then buy another tool or tools. Do whatever – the market is abstract essay full of essay gcse software packages (Kinaxis, Quintiq, ToolsGroup, etc). I don’t understand, how’s misapplication of use is extended essay tool’s problem? Full disclosure: I work for Accenture. I thought I should mention it upfront. The issue is that the tool–from either vendor mentioned–is usually poorly understood by the system integrator; and the client wants to coursework, use the technology to automate past practices. Abstract Essay! I find that the best practices use new forms of decision support to drive new processes to improve value. Are you saying that both system integrator and the client are at book essay, fault? Hmm, usually just the software gets the blame because being inanimate object, it does not fight back.

Lora, I just found your blog and extended essay this article – I am impressed by your way of writing and your perspective to connect architecture to business. Regard me as a regular reader from now on. Regards thanks, Boris. Thanks for summary essay, the feedback! Welcome to the blog. Without going into details, from my experience having started SOP on HANA at SAP from scratch (and the IBP conversion), I couldn’t agree more with your perspective! Note that despite the commercial success of SOP/IBP, I decided to join a different company (Anaplan) which I have to humbly admit is at abstract essay, least 5 years ahead of my old product line. I would add a point that cloud competency (affecting the whole customer experience) is very much lacking in supply chain planning for most players… Looking forward to your next post! Lora – have been reading your blog for about a year and have been following Shaun for quite some time (as an APO consultant I use Shaun’s blog materials all the time as technical references). I agree with Shaun’s point about APO being a system of record to athenian essay, a point.

If the end goal is to still use APO for the supply side or to abstract extended essay, somehow feed the research paper topics demand plan back into SAP so an organization can run MRP or perform other finance related activities then I would agree that this makes sense. Using APO as a gateway back into APO or ECC to conduct other activities is common since the interfaces are already built. However, the reporting and analytics capabilities are so limited that if I had something better I’d probably stick with that as my system of record. Regarding Excel, I could not agree with you more. Planners are too quick to abandon their tools in favor of going to Excel because that is the path of least resistance. However, that is abstract usually for good reason. I will say that my experience is not because the UI is better or that Excel is easier to use. I see this behavior (myself included) because Excel is athenian democracy ultimately flexible and allows the user to extended essay, do whatever he or she requires.

That is not always a good thing and does not consider the necessary data integrity or integration ramifications. But, it gets the a level job done in a pinch even though it leads to a huge problem in connecting planning to execution which I believe is one of the extended essay 7 deadly sins you call out in your most recent blog post. I told a COO (whose SC team was using Excel to plan $2B in annual procurement) that he was getting excellent return on pleasure essay, a tool that you can buy at Costco for abstract extended, $199. Everyone will keep using Excel and it is easier to athenian essay, understand than a complicated system but it can’t scale. SAP was putting on the full court press at this year’s Sapphire at preaching the gospel of IBP. It looks like a great tool and while it does not have all the functionality of APO I believe it puts them on better footing against competitors like SW and Kinaxis.

However, the biggest pushback I kept hearing from clients already using APO was that IBP is abstract extended a re-implementation and not an upgrade. This means a whole new lengthy project and abandoning the billions spent in APO projects to start the process over a thesis, again. That is a serious drawback to many organizations which I fear will leave many APO customer stuck in this “no man’s land” which is why I agree Shaun’s point #5. Great article – I look forward to reading your next blog. “We have made more progress in forecasting than supply planning.” Since about extended essay, year 2000 innovation has switched to creating certainty of demand for asset light digital business, exemplified by systems behind Google, Amazon and Facebook.

Folks like Oracle, SAP and even Microsoft have not architected core technologies for to optimize certainty of supply. I suspect Microsoft (who is now underway with a come back) maybe Salesforce will invert the demand platform innovations (Hadoop/Spark et al) to address supply planning. Amazon even builds warehouses rather than optimizes supply chain – how cute having the worlds largest one level MRP system (little wonder hardly profitable).

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dave ross essays Investigations into The Antiquity of The Cross in abstract extended Cygnus. Copyright 2000 by the author. (NOTE: The full text of this essay, complete with footnotes and illustrations, was published in Culture and Cosmos http://www.cultureandcosmos.org, v. 4, no.2 (Autumn/Winter 2000). My thanks to the editor, Mr. Nicholas Campion, for book, his kind permission to extended essay, reproduce the text of the democracy, article here. -dr) The Age of Exploration did indeed give rise to a great deal of innovation and abstract essay, experimentation in celestial cartography. New constellations had to summary, be devised to essay, make sense out of the relative chaos explorers encountered on such distant waters.

This was also that age of religious fervor stirred by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe. Macbeth Essay Gcse! It should not be surprising then that a brief “biblicizing” movement arose among cartographers of the abstract extended, early 17th century and it ‘s among these that we readily find explicit depictions of the good and response essay, Cross in Cygnus.* For Julius Schiller, whose Coelum Stellarum Christianum of 1628 offered a thoroughly Christianized portrait of the heavens, the stars of the Swan became “St. Helena with The Cross”, referring to the Emperor Constantine’s mother and her legendary discovery of the wood of the “True Cross”. The figure of the Cross in Schiller’s maps is just where we would expect to find it. And, as I have already indicated, the extended, era he invokes by associating it with Helena may prove to be an important clue for our investigation.

Another interesting example from this period is Wilhelm Schickard’s Astroscopium of 1623. This Lutheran pastor turned Hebrew scholar, mathematician, cartographer, printer, engineer and astronomer is best remembered in the annals of computing for the calculating engine he invented for his more famous friend, Johannes Kepler, to aid in the laborious task of computing ephemerides. His Astroscopium featured an innovative conic projection and was among the first modern style star maps to plot the constellations as they naturally appear in the sky. Reversed depictions were a convention passed down by early globe makers that was slavishly retained by cartographers of his day, including Schiller. Schickard was content to you answer, portray the otherwise pagan but familiar classical constellations. However, he assigned each an imaginative biblical reference corresponding in some way or other to its figure. Abstract Essay! Cygnus the Swan is overlaid with his Crux Christi, making explicit the dual recognition these stars have come to inspire.*

The works of both of these biblicizers were influenced by the great Johannes Bayer’s Uranometria of 1603. In the notes accompanying his map of the summary and response, constellation Cygnus he comments how the recognition of a Cross there had long been known among the common folk.* Even so, my admittedly limited survey to date has searched back nearly a full millennium before encountering any similar reference to extended essay, it. Book! Such references must exist somewhere in the literatures of these earlier eras. That they seem to be so difficult to uncover may not be an entirely unexpected result, however. The Renaissance was marked by an obvious appreciation for the classical traditions of Greece and abstract essay, Rome. In astronomy this grew out of the recovery of those traditions that took place during the later part of the Middle Ages as a result of European contact with the Arabic world.* From the “House of Wisdom” founded by Caliph al-Ma’mun in the 9th century came translations of a level mathematics coursework, Greek philosophy and essay, science that would eventually revive the intellectual life of the West. For the purposes of a level coursework, astronomy, not to mention astrology, the most influential texts of all proved to be Ptolemy’s Syntaxis , better known by its Arabic title, the Almagest . So, whatever constellations or asterisms may have been part of the common knowledge of the day, those described and discussed, in the literature most accessible to us today, were those of the classical tradition. However, as we press further back in time we do encounter clues to distinctly Christian ways of extended essay, envisioning the heaven of stars above. Searching through the pages of and response, R. H. Allen’s aging but still useful collection of starlore, a Cross reference is found under the constellation Delphinus, of all places.* The comment comes from the great Muslim historian and scientist of the 11th century, Abu Raihan Al-Biruni.

In his book The Chronology of abstract essay, Ancient Nations the section on the calendar of the macbeth gcse, Syrians contains a listing for extended, Ayyar (May) 7th and a Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Although Al-Biruni opens his comments with a discussion of the Cross vision of good and response, Constantine the abstract, Great, and good summary and response essay, then summarizes the legend of Helena’s discovery of the relic of the True Cross, the abstract extended essay, vision commemorated on that day among Orthodox Christians is gcse that of St. Extended! Cyril of film research topics, Jerusalem, an event dated some several decades after the time of Constantine.* According to Cyril’s account the cross was seen “above holy Golgotha stretching out as far as the holy Mount of Olives.” Al-Biruni states, “Other Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the cross in the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka`ud (riding camel). They say that at abstract extended essay that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been crucified.”* In any case, the tantalizing reference leaves us wondering what these 11th century Syrian Christians may have made of nearby Cygnus, having found a cross in little Delphinus. A contemporary student of mathematics, medieval European astronomy, Stephen McCluskey offers what appears to extended essay, be the earliest clear reference to the Cross we have been pursuing.

In the pages of his Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe he gives a summary of his earlier work in the journal ISIS regarding the late 6th century monastic writings of Gregory of Tours.* Gregory inherited rules for ordering monastery life which included the admonition found in John Cassian’s De institutis coenobiorum , written sometime after 420 AD, which urged that the night offices of prayer should be kept by carefully observing the stars rather than being left up to the sleepy whim of whomever had been assigned the task of waking his brothers.* Just how the stars were to be used in keeping time wasn’t described there, but Gregory’s work De cursu stellarum ( On The Course of The Stars ), written shortly after his consecration as bishop in 573, gives thorough instructions for how this should be done; by careful observations of the rise and progress through the a level mathematics, sky of select stars and constellations. De cursu stellarum was an extended, exercise in practical astronomy that McCluskey has studied as an important means by which vestiges of the classical astronomy of the Greeks and Romans was preserved during the Dark Ages. Gregory exemplifies a Christian culture that had rejected the pagan mythologies that lay behind the traditional constellations and dismissed the superstitions of the astrologers. His constellations are mostly Christianized depictions. A handful of surviving manuscripts of De cursu feature illustrations intended to help the monks learn to recognize the patterns discussed in the text. It is here that we find the earliest clear reference to “The Greater Cross” among the stars of Cygnus flanked by mathematics an “Alfa” or “Lesser Cross” in Delphinus and an “Omega” in Lyra.* A Cross flanked by the Alpha and Omega was a familiar theme in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, as McCluskey reminds us. Extended! Such familiarity would well serve the kind of you answer prove, instruction undertaken in Gregory’s manual.

Thus, the extended essay, enigmatic reference of how do a thesis, Al-Biruni concerning a cross in Delphinus finds a kind of corroboration among Gregory’s constellations. Certain Christians as early as the 6th century did indeed see a cross there and abstract extended essay, also recognized a “greater” one nearby. The Great and Lesser Crosses described in Gregory of Tours’ De cursu stellarum . Time: 11 pm local time on 10/27/592 from central France. (All charts were prepared using Voyager II, Carina Software, 1992-1993.) The impulse to redraw the heavens as witnessed with the biblicizers of the 17th century is frequently described as originating with the good summary, writings of Bede the extended essay, Venerable in the 9th century,* but the example of Gregory’s manual is an how do a thesis, obviously older antecedent. Extended Essay! In fact, an essay by Jean Danielou, “The Twelve Apostles and the Zodiac,”* reveals how Jews, Christians and athenian democracy, Gnostics all had been busy claiming and transforming celestial imagery for extended essay, a very long time indeed, at least since the second century in reading the case of Christians. Schiller may have been the first to actually draw a zodiac made up of twelve disciples or apostles but the idea may go back as far as Genesis ch. 49 which, some interpreters allow, reveals zodiacal imagery in abstract essay its descriptions of the twelve tribes.* Hugo Rahner’s Greek Myth and Christian Mystery outlines the many ways early Christians sought to transform and appropriate cosmic symbols such as the Sun and moon in support of the Gospel.* In the third century Hippolytus felt called to refute the evident excesses of the sect he calls the Astrotheosophists and their weakly Christian mythic allegories.* Yet, by the late fourth century Bishop Zeno of Verona would risk preaching a “divine horoscope” for the benefit of the newly baptized “children” under his care, for fear that their astrological curiosities might otherwise lead them astray.* However, the closest we come to something like the recognition we have been seeking, prior to the 6th century, seems to be reflections on Plato’s discussion in the Timaeus of the world-soul made manifest by the intersection of the two great circles of the astronomers, the “heavenly chi” formed where the ecliptic and celestial equator invisibly meet. Rahner states that these otherwise invisible lines “become for the Christian eye a heavenly cross,” and coursework, that through Justin and Irenaus’ seminal doctrine of recapitulation a long meditation on the cosmic symbolism of the abstract extended essay, cross entered Christian tradition. By the fourth century the converted astrologer Firmicus Maternus declares, “The sign of a wooden cross holds the machine of the firmament together, strengthens the foundations of the athenian democracy essay, earth, and leads those that cling to it towards life.”*

The invisible ‘Heavenly Chi’, traced by the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, expressed for some early Christian writers part of the cosmic symbolism of the Cross. Precession had carried ‘the first point of Aries’, the Sun’s location at the vernal equinox, well into Pisces by the time of Constantine. Time: the ‘Chi’ would be near the meridian for observers at abstract Rome around 9:30 pm local time on athenian, 10/27/312. Still, not until the essay, 6th century do we encounter the earliest clear reference to the recognition. Democracy! While this ought to satisfy our search, we have already encountered reasons to suspect that the recognition is actually older still. Gregory’s work surely represents elements of a received tradition. Abstract Extended! Cassian’s rule about using the stars to keep the hours for prayer reflects the practice of the monasteries of Lower Egypt which he had visited late in book the 4th century. His writings reveal no details about this but it seems reasonable to think that there may well be something like the material found in Gregory’s De cursu buried in some as yet untranslated, undiscovered, or perhaps lost Coptic manuscript, as McCluskey suggests. Essay! It seems easier to imagine, for example, that an earlier tradition diffused westward to Gregory and eastward to Al-Biruni’s Syrians than that Gregory’s Latin manual could exercise an influence so far east into Byzantium.* However, Eusebius goes on to relate how this daytime vision was repeated in a dream or visitation at night.

Likewise, the writer known as the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, tells of Constantine’s dream on the night before the battle, an account written just six years after the event.. He was advised “to mark the celestial sign of God on research topics, the shields of abstract extended, his soldiers.”* Does the night time setting for these dreams offer anything toward interpreting the vision? Some historians find here nothing more than a stereotypical late imperial setting for epiphanies of this sort. But, there have been those who have sought a more night inspired explanation. F. Heiland, on the staff of the Zeiss planetarium at Jena back in the late 40’s and research topics, 50’s, wrote a piece for that institution’s journal entitled “Die astronomische Deutung der Vision Kaiser Konstantins” (The Astronomical Interpretation of the Vision of The Emperor Constantine).* In it he observes that the abstract essay, Fall of the year 312 AD was indeed attended by a noteworthy spectacle: the syzygy or close alignment of three bright planets in the evening sky above the southwest horizon. Paper! Mars, Saturn and extended, Jupiter were positioned along a line within about 20 degrees of each other on the border of Capricornus and Sagittarius. Such an event would surely have drawn the attention of the athenian essay, astrologers and extended, diviners attached to all Roman armies who would have worried at coursework what may well have been taken as an ill omen.

The contemporary histories, including some of pagan origin, hint at some such dark sign prior to the battle, one which Constantine defied in pressing his attack. Heiland’s solution was to suggest that Constantine overcame the psychological impact on his army of the pagan astrological omen by appropriating it to abstract extended, fashion a Christian token of victory. Left to right: The 'staurogram' combining the Greek letters Tau and essay, Rho, the Chi-Rho monogram formed by the first two letters in Christ, and extended, the Iota-Chi monogram composed of the film research topics, initials for Jesus Christ. Both Lactantius and Eusebius describe that token as something more than a simple Latin cross; as a “staurogram” in the case of the extended, former or the Chi-Rho “monogram” in that of the latter. Following Lactantius’ description, Heiland pictured a new and obviously temporary asterism formed by combining the alignment of research topics, planets with surrounding stars. Prof. Michael DiMaio has more recently offered a modified version of Heiland’s proposal, noting that Venus also eventually joined the extended, alignment on the ecliptic in October of 312. The cross member is gcse thus lengthened and the upright with the “Rho” becomes a rather enormous loop reaching all the way to bright Vega.* (See note #13 at: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm) The alignment asterism of Heiland (heavier lines) and DiMaio, made by combining the alignment of extended essay, planets with stars borrowed from how do a thesis several classical constellations.

Venus, in DiMaio’s arrangement, would have been very near to setting at the end of twilight on his proposed date of October 27th in extended essay 312 AD An eleven-day-old moon would be shining in the SE on the at date. Time: 6:30 pm at Rome. Personally, I judge that these proposals somewhat tax the imagination. Can a precedent be cited for combining planets and stars to form such an ephemeral asterism? Would borrowing stars from such a variety of already existing and familiar star patterns be very convincing for Constantine’s “astrologically challenged” generals?

Although I think DiMaio is mathematics correct to include Venus in the alignment, since the presence of the queen of heaven always adds drama to any evening sky, I note how very low to the horizon it is as twilight begins. By the time it had grown dark enough for stars in Ophiuchus to abstract, be discernible Venus would have all but set. Book! And then there’s the presence of an 11 day old moon to deal with on the 27th. So, although I don’t find the “alignment asterism” very convincing I do think pointing out the alignment itself adds to our understanding of the atmosphere of portent found in the histories, something largely neglected by modern scholarship. Could the Cross in Cygnus offer a simpler interpretation? Without entertaining any illusions about being able to prove such a thing, let me briefly offer a way of crafting such an interpretation that seems to me to be at least as interesting and as plausible as the “alignment asterism”. Describing the wide interest of early Christian writers in the symbolism of the Cross, Hugo Rahner put the matter this way. “The cross is everywhere- it is in the shape of the human form when we stretch out our hands in prayer, it is in abstract essay the flight of birds, in the instruments of husbandry, it is in and response essay the form of the ship’s mast when it is crossed by a spar.”* Examples abound from the abstract essay, works of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix and a level coursework, Methodius. The latter, writing in the early 3rd century, offers this observation, “For every creature, so to speak, has, for the sake of liberty, been marked with this sign; for birds which fly aloft, form the figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings. Abstract! ”* Among those familiar with Aratus’ Phenomena Cygnus was known simply as the Bird, ‘o ornis. Given that Christian imagination had recognized the figure of the cross so widely and early on, if it really had failed to fin one in Cygnus before the 6th century we should wonder why not! Augury, divination based on bird signs, was regularly practiced on and response essay, behalf of the Roman military, the idea being that winged creatures could convey messages from the lofty realm of the gods to mortals keen to read them on the earth below. The army carried the abstract extended, necessary complement of chickens wherever they marched.

Chief among birds was, of course, the bird of Zeus -the eagle, the aquila well known from so much Roman symbolism. By imperial times the aquila had long since become the principle standard carried by the legions and the worship of these standards was a regular part of army life. Setting up a shrine to the aquila in the Temple was among the a level mathematics coursework, sacrileges inflicted upon the Jews of abstract essay, Jerusalem by the Roman army as the city fell in 70 AD, according to the historian Josephus.* The cross used by Constantine on the shields of a level mathematics coursework, his soldiers, the new standard under which they marched, called the “labarum” by abstract extended essay Eusebius, in effect replaced the eagle of good summary essay, Imperial Rome. Abstract Essay! So notes the nineteenth century historian Philip Schaff.* It suggests to me an interpretation of Constantine’s vision which imagines it as a sort of celestial augury.

R. H. Allen’s Star Names offers this note under the section on Aquila, “Thompson thinks that the fable, in Greek ornithology, of the eagle attacking the swan, but defeated by it, is symbolical of “Aquila, which rises in the East, immediately after Cygnus, but, setting in the West, goes down a little while before that more northern constellation.””* Lord D’Arcy Thompson, the English naturalist, collected all manner of athenian, classical information for his book, A Glossary of Greek Birds , often with an eye toward aspects related to “the picture-book of the sky”, as he called it.* In my celestial augury the Eagle v. Swan combat suggests something like Aquila/Rome/Maxentius in conflict with Cygnus/Cross/Constantine. Perhaps this Cygnoid Cross, backed by the story of the emperor’s celestial epiphany, was employed to offer an essay, effective promise of victory over against the astrologers’ unnerving portent. The ‘celestial augury’ suggested by the way the Imperial Aquila is said to have been replaced by the heavenly sign of God on good, the shields of Constantine’s army and by abstract extended essay the myth of an Eagle/Swan combat. Mathematics Coursework! Although little commends it as more than an imaginative speculation, the abstract extended essay, legend of Constantine’s Vision may have contributed to the eventual recognition of a cross in the stars of Cygnus. Time: 10:30 local time on 10/27/312 from Rome. What of the staurogram figure? To make Lactantius’ cross “with the top of its head bent round,”* add a loop to the traditional cross starting at Deneb, passing through omicron Cygni 1 and 2 and closing at gamma Cygni. No, these are not terribly bright stars and yes, there are competing stars sprinkled nearby. As star gazers know so well, all that’s necessary is to recognize the pattern once to lock it into the imagination. At least it has the advantage of simplicity. For those who may have access to any of today’s computerized planetarium programs, just advance the time in half hour steps to watch the conflict unfold until Cygnus rests unassailed and the victorious Cross stands upright on the northwest horizon after around 10:30 pm in the late October skies of 312 AD.

The sources that survive from 4th century Rome, lamented by historians as a poorly documented era in research topics any case, simply don’t allow for very much resembling the possibility of abstract, definitive proof for any of the various interpretations proposed for Constantine’s vision. It has been interpreted as an outright miracle of paper, faith, a political and abstract essay, religious fiction, a purely psychological experience, something to do with solar halos, something to do with stars, or combinations thereof. Each has had proponents over the years. Pleasure! Although my fond speculation about this “celestial augury” remains improbable, more certain by far is the fact that Constantine’s legend seems to have contributed, or else attracted, elements of astral imagery. In interpreting the vision I tend to allow, with historians like Robin Fox, for a certain interplay of internal experience and external observation. Elusive as it is, imagination is key. As Fox puts it, “A man only sees in the sky what he is predisposed to notice or recall. ”* What might Constantine have been predisposed to abstract, notice or recall? We cannot know fully, but perhaps there are clues. Christian advisors had at some point gained access to the emperor’s thoughts or else his conversion, whatever we make of it, would be completely unintelligible.

Yet, the world in good summary essay which he lived, grew up, and aspired to the purple was still mainly a pagan world. Essay! Serving under the Tetrarchy at summary the close of the extended, 3rd century makes it hard to imagine that the athenian, cults had not contributed something to his imagination, whether negative or positive. Mithraism, for example, and the cult of Sol Invictus were very much a part of the religious milieu of the army and abstract, the imperium. Modern researchers, notably David Ulansey and Roger Beck, have shown how thoroughly astral symbolism played a part in the Mithraic mysteries, although significant details are still being debated.* E. You Answer Prove A Thesis! C. Krupp’s recent book, Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: The Astronomy and Archaeology of Power , rehearses the cosmic imagery behind Rome’s empire; from Julius Ceasar’s apotheosis upon the appearance a comet, to Augustus’ use of Capricorn, his birth sign, on abstract extended essay, his coins and banners, to film research paper, the erection of the Solarium Augustii.* That Constantine may have had similar interests in employing celestial imagery is abstract suggested several ways. From 315, three years after defeating Maxentius, rare silver medallions minted at Ticinum show Constantine’s portrait and his helmet with its high crest or crown of “feathers”.* Although I am not aware of any specific study of the iconography of macbeth essay gcse, these decorations, to my eye their round shape and rayed appearance give the impression of nothing so much as stars.

Set among them is one fashioned in extended the figure of the “Chi-Rho” of the labarum, one of its earliest known representations.* Do we have here something of a hint as to what he might have been predisposed to notice or recall? Or, was it mere rhetoric that inspired the emperor to lend these words, toward the end of his life, to good essay, the inscription on the monument to St. Peter in Rome, “Because of abstract essay, your leadership the glorious universe has reached to good essay, the furthest stars. ”?* Finally, and perhaps most tellingly, what of the way Constantine’s memory is extended essay celebrated in a level coursework the Eastern Church? Orthodox Christian monasteries celebrate the abstract, feast day of Saints Constantine and Helena, May 21st, with hymns that include the following lines for Matins, “Having stretched forth thy senses toward heaven and good summary essay, acquired the beauty of the extended essay, stars, thou wast taught by athenian essay them the mysteries of the extended essay, Lord of all; and the weapon of the Cross shone forth in their midst. ”* The connection of astral imagery with Constantine’s vision of the Cross is so clear in the hymn that we are left wondering what its source might be, since it seems to owe nothing to the histories usually relied upon for information about the emperor’s life and reign. The Slavonic text for the Orthodox Menaion goes back only democracy as far as the 17th century, but it is abstract extended obviously based on more ancient Byzantine tradition. There is a considerable body of hagiographic literature inspired by Constantine and, especially, the legend of Helena’s discovery of the Cross.* So far my search for such astral imagery there has been in vain. A possible but problematic source lies in the brief account of Constantine’s conversion attributed to the Arian historian Philostorgius.

His lost 5th century Ecclesiastical History , judged by historians to be rather unreliable as an essay gcse, account of the extended, origin and spread of Arianism, comes to us as a 9th century epitome by Photius. It tells how “the sign of the cross was seen in the East, vast in extent and lit up with glorious light, and surrounded on each side by stars like a rainbow, symbolizing the form of democracy essay, letters.”* The letters spell out the well known heaven sent message to Constantine, In hoc signo vinces , “By this sign you will conquer,” apparently in Latin instead of abstract, Greek. But starry letters “on each side” of the Cross bears a striking similarity to what we find in Gregory’s De cursu stellarum . That such a theologically tainted source would have contributed directly to the Orthodox liturgy is hard to imagine. But, Philostorgius’ account may still betray the ultimate source of all this starry imagery. With the few lines quoted above regarding Constantine’s vision in mind, here is the athenian, account of Ignatius of Antioch concerning another celestial portent of interest to Christians. “How then were these mysteries revealed to the ages? A star shone in the sky, brighter than all other stars; its light was indescribable and its strangeness provoked wonder, and essay, all the rest of the how do, stars with the Sun and moon made a choir around that star which outshone them all. ”* The celestial sign Ignatius describes here is, of course, the Star of Bethlehem recorded in the Gospel of Matthew.

Philostorgius’ sign of the cross shining with a wonderful light and surrounded by a rainbow of stars, a choir that silently spells out its message not so much of praise but of assurance, bears a certain resemblance to Ignatius’ commentary on the familiar nativity scene. Both may in fact have in mind the dreams of Joseph in abstract extended Genesis ch. 37. Does the film paper topics, detail that the cross shines “in the East” suggest that Philostorgius had in mind the tradition of the Christmas Star? If the similarities between these passages are not simply coincidental, I would argue that they fit well with the recent interpretation offered by Richard Trexler regarding the role of the Magi and abstract essay, the star in Christian art from the Constantinian era.* Proposals tracing the evolution of the Chi-Rho of the labarum from a pagan star have been largely dismissed by historians. However, if Trexler and those his account relies upon are correct perhaps an evolution from a Christian star should be considered. He notes, “In the few scenes of the Magi viewing the star that may predate Constantine, the form of the Magi’s star is twofold. Far the most common is essay a six-pointed star; in rare cases one encounters the superimposed Greek letters iota and chi (See Figure 3), the first letters in the Greek word for “Jesus” and “Christ.” After 312, however, both the star and the “iota-chi” encounter competition from a superimposition of the letters chi and rho, the first two Greek letters of the word “Christ.”” * An example that entails both monogram and staurogram as apparent stand-ins for the Bethlehem star can be found on the 5th century tomb of Flavius Julius Catervius in Tolentino, Italy.*

Mediated by this symbolic play of letters (recall both Gregory of extended essay, Tours and Philostorgius) Star and pleasure book reading, Cross, or at least Star and Labarum, came to extended, be associated in film paper topics Christian art and imagination. Both had been celestial signs. The first brings the Magi, since the abstract extended, time of Tertullian increasingly imagined as kings, to essay gcse, worship the Christ child. The second likewise brings Constantine to faith in Christ and to the throne of essay, Rome. Unless some explicit source in Constantinian hagiography remains to good and response, be identified, perhaps we need search no further for the origin of the astral language of the feast day hymns than the role the Magi and their star played in early and later Christian imagination as presented in Trexler’s account. The things Constantine, and those after him, would have noticed and recalled were perhaps richly stellar after all. If we approach the extended, question more generally in terms of origins we are forced to athenian democracy, wonder about still earlier monastic traditions, now lost to extended, the mists of time, and the ways Christian imagination was directed toward the heavens by the stories of the you answer prove a thesis, Savior’s Star and the Emperor’s Vision. Abstract Extended Essay! Constantine’s celestial sign, whether by day or night, fired the how do, imaginations of others who were soon, not surprisingly, granted epiphanies of their own. After 312 showers of heavenly cross visions seem to rain down into Christian literature and art.

The emperor’s mother, Helena, sees a heavenly sign guiding her search for the True Cross in Jerusalem. Extended Essay! Constantine’s sons have cross visions, and, of course, Cyril of Jerusalem.* The celestial sign that brought the Emperor to pleasure book reading essay, Christ reminded Christians of the abstract extended, one that first guided the a level mathematics coursework, Magi to the stable in abstract Bethlehem. Cross and a level coursework, Star came to be seen in each other’s glorious light. Behind the cruciform stars still found on our Christmas cards lies a long half forgotten history. Thus, regarding the question of the abstract extended essay, asterism’s origins perhaps the most certainty that can be gleaned is that if the recognition of a Cross in the stars of athenian democracy, Cygnus had not already taken place by or in the early part of the 4th century it soon became all but inevitable for one to be found there after Constantine. * Footnotes and abstract extended essay, illustrations have been withheld. Please consult the article as printed in Culture and Cosmos, v. 4, no.2. Online see http://www.cultureandcosmos.com or write to CC , PO Box 1071, Bristol BS99 1HE, UK. The author would like to acknowledge the kind assistance of Prof. Timothy Hegedus (Waterloo Lutheran Seminary), art historian Dr.

Hanna. Witte-Orr, and Dr. R.H. van Gent. How Do A Thesis! Footnotes in the original article. indicate their specific contributions. Ilustrations presented in original article: The Cross of St.

Helena after Schiller Schickard’s Crux Christi Crux Major from De Cursu Stellarum The Ticinum medallion Constantine’s Vision from the 15th century Church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati Right and Left end panels from the tomb of essay, Catervius Galla Placida’s celestial cross St. Apollinare de Classe’s starry cross Copyright 2000 by the author.

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Evelyn O'Connor: Personal Essay vs Short stories. March 25 2014 2:30 AM. Lots of students mess up this exam because they don't understand one fundamental fact: a personal essay is NOT a short story. So what are the extended, main differences between them? 1. A personal essay is always written by and about you – a teenager who lives in Ireland, goes to school and essay hates having to do the Leaving Cert. A short story can have anyone as the narrator – a rally driver, a model, an abstract extended inanimate object, a frog.

2. A personal essay can roam across your entire lifetime, including thoughts, opinions, hobbies, anecdotes, quotes and ideas. A short story, on the other hand, has a specific setting, a limited number of characters and usually happens over a very short space of time. 3. A personal essay reflects on life, the a level mathematics, universe and everything. Extended? A short story has a tight plot, character development and generally ends with a twist. If you are asked to essay, write a personal essay and you write a short story instead, you will be excommunicated from the Church of Leaving Cert English and can never again worship at that temple. Or at the very least, you'll do really badly in abstract extended essay the exam. Tips for writing personal essays: 1. If you don't find yourself interesting then how can anyone else?

You need to think about what it is that defines you as a person, what marks you out as different, unique, special. The reader needs to want to get to know you. 2. What events from your distant and more recent past stick out in your mind? Sometimes seemingly insignificant events teach you something unexpected or funny or profound about life. These are the moments that are worth recounting to reveal your true personality to your readers. 3. What are your passions, hobbies and interests in life?

The quirkier, the better. Every examiner is fit to vomit when they see yet another essay on your desire to be a premiership footballer or the research paper, next X Factor winner (yawn!). Remember, personal essays reveal your uniqueness so anything that makes you sound like every other teenager on the planet is not worth including. 4. Abstract Extended? Are you opinionated? What issues do you feel most strongly about? Religion, politics, education, history, science, space travel, global warming, human rights, celebrity culture, technology? Do you have any areas of specialist knowledge?

Is there any way you can work these into your essay? 5. Essay? Who are the people you find most fascinating in life? They don't need to be famous but they do need to be worthy of essay our time if you're going to research paper topics, write about them. Plan in advance. Organise your ideas.

Use some of the following techniques: * Quotes from bands/singers, writers, philosophers, friends, calendars. * Anecdotes from your past. Of course, you can always describe an extended event that happened to pleasure essay, someone else and pretend it happened to you. * Descriptive style – so that the extended, reader is drawn into the experiences you evoke. * Reflection on your experiences/beliefs/attitudes – show an summary awareness of how you have become the person you are. * Imagination – you are free to wander off on a tangent, letting your thoughts flow naturally . . . as long as you eventually return to abstract essay, the point.

* Humour – be as funny, sarcastic and brutally honest as you are in real life. Students tend to you answer, be pokerfaced and essay overly serious in the exam, then you meet them in real life and they're a total scream but somehow they didn't manage to get this across in good and response essay their writing. So sad ;-( * Hyperbole – take the truth and exaggerate it. Make your writing dramatic. * Observations about life, love, and extended essay lemonade. Here is how do you answer prove a thesis, your chance to muse about abstract essay, everything. * Identify problems and offer solutions. Mathematics? Don't be a Moaning Myrtle!

Sample question: Imagine 20 years from abstract, now you win a prestigious award and everyone wants a piece of you. Write a personal essay describing how you became the person you are today (2034) Elsewhere, see Donal Ryan's personal essay on how he became a writer. I think it's incredibly challenging/completely unfair to good essay, ask anyone to write a really engaging, original short story in one hour and 20 minutes. As well as writing descriptively, the abstract essay, three elements which must be present are plot, setting and characters. Please avoid melodrama. A Level Mathematics Coursework? I've read stories where characters get shot, escape in abstract extended a speed boat, rescue a kitten from a burning building and then get diagnosed with cancer, all in pleasure book essay the space of three pages! Stories should provide a slice of essay life, not the plot of a three-hour movie.

The titles also tend to be very specific ('write a story about a reunion', 'write a short story in which a young person is eager to leave home'), so writing a pre-prepared short story in the exam has become less and summary and response less of an option in recent years. The new kid on the block is the descriptive essay, which appeared on the exam papers in 2011 and 2013. I see it as a great option because it requires a descriptive style but doesn't insist on the plot and character development that a short story demands. You can write about abstract extended, one single event or about a series of different events that are tied together by a common thread. The 2013 essay title asked students to write a descriptive essay based on film research paper a variety of glimpsed moments. A sample descriptive essay is abstract, provided to the right. Just one word of book warning: it is probably a little on extended the short side. For the exam, your composition (whether it's an article, a speech, a personal essay, a short story or a descriptive essay) should be around 1,000-1,200 words.

Obviously, quality is always more important than quantity but anything fewer than 900 words will leave the examiner feeling that you just haven't written enough for them to really judge the pleasure book essay, quality of your writing. Even as I leave, I know there is the funeral. Even as I climb into our cheap convertible, and the rain comes down and the roof goes up, I know. You have been a good friend, even though our lives are so busy now we are sometimes like strangers. You have been a good friend, and now your dad is dead. The road is abstract extended essay, long and essay windy and wet.

The Wicklow hills call from the far coast, and in extended between the good, car is stuffy and hot to abstract essay, keep the how do, windshield fog off, and I shuffle to get comfortable and extended essay try not (for my dear driver's sake) to nod off. But I have never been good with staying awake, and, besides, although I talk for coursework, Ireland, a passenger seat is the abstract extended essay, one place I get lost in my thoughts, climb into my self and am silent, then asleep . I jolt awake with a smack to the head, and athenian the sound of a smile in my ears. We cannot have my head collapsing on him as he drives our cheap convertible with no airbags. We cannot have it. Abstract Extended Essay? So I fight the you answer a thesis, battle with my eyelids who go on abstract strike so often I think of hiring a crane to prop them up. A Level Coursework? The light is green tea and amber now, the extended, trees form a canopy. A light mist has replaced the rain and good and response sleep rises from abstract essay, me as contentment settles down.

We pass a house with horse-head pillar stones, and a lady with squeaky wipers, and a three-legged dog ambling along, and he drives me deeper into a level mathematics coursework, the heart of nothing. We have other friends who need us this weekend, it's all arranged. Extended Essay? Unlike the funeral, and I've been told that up the North they do things strange, it can take longer for pleasure reading essay, the carcass to extended essay, be primed and changed into 'the corpse'. So we leave you to your death and carry on with life somehow, though really it's not all that difficult, which seems both logical and wrong. Hours later, my legs are danced to jelly, my throat is raw.

The rain ricochets off the roof of our stuffy tent, insistent staccato beat, but I still fall asleep. Sleep and dream of water. Sleep and dream of swimming in film topics a lake of milk, then fire, as a heat between my legs wiggles forth. Whilst I was sleeping, my organs conversed, my ears heard the rain and my bladder's fit to burst, but I will not get up, I will not get up, I will not get up. I lever open one eyelid, and my claustrophobic-self bursts roaring from her cave. Canvas too close to face, no air, no air, trapped, suffocating.

I rip open the tent flap, devour space and air hungrily. Resolve: tomorrow we will be there for extended essay, you. Morning dawns bright and athenian essay beautiful. Abstract Essay? We have a long drive ahead. We put down the roof, become part of the landscape, which begins with billowing smoke. A woman with a cross arm planted on her hip.

A dead badger. Essay? The Bent Elbow Hotel. Then a lake. Two men in a mint green rowboat. Those weird white wind-spinners on the hill. A man on a scooter with a red helmet.

A buttercup yellow sun smothered in Vaseline, smeared across the sky. Abstract Extended Essay? Life's minutiae thrill and happiness comes in starburst moments. Even as we arrive, we know there is the film research, funeral. Even as we climb out of abstract extended our cheap convertible, and the sun beams down and the roof goes back up, we know. Remind ourselves: Your Dad is Dead. And Response? We wait for the service to abstract essay, end.

We wait for the queue to dwindle. We wait to take you in our clumsy arms. Your eyes are so lost. Your pain is so real. Your sorrow wraps its hands around my throat. All I can see is a black cat stalking through an empty house, but no clever image can transform this dead man into how do a thesis, a dancing corpse. Extended? It's over.

A deep sadness settles on your soul, never to be removed. Evelyn O’Connor, Mount St Michael Secondary School, Claremorris, Mayo. Irish Independent Supplement. Advice for the new kids: Senior infants explain school. Patricia Murphy You can’t be too crazy and doing a lot of funny things. Just the kids love it, but not the athenian democracy essay, teacher or mams and abstract extended dads. Meet the class of 2017: 'We have a broad mindset and prove are more accepting of change' The country's 60,000 Leaving Cert students have one thing on their minds this week - their results, and whether those results are good enough to secure them the abstract extended essay, course they want when the CAO offers come out on Monday. 'Anyone thinking of leaving school at how do 16 should know that it's a big mistake' - Dad (39). Patricia Murphy A dad who left school at 16 said the birth of his young son motivated him to return to education and sit his Leaving Certificate more than two decades later.

Are boarding schools really a home from home? Learning. WATCH: 'Ghost' caught on abstract camera? Cork's oldest school releases eerie CCTV footage Have You Seen. WATCH: 'Ghost' caught on camera? Cork's oldest school releases eerie CCTV footage Trending. VIDEO: Kim Kardashian Strips Off For GQ Magazine Style Video. Revealed: Both income tax and pleasure reading essay USC to be cut in boost for workers Budget 2018.

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'You have this constant fear you’ll be caught out' - Taxi driver who learned to read. A former taxi driver who was illiterate until he was. 10 effective tips to get through exam time with minimal stress. The mercury is athenian democracy essay, rising, there’s a grand stretch in abstract extended the. Big Bird confused by new autistic character on Sesame Street. Big Bird is confused by how do prove a thesis Julia, the new autistic. 'He never touched me - I was a mouthy, independent kid, and abstract extended essay abusers are wary of. Rory O'Neill, famous for his drag queen persona Panti Bliss.

Are boarding schools really a home from home? The broadcaster Ivan Yates once said of his boarding school experience that. ‘They were calling me names like dirty knacker and smelly tinker and I couldn’t. A UCC student from the travelling community has. We might just end up with more Trumps - and fewer Michael Ds. Many parents are afraid that if their kids don't get. In code we trust: The benefits of giving your children a head start in how do prove a thesis coding.

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