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Best commentary structure for phd dissertation, IB English Paper 1. Having a strong commentary structure is the easiest way to earn marks in your IB English Paper 1. Assignments? But waitthere#8217;s even better news: The best structure doesn#8217;t have to be elaborate or complicated at proposal all. Prejudice? In fact, the simpler the structure, the better! In this guide, I will answer the following questions: What is logical flow in a commentary? How many points should I have in my commentary? What#8217;s the best way to organise the points in my essay body?
If you#8217;ve just discovered LitLearn, be sure to read our complete guide on IB English Paper 1. Proposal? Not to brag, but it#8217;s amazing! What is logical flow, and why is it important? The key ingredient of a strong structure for your Paper 1 commentary is logic . What do I mean by logic? I mean that the points in your commentary must flow seamlessly from one point to the next in chain of reasonable connections . Conclusion? If you want to take your commentary to the next level, you should use these logical connections to not just connect points but to phd dissertation develop the art therapy argument of the commentary. To illustrate what I mean by logical flow, consider a bad example where there is absolutely no reasonable connection between subsequent points: The bully is characterised as an arrogant individual. The author uses metaphor to construct the phd dissertation excited atmosphere of the annual event. The use of structure in the poem portrays the tragic consequences of the car crash. First Good And Bad? Huh? These points have no connections between them. They could easily have been scrambled and presented in another order, and it wouldn#8217;t have mattered.
Always ensure that your points connect and develop from one to the next. The ideal number of proposal collection;fieldOfStudies points for IB English Paper 1. Always aim for 3 points. Essay Of Learning English? A commentary with four points is proposal also highly effective, especially for HL English students, given the complexity of your texts. Avoid having only good and evil good 2 points in your commentary. You can still get a good mark, but this structure is not ideal because it doesn#8217;t allow for a sufficient breadth of analysis. Breadth is just as important as depth of analysis. As a funny side-story, I almost had to stick with 2 points for my final IB English Paper 1 exam, but luckily at the end I was able to conjure a third and final point to save my Paper 1 grade from the hot embers of failure#8230; I#8217;m just kidding.
I#8217;m sure the essay would#8217;ve been fine if I#8217;d only had 2 points. But of course, it#8217;s the ideal. My recommendations for the best commentary structure is no doubt a biased opinion. Your teachers might have different recommendations, but what follows is simply an honest expression of what has worked well and not-so-well for me in my IB English experiences. Can you write a great essay with SPECSLIMS as your mode of organisation? Certainly.
I just have haven#8217;t seen the merits of this particular organisation, and of course, I#8217;m not a perfect human. Phd Dissertation Proposal? Having your points as techniques is the best approach in only one scenario: When the text conveys one central idea, message or theme. This scenario happens about 10% of the time. Clearly, organising by techniques is a bad#8212;or at least a non-ideal#8212;choice in 90% of all Paper 1s. Let#8217;s be specific. Organising a commentary by techniques has two main disadvantages: The points are usually difficult to integrate in a logical, flowing manner.
How do you link metaphor, sound and poem structure in a logical flow? Not easy. You cannot analyse multiple techniques together to importance of learning english support a single point because each point must focus on a single technique; this leads to the isolated analysis of techniques (there is a way around this, but we#8217;ll keep it simple here) and hence a low score for Criterion B#8212;Appreciating writer#8217;s choices. This type of organisation requires you to have a separate paragraph for collection;fieldOfStudies, each of the following: s ubject matter, writer#8217;s p urpose, e motion of reader (mood), and c raftsmanship, which is in turn broken down into s tructure, l anguage, i magery, m ovement, and s ound. This structure is disorganised and the paragraphs clearly have no logical progression between them. Essay Rubric 2015? I avoid SPECSLIMS without hesitation, and I recommend that you do the same for the sake of your Criterion C Organisation mark.
Through five years of IB English experience as both a student and phd dissertation proposal, a tutor, I discovered that organising a commentary by essay idea and phd dissertation, section are the most effective structures. Organising by section means to split a commentary into several parts and art therapy assignments, analyse each section in relation to an idea or technique that is present in only that particular section. There are two main reasons for proposal, why these structures are the essays best: They offer the phd dissertation proposal most opportunity for a logically-developing argument and a 5/5 on Criterion C#8212;Organisation. Essay Conclusion? This is because ideas can be naturally connected by reasonable logic, and sections are already structured by proposal collection;fieldOfStudies definition . They allow you to analyse multiple literary techniques together in art therapy assignments relation to a single point, which helps in scoring 5/5 on phd dissertation proposal, Criterion B. You aren#8217;t just analysing techniques in isolation but appreciating how different language choices work together. LitLearn Student Interview: Karishma Lachhwani. Why you cannot ignore analysis in long essay IB English.
A step-by-step guide to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies IB English Literature analysis. IB English Paper 1 completely explained. Jackson is an IB 45 graduate and English tutor. He is studying at the University of Melbourne and of learning, teaches an online IB English analysis course. View all posts by Jackson Huang.
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mesopitamia essay The Mesopotamian basin was the birthplace of writing. The Cuneiform writing system developed here was the first form of collection;fieldOfStudies, communication beyond the use of pictograms. The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia’s writing appeared first. That writing system, invented by of the flies conch the Sumerians, emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE. At first, this writing was representational: a bull might be represented by a picture of a bull, and phd dissertation, a pictograph of barley signified the word barley.
Though writing began as pictures, this system was inconvenient for essay apush 2015, conveying anything other than simple nouns, and proposal, it became increasingly abstract as it evolved to encompass more abstract concepts, eventually taking form in the world’s earliest writing: cuneiform. An increasingly complex civilization encouraged the development of an assignments increasingly sophisticated form of writing. Cuneiform came to function both phonetically (representing a sound) and semantically (representing a meaning such as an object or concept) rather than only representing objects directly as a picture. This lesson plan, intended for use in the teaching of world history in the middle grades, is proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, designed to help students appreciate the parallel development and increasing complexity of writing and civilization in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in ancient Mesopotamia. You may wish to assignments use this lesson independently as an introduction to Mesopotamian civilization, or as an entry point into the study of Sumerian and Babylonian history and culture. How did cuneiform writing emerge and evolve in ancient Mesopotamia? How did the cuneiform writing system affect Mesopotamian civilization?
Point to specific artifacts to demonstrate the way the proposal, writing system in Mesopotamia was transformed. Analyze the abortion, purposes writing served in Mesopotamia with an emphasis on how those purposes evolved as the civilization changed. Gain a basic understanding of the ways in which the development of systems of writing and proposal, the development of civilization are linked. The earliest known civilization developed along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now the country of Iraq. The development of successful agriculture, which relied on the region’s fertile soils and an irrigation system that took advantage of its consistent water supply, led to the development of the world’s first cities. The development of assignments, stable agriculture through irrigation meant people no longer had to follow changing sources of phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, food.
With this stability farmers in the region were able to domesticate animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle. They successfully grew crops of barley and prejudice, other grains, from which they began to collection;fieldOfStudies produce dietary staples and other products, such as bread and beer. As their agricultural practices became more successful, farmers were able to create surpluses. In order to ensure the crop yield, a system of canals was dug to divert water for art therapy assignments, agriculture and lessen the impact of annual floods. With these advances, a significant population of successful farmers, herders, and proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, traders were able to move beyond subsistence agriculture. A series of successive kingdoms—Sumer, Akkadia (also spelled Accadia), Assyria, Babylonia—built cities with monumental architecture, in which trade and commerce were thriving, and even early forms of plumbing were invented for the ruling class. The development of trade was one of several important factors in Mesopotamia that created a need for writing.
The development of complex societies, with social hierarchies, private property, economies that supported tax-funded authorities, and trade, all combined to create a need for written records. The increasingly sophisticated system of writing that developed also helped the civilization develop further, facilitating the management of lord flies essay, complex commercial, religious, political, and military systems. The earliest known writing originated with the Sumerians about 5500 years ago. Writing was not invented for telling stories of the great conquests of phd dissertation proposal, kings or for important legal documents. Instead, the long essay rubric 2015, earliest known writing documented simple commercial transactions. The evolution of writing occurred in stages. In its earliest form, commercial transactions were represented by tokens. A sale of four sheep was represented by four tokens designed to signify sheep. Phd Dissertation Proposal! At first such tokens were made of stone. Later, they were created from lord flies essay, clay.
Tokens were stored as a record of transactions. In the next stage of development, pictographs (simple pictures of an object) were drawn into wet clay, and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, these images replaced the tokens. Scribes no longer drew four sheep pictographs to represent four sheep. Instead, the numeral for four was written beside one sheep pictograph. Through this process writing was becoming disentangled from conch, direct depiction. More complicated number systems began to develop. The pictographic symbols were refined into the writing system known as cuneiform.
The English word cuneiform comes from the Latin cuneus , meaning “wedge.” Using cuneiform, written symbols could be quickly made by highly trained scribes through the skillful use of the wedge-like end of a reed stylus. Eventually, writing became phonetic as well as representational. Once the writing system had moved from being pictographic to phonetic writing could communicate abstractions more effectively: names, words, and ideas. With cuneiform, writers could tell stories, relate histories, and support the rule of kings. Cuneiform was used to proposal record literature such as the Epic of Gilgamesh—the oldest epic still known. Furthermore, cuneiform was used to lord of the essay communicate and formalize legal systems, most famously Hammurabi’s Code. For additional detailed information on the development of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, writing in Mesopotamia, read the Introduction to apush 2015 the Cuneiform Collection available through the EDSITEment resource Internet Public Library.
Review all websites and materials students will view. Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! Download photographs of artifacts students will be viewing offline. Download and prepare as necessary handouts from the downloadable PDF for this lesson. You may wish to consult the following EDSITEment lessons on ancient writing systems, designed for younger students, which contain elements that could be adapted for abortion thesis, middle school: Activity 1. Why the Fertile Crescent?
This first activity will introduce students to the part of the world where writing first developed- the area once called Mesopotamia, which was located in what is today the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, country of long rubric, Iraq. Proposal! The earliest cities known today arose in Mesopotamia, an area that is essays thesis, part of what is sometimes called the Fertile Crescent. What clues can we get from the geography of the region to explain why Mesopotamia became the “Cradle of Civilization”? Share with the students the British Museum’s introduction to Mesopotamia: Geography, available through the EDSITEment-reviewed resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. Phd Dissertation Proposal! Then use the Geography: Explore feature to investigate a variety of maps of the region by choosing them from the pull down menu. View the first essay good and evil and bad, modern political map of the area with the class. Phd Dissertation Proposal! Ask the students: With which of these cities are you familiar?
What do you notice about the 2015, locations of these modern cities? Next view the Ancient Cities map together. Collection;fieldOfStudies! Ask the students: Where were most of the cities located? Why there? How does their location compare with that of the prejudice, contemporary cities? Next, view the phd dissertation proposal, Terrain Map with the students and ask them to answer the following question: Look to the northeast of Mesopotamia. Why is that area not as hospitable to agriculture? The southwest?
Finally, view the Natural Resources Map with the class, and ask them to answer these questions: Mesopotamia was agriculturally rich. Why did vibrant trade develop in the larger region shown on the map? One reason is first essay good and evil good and bad, that although the area was rich in agriculture, it was poor in many natural resources? What elements in the terrain also enabled Mesopotamia to develop trade (pay particular attention to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies the rivers, relatively flat terrain)? In this activity students will be introduced to the time period in prejudice, which the first writing developed, and collection;fieldOfStudies, the major events which coincided with this development in ancient Mesopotamia. Distribute the and evil and bad, Timeline: Mesopotamia 4000-1000 BCE activity which is available as a PDF for this lesson, or you can do this as an proposal collection;fieldOfStudies online activity. Essay Importance Of Learning English! Note that the timeline covers an extended period, not all of which will be covered in proposal, detail in essay of learning, this lesson. This activity will give students who have not had readings about the history of the Middle East, and specifically about Mesopotamia, the opportunity to gain some contextual understanding of the development of proposal, cuneiform writing.
For students who have had the opportunity to learn about Mesopotamia this exercise will remind them of some of the major events in the history of the of the flies essay conch, area. Distribute the Timeline Labels handout, which is available as a PDF for collection;fieldOfStudies, this lesson. If practical you may wish to project the good, timeline onto a screen or redraw the timeline on the board. As a class, look through the labels. Which do students hypothesize would appear earlier/later on the timeline?
Divide the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, class into small groups of three or four and assign each group one of the labels. Students can scan through the two summaries of key events in Mesopotamian history that are available on the EDSITEment web resource Metropolitan Museum of Art: These timelines of key events can be used by students to determine where each label should be placed and to indicate when certain innovations became important. Note: Cuneiform continued to art therapy be used in Mesopotamia well into the first millennium BCE, however, as this lesson is concentrating on the early development of the writing system the timeline in this activity will end before cuneiform writing ceased to be used. Moving in chronological order, place the labels on the timeline. Each group should work together to provide any additional information about the development that was in the event summary. Challenge students to put together a simple narrative of developments in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley based on the events in the timeline. What developments in proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, the civilization would have been facilitated by or even require a system of writing? In this activity students will begin to think about the development and urbanization of about importance english language, Mesopotamian civilization by thinking about the kinds of occupations that developed over time. Students will also begin to think about the relationship between the evolution of civilization in Mesopotamia and proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, how writing enhanced its development.
Students have probably already studied in their classes about the assignments, shift of human societies from the nomadic pursuit of game and wild vegetation, to settled cultivation, and eventually towards settled villages, towns, and cities. As societies became, first, more settled as farmers, and phd dissertation proposal, then in certain places more urbanized as some populations became townsfolk, what kinds of art therapy assignments, new tasks and jobs would need to be done? Ask students to return to their timeline worksheets. Based on what students learned from the timeline activity, what do they think are some jobs that probably existed in ancient Mesopotamia: Farmer? Trader? Ruler? Builder? Others? Divide the class into collection;fieldOfStudies small groups and art therapy assignments, have each group work together to create a list of jobs they believe might have existed in ancient Mesopotamia. Ask each group to contribute one job to phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies a running list that will be written on the board.
You may wish to go around the prejudice essay conclusion, room two or three times. You can download a list of some occupations which were part of phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, life in ancient Mesopotamia. This is not a comprehensive list, but it will give your class an idea of essay conclusion, what life in ancient Mesopotamia was like. You can use this list as a point of comparison with the list that the class has compiled. Phd Dissertation Collection;fieldOfStudies! Students may be surprised to discover which occupations were and were not part of life in ancient Mesopotamia. Ask students to think about the following questions: What are some jobs the students did not list? What are some jobs students wouldn’t expect to be on the list, such as factory worker? What jobs on the list no longer exist?
Which jobs are unfamiliar to students? Were the art therapy, students surprised to learn some of the listed jobs existed in ancient Mesopotamia? Which occupations do they think were the most common? Why? Which of the jobs on the list are part of an industry, trade, or profession with a need for record keeping? Explain your answers.
Discuss the occupations which would have required record keeping briefly. You may wish to discuss the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, role of the priestly class in ancient Mesopotamia, as elite, Mesopotamian priests had a far more expanded role in society than students may have experienced with members of the clergy today. The priests of ancient Mesopotamia were part of the ruling class, and long essay rubric apush, much of the collection;fieldOfStudies, tax money that was collected went to the priests and the temples. Lord Conch! Next, have students discuss the following questions. You may wish to phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies have them work together in small groups.
Would it have been possible to complete the good good and bad, tasks of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, these occupations without being able to write anything down? How? If there were no written records connected to these occupations how would that have affected the occupation? How might it have made it easier? How might it have made it harder? Do students think that the appearance of these occupations might have affected the development of writing? How? Activity 4. Thinking About Writing. In addition to the historical basis for these activities, this lesson is also about the nature of written language, how it evolves and how it serves civilization. Ask the essay about english language, students the purposes of writing in the world today.
You may wish to have them discuss questions such as: Where is writing used as the primary communication device? What information does it convey? When is it used in addition to other forms of phd dissertation proposal, communication-like speaking? For what do they use written forms of essay and evil, communication? Next, ask them to imagine that in proposal, an instant all knowledge of alphabetic writing disappeared. Long Essay Rubric 2015! Only the drawing of simple pictures remained as the means of written communication. Have the class brainstorm: What would be some of the most essential things for which you would need signs? Which objects, concepts and ideas are the ones you would make sure were standardized and learned right away?
Review the list of essential signs that the phd dissertation, class has compiled. Have students create a few of them and prejudice essay conclusion, draw them on the board. Proposal! See if a few volunteers can use these “standardized” signs to put together a message someone else in the class will actually understand. Discuss examples of messages relatively easy to communicate with pictographs and others that would be more difficult. Prejudice Essay! Using the signs you’ve made up today, and assuming you had thousands more like them, could you write: Your name? (Perhaps, if your name corresponds to a concrete noun such as Bush, but not if your name is Clinton. Verbs like: walk, run, fly? Adjectives like: delicious, lovely, awesome? The words: “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?
Any of the following titles of songs released in phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, 2004? Which ones? Ask students to discuss the following questions: What does picture writing do well? Students may note that pictographs can represent nouns, small numbers, and assignments, some prepositions—“Two men on collection;fieldOfStudies horseback.” What advantages does picture writing have? Students may note that even those without specialized knowledge could potentially understand it. What are its weaknesses? Students should note that pictographic images have a limited ability to communicate such things as abstractions, sounds and certain parts of speech. Can a pictograph convey what the word it is depicting sounds like? Writing in ancient Mesopotamia arose from necessity—specifically, the need to keep records.
Gradually, civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley became more urbanized. Eventually, a number of complex systems developed: political, military, religious, legal, and commercial. Writing developed as well, becoming essential to those systems. Did writing enable those complex systems to arise or did complex systems create the need for a more sophisticated system of writing? Ask students to recall a time they started to essay do a task and then realized at some point that they should have been writing things down? For example, they might imagine organizing a collection of trading cards by writing down categories. Did writing change the way they approached the collection;fieldOfStudies, task? For example, they might think of deciding to make lists of the assignments, cards by category.
They could do the task without writing, but writing would better enable them to do it—now the cards are organized by category and there’s a list to check against to identify lost cards. Phd Dissertation Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! Ask students to prejudice essay conclusion think about the following questions as they track the proposal, evolution of civilization and writing in first good and evil and bad, ancient Mesopotamia: What kinds of tasks can be accomplished without writing? What kinds of tasks cannot be accomplished without writing? Could a country be ruled, an army trained, a religion organized, laws maintained, buildings built, products marketed, crops raised and sold without writing? How does writing enhance the ability to do those things? Activity 5. Phd Dissertation Proposal! Barley and the Story of rubric apush 2015, Writing. In this activity students will be introduced to the world’s first writing system—cuneiform—as they work through the British Museum's Mesopotamia site interactive online activity The Story of Writing, available through the EDSITEment resource The Oriental Institute: The University of phd dissertation, Chicago.
Introduce the activity by asking students to think about our word “barley.” How many students know what barley is? How is it used? What does it look like in its natural state? You may wish to sketch barley on the board, or show a photograph of barley, such as this photograph which is available from the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource Internet Public Library. Barley was a very important crop in ancient Mesopotamia. A pictograph, a pictorial representation of barley—presumably like the one you’ve drawn on the board -- is one of the signs we find on the oldest examples of writing from the region. The first Mesopotamian written representation of barley was a picture. Ask students to think about and discuss the assignments, following questions: What’s the relationship between the way our word “barley” looks and barley itself? What are the elements of our word for phd dissertation proposal, barley -- how do we know that the symbols which make up the art therapy, word represent the proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, grain?
Students should come to assignments the idea that in the written word “barley” it is the phonetic representations of the sounds of the word as we say it that connect the phd dissertation proposal, written word to the concept. Barley in Mesopotamia was called “she.” Next, navigate with the class, or have students navigate on their own, through The Story of Writing website. Each page contains information on abortion the history and development of the cuneiform character for the word “barley” over time. Phd Dissertation! Students should complete the essay rubric, quiz Treasure Hunt: Bowling for Barley, which is available as a PDF, as well as in the form of an online activity. Be sure students are aware of the many opportunities to click on the label “More,” which will provide additional information and proposal, definitions. Some of the answers to the treasure hunt are contained within those additional information graphics, so students should be sure to read all of them. When students have completed the answers to the treasure hunt have the class discuss the answers to each of the questions, which are available in the teacher’s rubric. Have students answer the following questions in class discussion.
For larger classes you may wish to divide the class into small groups and have each group work on answering one of the following questions, which they should share with the rest of the class. How did writing evolve in ancient Mesopotamia? Students should note here the long essay rubric 2015, progression from proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, representational picture, to symbol, to phonetic representation. Why do the students think that the ancient Mesopotamians decided to art therapy assignments change the writing system from just pictures (pictographs) to proposal the cuneiform shapes? Students might think some of the following questions in order to help them understand the of the, process: Did the change allow the ancient Mesopotamians to include a greater or a lesser number of ideas and objects in proposal, their writing? Did the shift towards cuneiform allow scribes to write more quickly?
How did the uses of writing expand over time? Remind students that the earliest written records were made to prejudice essay document buying and selling things like barley or domestic animals. Proposal! What other kinds of written documents were not among the earliest writing examples? Students should think about the shift from the recording of simple economic transactions to personal letters and stories. Essay! What kinds of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, documents would have been developed later? How did the change from pictures (direct representation) to cuneiform (abstract representation) affect who could use the system?
Students should ponder the abortion essays thesis, idea that an abstract writing system would require learning the system of signs. They should think about phd dissertation our own writing system -- were they able to understand it before someone taught them how to read and good and bad, write? Once the writing system had changed to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies cuneiform, who might have learned how to read and write? Who do you think would want the have a record of the buying and first essay good, selling of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, barley? You may wish to remind students that these records were similar to receipts. Why do people make and keep receipts? This may help them to think about why people wanted to keep track of the essays thesis, buying and selling of barley. Activity 6. Learning from Artifacts.
In this activity students will be challenged to make hypotheses about civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. It will be helpful for students to return to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies the timelines they created in the second activity as a reference point while completing this exercise. To help them understand the task they will be completing in this activity, begin by asking students to assignments look at one contemporary object on which writing is proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, found, such as a penny. They should imagine they are from the distant future. Abortion Thesis! They know the English language, but they know little else about America in the 21st century. What hypotheses can they make from a penny?
The members of this unknown civilization. could work metal constructed buildings as shown on the reverse of the coin wore facial hair believed in a Supreme Being … and so forth. Cuneiform writing was understood before we knew much about civilization in Ancient Mesopotamia. How did that happen? In what is proposal, now Iran, there is an inscription carved high on lord essay a rock face with the same message in proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, three different languages. First Essay Good Good And Bad! One is in Persian (the language that is still used in phd dissertation proposal, Iran today) and another is Assyrian cuneiform from Mesopotamia. In 1835, an Englishman—Sir Henry Rawlinson—copied the inscriptions from that rock. Assignments! Once he had translated the Persian, he was able to use the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, Persian as a key to decipher the cuneiform. Abortion Thesis! As a result, people were able, for the first time, to read the writing on clay tablets found in the vicinity of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Ask students to think about the previous lesson in which they learned about how the use of writing might have evolved in Mesopotamia. The first writing recorded agricultural transactions. What kinds of thoughts, ideas, actions, or things were easiest to put into pictures? What kinds of things did they believe were the collection;fieldOfStudies, most necessary to keep a record of? After thinking about both of these questions ask students to assignments try to imagine why it is that agricultural transactions—the buying and collection;fieldOfStudies, selling of grains or livestock- were among the first written messages on earth. Why was it so important to have a written record of agricultural transactions? Why do you think the first records recorded the sale of grains and livestock?
Why not something else? Who would want to have this record? Next, students should think about what kind of an abortion effect this type of record keeping might have on the rest of society. If there is a record of who bought what kind of grain, how much they bought, and from whom, what else becomes possible? Who besides the seller and the buyer might want a record of these transactions? For example, authorities expecting to take a portion of the revenue from taxes might be interested in phd dissertation proposal, having a record of the financial transactions which took place. Now instead of trying to guess how much they should tax someone they had a record of how much the transaction was worth. Having a written record of those transactions would make the collection of taxes both more exact and more efficient. What other records might have been useful for authorities to keep? Might they want to keep track of marriages?
Births? Deaths? Land sales? Why? How else might rulers be able to use writing to long 2015 legitimize and phd dissertation, extend their power? You may wish to begin by working through the model below. For beginning students you may wish to design an additional model in order to make the process explicit to your students. Next, divide the class into small groups of two or three and assign each group of students an artifact from ancient Mesopotamia from the list below. Each group will describe its artifact while showing a photograph of the object, such as the images listed below which are available below through the EDSITEment web resources The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago, and Internet Public Library.
Then, each group will present its hypotheses about of the essay what the object can tell us today about life in ancient Mesopotamia. Presentation to the class will proceed in chronological order, and should try to answer the following questions: What can be learned about civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley at the time of the artifact’s creation? What in the artifact itself supports their hypothesis? How important can they conjecture written language was to the society which created their artifact?
Note: Each of the following artifact images comes with a translation or notes explaining the contents. All of the pages online offer the opportunity to click for additional views of the artifact (usually a larger view) and/or information. The following is a model for proposal, the process of rubric apush, this activity with the following artifact: Cuneiform Tablet (account of small cattle, ca. 2000 BCE) which is available through the EDSITEment web resource Internet Public Library. The tablet uses some pictographs as well as a combination of wedge marks and lines. By investigating this tablet, we learn that: Sheep and goats were raised (“One sheep, Ur-Shara,” “one goat”). Proposal! There was at about importance english least one forest in the area (“individual sheep from the Forest of the Great Canal” and the job of “forester” existed) At the time the tablet was written, canals had been built (The name “Great Canal” implies the existence of at least one lesser canal.) There was an organized system of religion (“Lugal-azida, the anointing-priest”). Fleece was taken from sheep and presumably used (“fleece plucked”).
Careful records of livestock were made (“Total: 9 sheep”). There was some sort of calendar which appears to be related to religious practices (“Year Enunugal(anna) was installed (as en-priest of) Inanna (of Uruk”). By investigating the tablet students may also note additional characteristics about the civilization which produced it. For example, the proposal, presence of an established calendar indicates the existence of a fairly sophisticated number system and understanding of first essay and evil and bad, astronomy. The naming of phd dissertation, individuals in the tablet means that the written language can represent sounds as well as nouns. There are no verbs in the tablet, though the word “plucked,” used here as an adjective, is close. You may wish to lord flies essay conch distribute to each group this graphic organizer for writing down the information they gather. It is available as a PDF for this lesson, or as an online interactive activity. Group presentations should be conducted as if this were a convention of archaeologists trying to piece together a portrait of the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, evolution of life and writing in ancient Mesopotamia by combining the work of first essay good, all the phd dissertation, groups. Essays Thesis! Assign one artifact to from the following list to each group: When each group has completed their investigation of the artifact, gathered their evidence, compiled, and presented their hypotheses, have the class discuss and debate the following questions:
What picture of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia arises from the combined hypotheses of the groups? Which artifacts does the group consider as examples of the most sophisticated use of writing? What questions would this convention of archaeologists want to collection;fieldOfStudies explore now about ancient Mesopotamia? If you have time in your class, students can attempt to confirm their hypotheses and learn more about life in Mesopotamia through EDSITEment resource Odyssey Online. The exhibit Ancient Near East, designed for middle school students, offers information (including images of long essay rubric, artifacts) on people, mythology, daily life, death and burial, and writing. Using what they’ve learned about the phd dissertation, symbols and their evolution, the students should be able to place the following artifacts in the chronological order of their creation. Here they are in chronological order. Present them to thesis the students in random order.
Administrative Tablet (3100-2900 BCE) from EDSITEment resource Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Note barley pictograph.) Record of Field to collection;fieldOfStudies be Harvested (c. 2000 BCE) available through the EDSITEment-reviewed Internet Public Library. (Less representational, but note the use of lines which do not appear in true cuneiform.) Promissory Note for Barley (554 BCE) available through the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource Internet Public Library. (All cuneiform wedges.) What reasons did students have for placing the artifacts in the order they chose? Have students write an explanation for why they placed the examples in the order they chose. If you have time you might wish to pursue an alternative or additional assessment piece with your class. Each student should compose a brief essay of art therapy, no more than one page explaining how writing was important to the development of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. How would writing have been useful for record keeping, legal matters, passing on history and stories to phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies future generations and other activities represented in the artifacts students analyzed? Why would picture writing be difficult to use for essay, some of these purposes? There are a number of ways in which you might extend this lesson using EDSITEment resources. If you have time you might try some of the following activities: This lesson has centered on cuneiform writing and its evolution.
Mathematics also flourished and developed in ancient Mesopotamia. For example, ancient Mesopotamia is the place where the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, concept of value and the zero were invented. Art Therapy! Students can learn more about cuneiform numerals and the Babylonian system of Base 60 with the proposal, online exhibit Sumerian and Babylonian Numerals from of the flies conch, The School of Computing and IT, both links from the EDSITEment resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. The position of scribe was highly regarded in ancient Mesopotamia, reserved only for sons of wealthy families. Interested students can Explore the World of a Scribe, also available through the EDSITEment web resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. Budding archeologists can test their skill online using the Puzzle Challenge: Putting Artifacts Back Together, also available through the EDSITEment web resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. 4-5 class periods. Subject Areas Literature and Language Arts Place Ancient World History and phd dissertation, Social Studies World The Ancient World (3500 BCE-500 CE) Literature and Language Arts Place Other Skills Critical analysis Critical thinking Discussion Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information Historical analysis Interpretation Making inferences and drawing conclusions Map Skills Textual analysis Using archival documents Authors David Kleiner (Rydal, PA)
The Mesopotamian basin was the birthplace of apush 2015, writing. The Cuneiform writing system developed here was the first form of communication beyond the proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, use of pictograms. A blog for essay apush, and about the humanities in the classroom: literature, social studies, language, art and phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, culture, and more. Get updates on new lesson plans and other resources. EDSITEment! is a project of the National Endowment for first good and bad, the Humanities.
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Powerful New Grad Resumes and Cover Letters: 10 Things They Have in Common. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. OK, you’re graduating from college soon. Collection;fieldOfStudies. Time to give your resume and cover letter a checkup to ensure they are as powerful as they can be. Powerful new grad resumes and cover letters have several things in common, so you can kill a number of first essay good birds with one stone with this checkup. 1. Powerful resumes and cover letters are used as direct-mail (or e-mail) sales tools.
It’s important to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies remember the purpose of thesis a resume and cover letter. Phd Dissertation Proposal. They don’t have to perform the importance english language task of getting you a job since very few people are hired sight unseen. All they have to do is get you an interview. So the primary mission of a resume and cover letter is arouse the phd dissertation reader’s interest and sell yourself enough so that you get asked to abortion essays meet with the employer. The lesson here is to phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies keep your documents concise and to the point. You don’t have to include everything about yourself, and you should not include anything that’s not relevant.
You don’t have write your autobiography. Now, granted, some college students have the opposite problem. Of Learning Language. Instead of proposal limiting the information they list on their resumes, they worry about not having enough. Others are tempted to list every class they’ve taken, every award, and every extracurricular activity. Many of these items may be worthy resume components, but for every item you’re considering inserting into your resume, ask yourself, is it relevant to essay the kind of job I’m seeking? Course work usually isn’t necessary unless it’s unusual or you have very little else to collection;fieldOfStudies list in your resume. Essay About Language. Honors, awards, and activities are generally good resume fodder, but don’t go overboard, especially at the expense of work or internship experience. I knew one new grad who had an impressive list of honors and awards. Phd Dissertation Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies. But it was so long that her work experience was buried at the bottom of the resume.
Consider omitting activities that reveal ethnicity, and especially political or religious affiliations. Let go of conclusion high-school activities and honors unless they are truly exceptional or demonstrate an early interest in your chosen career. Proposal. Your college accomplishments should supplant what you did back in high school. 2. Good And Bad. Powerful resumes and cover letters must be targeted to the employer’s perspective. When constructing your resume and proposal, cover letter, put yourself in the mind-set of the employer. Ask not what the employer can do for you but what you can do for the employer. There’s a temptation, especially among college students, to tell employers what you’re looking for in a job. Good And Evil And Bad. Objective statements that say, “Seeking challenging position with growth potential,” are passe; in fact, all objective statements are out of fashion. Employers want to know what you can do for them, how you will benefit their companies, how you will impact their bottom lines. While they’re not totally oblivious to your career hopes and dreams, your aspirations are not their primary concern.
To read more about proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, using a cover letter to tell how you’ll benefit the employer, see Emphasize What You Can Do for the Employer in our Cover Letter Tutorial. 3. Powerful resumes and cover letters are focused and as specific as possible. The sad truth is long 2015 that resumes and cover letters are read in as few as 6 seconds. So you have only the briefest moment to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies catch the employer’s interest. The employer wants to know as quickly as possible: What do you want to art therapy do and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, what are you good at? He or she doesn’t have time to wade through lots of essay rubric 2015 text to find out. So how can you sharpen the focus of your resume and cover letter? Include a Professional Profile. A profile section, also known as a “Summary of phd dissertation Qualifications,” can help sharpen your resume’s focus by presenting 3-4 bullet points that encapsulate your best qualifications and selling points.
It’s often a good idea to list relevant computer and foreign-language skills in this section instead of burying them at the bottom of your resume, as many job-seekers do. You can find a large collection of real, high-quality new college grad resume and cover letter samples for improving your job, internship, grad-school search here: Real New College Grad Resume and and evil good, Cover Letter Job-Search Samples. Tailor cover letters to specific jobs. An effective cover letter must target a specific position, which should be mentioned in the first paragraph. Proposal. Don’t list several possible positions or say that you’re willing to consider any position. If you do, the employer will see you as unfocused or even desperate. Read more about cover letter specifics: Cover Letter Success is All About Specifics and consider using our Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet. Specifically tailor your resume. According to lord flies conch one research study, employers want resumes to show a clear match between the applicant and a particular job’s requirements. A “general” resume that is not focused on a specific job’s requirements is phd dissertation proposal seen as not competitive.
Now it may not be realistic or practical to change your resume for every job you apply for, but you can change certain elements, such as the aforementioned Professional Profile section. Art Therapy. Another alternative is to have more than one version of your resume. Let’s say you want a marketing career, but you’re open to collection;fieldOfStudies both marketing research and promotions. You could craft a version of your resume for each niche. See our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to Resumes. Consider adding a graphic. This suggestion is pretty radical, and it’s not for everyone, but a very small, tasteful graphic on your resume and/or cover letter could sharpen your focus. One of my former students, for example, wanted a career working with horses. She placed a tiny horse graphic at the top of her resume. Her career focus was instantly apparent.
Another student pursuing a law career used a tasteful scales of justice graphic; another interested in international business had a small world map graphic. Note that this technique is only for resumes seen by the human eye — in networking or career-fair situations, or after the resume has passed a screening through the employer’s Applicant Tracking Software and is viewed by essay and bad people. 4. Powerful resumes and cover letters make the most of your college experience. Too many college students miss the opportunity to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies exploit valuable experience on their resumes and cover letter because they overlook unpaid experience. Flies Essay Conch. Experience is experience. It doesn’t have to be paid. Anything you’ve done that has enabled you to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies develop skills that are relevant to the kind of job you seek is worth consideration for resume and cover letter mention. That’s especially true if you don’t have much paid experience. The key, as noted in #1, is relevance . Consider the following in evaluating what experience and skills you’ve gained that are relevant to what you want to abortion essays do when you graduate:
Internships Summer jobs Campus jobs (work-study) Sports Entrepreneurial/self-employed jobs Temporary work Volunteer work: school, church, club, not-for-profit organizations Research papers/projects Campus activity positions Fraternity/sorority/social club positions Extracurricular or sports leadership positions. And go ahead and list material from these areas under your Experience section. Don’t confuse the collection;fieldOfStudies reader with a bunch of differently labeled experience sections, such as Internship Experience, Work Experience, and lord flies essay conch, Project Experience. 5. Powerful resumes and collection;fieldOfStudies, cover letters portray your skills as transferable and applicable to what you want to do. You may think what you’ve done is abortion thesis not relevant to your future career, but you can probably spin the collection;fieldOfStudies experience so that it demonstrates the transferable and applicable skills that most employers want: The value of transferable skills is a major reason I urge students to abortion essays thesis list sports in phd dissertation, the Experience sections of their resumes — because athletics so often provide the teamwork, leadership experience, and assignments, competitive drive that employers seek. 6. Powerful resumes and cover letters focus on ACCOMPLISHMENTS, NOT job duties and phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, responsibilities.
In a research study, content elements that propelled employers to immediately discard resumes included a focus on duties instead of accomplishments, while documented achievements were highly ranked among content elements that employers look for. Therefore, NEVER use expressions like “Duties included,” “Responsibilities included,” or “Responsible for.” That’s job-description language, not accomplishments-driven resume language that sells. Instead, emphasize the special things you did to set yourself apart and do the job better than anyone else. Admittedly, it’s not easy to apush come up with accomplishments from the kinds of jobs that college students typically hold. But it’s important to: Start tracking your accomplishments NOW. Start HAVING accomplishments NOW!
You may not think you can have accomplishments in your lowly restaurant server or pizza delivery job, but try to. Ask your boss what you can do to improve. Strive to win any awards (such as Employee of the Month) that your employer offers. Find ways to go above and beyond your job description. 7. Powerful resumes and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, cover letters use KEYWORDS and lord flies essay conch, action verbs! Because more than 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords, keywords are among the most important aspects of today’s resume.
Most employers rely on proposal placing job-seeker resumes in keyword-searchable databases and using software to search those databases for specific keywords — usually nouns — that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. The bottom line is that if you apply for rubric, a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. The profile or summary sections mentioned in #3 can be important for front-loading your resume with those all-important keywords. Action verbs in your resume and cover letters are also important, as they increase the strength of your writing and about importance of learning english language, make you sound dynamic to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies employers. Luckily, there is no lack of sources for lists of long rubric 2015 action verbs; you can find them all over the Web (including Quintessential Careers’ Job-Seeker Action Verbs) and in nearly every resume and cover-letter book.
Almost as important as using action verbs is avoiding weak verbs: Do. Try “conduct,” “perform,” or “orchestrate.” Forms of the verb “to be.” Instead of proposal collection;fieldOfStudies “was,” say “served,” “functioned,” “acted.” Work. Everyone works. Of The Essay. Be more specific. Job-seekers often use “work” in terms of “working with” someone else, such as other team members. In that context, “collaborate(d)” is often a good substitute. Received. Phd Dissertation. This verb, especially in prejudice conclusion, the context of phd dissertation receiving an essay apush award sounds so passive, as though you deserve no credit for whatever you received. Always say you “earned” an phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies award or honor rather than “received” it. 8. About English Language. Powerful resumes and phd dissertation, cover letters contain NO typos or misspellings.
This characteristic should go without saying, yet in our resume-writing service, we still see typos and misspellings with alarming frequency. Remember that it’s not enough to spell-check your documents because you may have used a perfectly spelled word — but it wasn’t the word you wanted. Flies Conch. For example, a word frequently seen on resumes and cover letter is “possess,” but some job-seekers accidentally spell it “posses,” which is the plural of “posse.” Proofread your resume and cover letter. Put them down for a few hours, come back, and phd dissertation proposal, proofread again. Then get a friend or family member with a good eye to proof them for you. 9. Powerful resumes and cover letters are reader-friendly. Research ranks easy readability highest of all resume characteristics in of the flies, terms of phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies first impressions. The employers surveyed ranked use of bullets second highest.
Use the following to art therapy make your documents reader-friendly: Bullets in phd dissertation, resumes (and sometimes in cover letters) White space. Make sure your documents have reasonable margins. In my opinion, the default margins in Microsoft Word are wider than they need to be (1.25? on the left and of the essay conch, right and 1? at the top and bottom). Margins can be as narrow as .75? if needed. My partner uses the collection;fieldOfStudies “thumb test.” When he’s holding a resume or cover letter, he wants enough white space on the left and about, right so that his thumbs don’t touch the text.
Of course, he has big thumbs, so 1? left and right margins suit him better. Also make sure you have a line of space between all the phd dissertation jobs listed on your resume and between all resume sections. For cover letters, equalize the white space at the top and bottom of the letter so that it is centered vertically on of learning english language the page. Phd Dissertation Proposal. Type large enough to read (no smaller than 10.5 point). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.
Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and rubric, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to phd dissertation proposal help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of art therapy Quintessential Careers, is an collection;fieldOfStudies educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for lord essay conch, New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to proposal a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on good and evil good and bad GooglePlus. I AM A STUDENT This page is for phd dissertation, all students and prospective students (high school, college, graduate school), where you will find some expert free resources and tools for furthering your education. Long Essay Rubric 2015. Students have been one of the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies primary priorities of essay Quintessential Careers since our founding in phd dissertation proposal, 1996, and essays thesis, we have a large number of  10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers.
10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers by collection;fieldOfStudies Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, it’s time to abortion essays understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job  Personal Career Branding #038; Self-Marketing Tools for phd dissertation proposal, Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Personal Career Branding Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists Where job-seekers can find some expert articles, tools, and resources for art therapy assignments, developing your personal career brand, as well as key self-marketing techniques to get hired or promoted.Quintessential Careers Career Branding Marketing Articles Resources: Job SeekerPersonal Brand Building Your Online Career Brand: Five  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of prejudice our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and phd dissertation proposal, Careerists. Interview Advice Job  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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Phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldofstudies Coursework
10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. Collection;fieldOfStudies. There is essay apush 2015 one goal for collection;fieldOfStudies, your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for essay 2015, the job. However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message. Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in resumes. Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies. This may be one of the most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and essay about importance english language organize it so that it's easy for a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is offering. It's important to tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to study your resume for specifics that would apply to the job at hand. Your resume has to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies make them obvious. For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to do it.
While the bulk of assignments, your work experience may be in collection;fieldOfStudies, tech support, it's really not applicable to the job at flies essay hand, so don't concentrate on the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for resume bloopers. A study on working.com claims that one out of proposal, four executives will toss a resume into the wastebasket if they spot a typo. But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for prejudice essay, making sure you're sending out pristine copies of your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to phd dissertation proofread your resume and provide honest feedback.
Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of long apush 2015, eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. Phd Dissertation. It's easy to overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for review. Try a new perspective.
Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem. You can read it from bottom to top, or from the prejudice essay, right side of a line to the left. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Phd Dissertation Collection;fieldOfStudies. Read it out loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to essays thesis keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to collection;fieldOfStudies your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge. Of The Flies Essay Conch. Either way, the goal is to phd dissertation keep your resume lean yet meaningful. List only essay conclusion, your selling points that are relevant to collection;fieldOfStudies the job at hand and let go of some details that have no bearing on your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today.
4. Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to first good good and bad look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, document easily and first good good and bad process information quickly. To judge the formatting of your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to stick to one or two fonts. Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard. You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc.
However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to prejudice CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on the page? There's nothing more intimidating to a reviewer than blocks of dense text on collection;fieldOfStudies, a resume. Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at essays thesis about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of text that list your accomplishments, and collection;fieldOfStudies make sure your sections are distinct. Assignments. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the essay about importance of learning english language, list of proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, accomplishments are when put into bullets separated by white space. Assignments. 5. Phd Dissertation. Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at the top of prejudice essay conclusion, your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by HR departments won't work on headers and footers so your resume could get lost in the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords.
It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the phd dissertation, job being filled. So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. Art Therapy. That is to say, don't use one in every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of proposal, your accomplishments. First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included. These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out first good, from the other people in your company who were doing the same things. To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart?
How did I do the phd dissertation proposal, job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to abortion make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the phd dissertation, results of my efforts? How did the company benefit from importance, my performance?
For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an collection;fieldOfStudies, accomplishment tracker template like this one available from essay apush 2015, TechRepublic. 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Avoid, at proposal collection;fieldOfStudies all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. or Managed. Essay About Importance Of Learning English Language. Those phrases can mean almost anything.
Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc. On the same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about proposal collection;fieldOfStudies yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Rubric 2015. Did it come in under budget and phd dissertation within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills?
Did you get recognized for this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. About Importance English Language. 9. Your resume is like all the proposal, others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. Good And Evil Good And Bad. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio.
Online portfolios can be anything from proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude. Before you put the link in your resume, ask yourself how well the essay of learning, site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to long essay apush 2015 carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. Proposal. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to first good verify a resume. And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the phd dissertation, very least, don't claim education that you don't have.
But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of long essay rubric apush 2015, TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. Proposal. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog.
She has edited newsletters, books, and lord of the flies conch web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. We deliver the phd dissertation proposal, top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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Phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldofstudies Coursework
I. “I’ve been told by almost everyone I’ve interviewed that I’m not their shrink.” THE BELIEVER: I read that you first conceived of Joan Didion as the potential writer for phd dissertation The Executioner’s Song. LAWRENCE SCHILLER: Joan was my first writer, but I never approached her. I had hired a “corner man” named Barry Farrell, a friend of mine. In the book, Barry is somebody that I reach out to about importance english language because I feel I might be missing something in my interview process. Everything is becoming so intense. Phd Dissertation! Am I missing something because of my lack of education? Being an lord conch intellectual—I’m not.
So I hire him as a corner man, like a boxer; he watches me and tells me what I do wrong before I go in for the next round. Barry thought he was going to phd dissertation proposal write what became Executioner’s Song, and I told him he wasn’t going to. And Barry’s closest friend was Joan Didion. I realized I couldn’t go to Joan, because Barry would assassinate me. So I went to Norman. Because Norman had stabbed his wife, I felt he understood knee-jerk reactions to violence and what precipitates that kind of violence.
That was a very basic, childish thought. You may not remember that Norman had stabbed one of assignments, his wives. As you know, Norman wrote Executioner’s Song based primarily on my work and his own…. BLVR: I know Joan Didion ended up reviewing it in the New York Times . Did she ever know that she was in phd dissertation proposal your mind as the potential writer? BLVR: What do you think of Norman’s characterization of you in the book?
Do you think it’s close? LS: I’ve had worse done of me. BLVR: But do you recognize yourself? LS: Of course. All is first essay good and bad, fair in love and war. BLVR: Did Norman have free reign to phd dissertation write about anything as he wished?
LS: Yes. We disagreed about long rubric 2015 things greatly, when he put a thought into phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, the head of a character I interviewed.… and first essay good and bad when I objected, we didn’t speak for almost a year, as I said at his memorial service. Then he sent me a fax one day that said, “If I knew I would have to collection;fieldOfStudies kiss your ass, I would never have shaved,” and I called him up and said, “Hello, lover.” And we started to talk again…. BLVR: And how would you describe your relationship after that? LS: By the abortion, time Executioner’s Song is over, we were as in sync as two guys rowing a canoe. We interviewed the phd dissertation proposal, two widows of the [murder victims] and survived that experience.
The oars were in sync. Essay Conch! By the time ES was over, we understood the purposes that we each had and how we served each other greatly. BLVR: How do you feel when you’re in phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies the field, doing fieldwork, in a town with which you’re not familiar, like Provo? Do you feel energized? Do you feel lonely? LS: I don’t feel lonely. Essay And Evil! No no no.
I feel like I’m jumping in a well that has no bottom, and at some point I know I’ll hit bottom. Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! I never put a time limit on it. I’m oblivious to anything except that which I’m doing. BLVR: I want to know exactly what you handed over, in physical form, when you handed over your research to prejudice Norman Mailer. LS: I didn’t “hand over” anything, first of proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, all; I shared with him. Isn’t that a better word? I shared with him twenty-four thousand pages of language, transcripts from phd dissertation, interviews I conducted. Thesis! And then continued to do more interviews. And then after reading those interviews, he saw a uniqueness in collection;fieldOfStudies my interview process that he had not experienced before. He saw the material that a novelist normally has to lord conch dream up or invent or create, but here it was: real.
He understood every one of the proposal, characters. I never come with a list of questions when I interview. It’s organic. Sometimes they’ll go for hours or weeks or months. Sometimes I’m very, very bold. Very bold.
I’ve been told by almost everyone I’ve interviewed that I’m not their shrink at some point. There are times when I challenge people. In the end of ES, it ends with my interview with Nicole [Baker, the object of Gary’s tortured love] where I’m trying to get her to art therapy tell me what got her to go out in Midway and phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies fuck all these guys. What did [her ex-husband Jim] Barrett say to her? And she doesn’t want to, and I’m pushing her, and I hand her a piece of paper and I say, “If you can’t say it, write it.” Her full answer is not in those pages. Norman agreed to leave out part of the answer because I wanted to keep it for my biography, and it was a great, great line. She said, “Barret told me fucking me was like fucking the wind.” Even a novelist reading that line has a whole character there. That line told you everything about Barrett and women…. Abortion! Everything! How do you get people to spend that time with you?
Very simple! You have to convince them that they owe it to history! Sometimes they look at me and proposal say, “Fuck you.” In between his work on conclusion, The Executioner’s Song and phd dissertation his charge as director of the prejudice conclusion, Norman Mailer Writers Colony, Schiller wrote several best sellers, and his film The Man Who Skied Down Everest (1975) won an Academy Award. Before that, he had a career as a photographer, selling one of proposal, his nude photos of Marilyn Monroe to Hugh Hefner in 1962 for the then-highest price ever paid for first essay a single photograph. Phd Dissertation! He worked with the great W. Eugene Smith on Minamata, a book of photos related to mercury poisoning in Japan. BLVR: In Executioner’s Song, Norman Mailer wrote that you had one eye that doesn’t work—I don’t see that.
LS: My left eye: I’m almost totally blind. I’m legally blind, in essay my left eye, since I was seven. They saved the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, pupil. I looked up a dumbwaiter when I was young and a woman was throwing down an umbrella.… BLVR: But then you became a photographer…. LS: But that was because I couldn’t read. I grew up not knowing I was very seriously dyslexic (I grew out of it a little bit).
I was unable to read properly as a young child. I was unable to read at all. I ran away from classes because I didn’t want to be embarrassed. At the same time, my father was in the retail end of selling sporting goods, appliances, and cameras. He was a portrait photographer prior to that, during World War II. So about the about importance english language, tenth grade, he gave me an phd dissertation proposal East German camera called an Exakta. My brother and prejudice I were accomplished tennis players at a very young age (I was skinny at the time). When my brother beat me in the eleven-and-unders, I gave up sports (he went on to be a nationally ranked tennis player). I went toward photography, and I became an accomplished sports photographer at a very young age.
I was self-taught. Phd Dissertation Collection;fieldOfStudies! By the age of essay good good and bad, fourteen I had won second, third, fourth, and fifth in the national Graflex Awards, which allowed me to collection;fieldOfStudies work in summer of eleventh grade with Andy Lopez of the Acme News Service. I took some pictures at long essay apush the death march of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg from Union Square to Knickerbocker Village and I started to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies publish at assignments a young age through high school and college.… I started to get a big head and a very big ego. Collection;fieldOfStudies! I hid my age from of the flies essay, all the collection;fieldOfStudies, big magazines around the world. Jacob Deschin, a writer for the New York Times, called me a “pro at sixteen,” when I was still in high school.
By the time I graduated from college I won the National Press Photographers Picture of the Year award. BLVR: What was the photograph? LS: It was Nixon losing to Kennedy with a teardrop in flies essay his wife’s eye. I never considered myself a good photographer. I still don’t.
I thought of phd dissertation proposal, myself as a hard worker. My camera was a sponge and prejudice essay I had an phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies instinct that athletes have—anticipation. Photography really represents an enormous amount of anticipation—understanding what might be there the next moment and being prepared for it. Art Therapy! At twenty-two years old, I was driving a Mercedes. It was good from one point of view, but I was unbearable from other points of view.
LS: According to my own reality and collection;fieldOfStudies according to people who wrote about me those days. I was being written up in Newsweek and magazines all over conclusion, the world. Proposal! I refused to work on staff at magazines because I wanted to keep the copyright to my photographs, so I didn’t get the best assignments. Sometimes I would get back at them emotionally, like photographing Marilyn Monroe in the swimming pool, and abortion essays charge them five times what they would normally pay just because they wouldn’t give me some other assignment I wanted to collection;fieldOfStudies have. I saw the essays, end of the general magazine business at the end of the ’70s, and I knew I had to move into another profession when the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, advertising dollar moved from magazines to television. The magazine business as we knew it was over.
We were no longer the educators of the world. By 1972, I’m conceiving major projects… beginning with an exhibit of twenty-four photographers’ works of Marilyn Monroe. I said to a publisher, “Get me Gloria Steinem or Norman Mailer to write the essay and evil good, text and you’ll have the cover of phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, Life and Time magazines the same week.” Of course, they got me Norman Mailer. BLVR: Was that the first collaboration? LS: Right. But remember, ten years earlier I did not read and I didn’t go to school. I was shooting Playmates for Playboy in of the my college president’s home. I had a D+ average in high school, and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies Pepperdine was the only school that didn’t look at my grades.
William Randolph Hearst gave me a four-year scholarship for journalism. In 1962, I started to long rubric educate myself. Everything I did, I would do extensive interviews. Collection;fieldOfStudies! I would go back to art therapy assignments the people, time and time again, or move people into my home for six months and interview them every day—put microphones and recorders in their pockets, and I listened very attentively. This developed a unique style.
In 1968, after I had done this big essay on LSD for phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies Life magazine, a journalist interviewed me on the phone. When the book is published by the journalist— LS: Yes. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. I realized then that a good writer doesn’t have to be where the story takes place to long essay rubric apush write about it. So the very next week, I hire Albert Goldman to write Ladies and Gentlemen—Lenny Bruce. Phd Dissertation Proposal! which was the conclusion, first major book that I published.
It was not unusual for me after 1969 to seek out the collection;fieldOfStudies, most important writers I could to write books based on my ideas, my research, my interviews. Many people know of my relationship with Norman, because he decided to reveal it. I wasn’t interested in revealing it. There are many, many other famous writers that I have worked with— BLVR: —aside from those that are known… LS: Yeah. There are major writers who have written books [based on my research]. If one looks carefully at the copyright page, you’ll see my name. Writers of the long rubric apush, stature of collection;fieldOfStudies, Mailer and even bigger. All over the world. I’ve had failures, don’t get me wrong, but it wasn’t beneath me to pick up the phone and introduce myself to Bernard Malamud and say, “I’d like to introduce myself to you and to come meet you.
I think I might have something that’s worthy of your skills as a writer.” BLVR: You talked about first essay good moving away as the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, business of photography changed. Of course, the fine-art photography market has taken off since the ’70s. Is photography something you’ll return to? I know there have been exhibitions…. LS: Those exhibitions have been part ego and part to produce some financial stability for my grandchildren’s education.
I’ll give you an example: A very wealthy man calls me from a foreign country who’s got a price on his head by abortion essays two governments and the head of the Mafia in proposal one country. He says, “I want you to photograph me,” and I said, “Why do you want me to prejudice essay conclusion photograph you?” “Because you photographed Marilyn Monroe.” You know that’s, like, bullshit. Phd Dissertation! I said, “Well, I charge a lot of about of learning language, money, and phd dissertation all the prejudice conclusion, money has to go to charity.” (That usually stops people dead.) He said he’s prepared to pay. I said, “It’s going to go to a charity for the misuse of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, donkeys in Israel.” LS: Because my wife’s an animal activist, and we were in Egypt for essay good good long periods. We saw how donkeys were mistreated. Therefore, we’re involved in a sanctuary in Israel. Phd Dissertation Proposal! So the art therapy assignments, guy pays me this exorbitant amount of phd dissertation, money. I fly there—he sends a jet for me in London and I take the portrait. It was extraordinary! He had this face like an El Greco!
Truly! He had been run over by abortion a hundred trucks. So when I do something photography-wise now, I do it if it’s a fun thing and for somebody else to benefit. I don’t want to make my money off photography right now, because I don’t consider myself as good as a thousand photographers out there right now. There are a lot of good guys out there—a lot of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, women, too—I mean, photography has become a women’s profession, and, boy, I admire them. Annie Leibovitz, Mary Ellen Mark—whose books were the abortion essays thesis, first books I published. I don’t hold a candle to these photographers.
III. “When you’re being interviewed or you’re interviewing somebody else, you always have your voice two or three octaves lower than the other person’s voice.” It wasn’t the death-penalty issue that first drew Schiller to the story of Gary Gilmore. It was a newspaper article that mentioned the romance between Gilmore and Nicole Barrett and their double (failed) suicide pact that caught his attention. Over the phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies, years, Schiller maintained a taste for the sordid and the tabloid, drawn to those forced to air their business in courts. His oeuvre includes a book about JonBenet Ramsey ( Perfect Murder, Perfect Town ) and another about O. J. Simpson ( American Tragedy: The Uncensored Story of the Simpson Defense ). BLVR: Have you ever changed your mind—I’m thinking about the JonBenet Ramsey trial—about the innocence or guilt of someone in essay importance of learning english your book? LS: In that book, I refused to proposal say who I thought committed the crime. Joyce Carol Oates in her review chastises me for long essay 2015 that. I was flattered that Joyce Carol Oates was reviewing one of proposal, my books.
But have I ever changed my point of view? No. I mean, O. J. Lord Essay Conch! Simpson is proposal, a cold-blooded, vicious killer. Long Apush 2015! My daughter was his babysitter. And we lived across the proposal, street from him.
I know about all the spousal abuse. Assignments! I’ve had fights with him about it. In jail, I screamed at him and said, “Look at proposal the good Rock Hudson did before he died, by acknowledging his sexuality and his illness!” I said, “If you get out of this fucking mess”—I didn’t say “fucking mess,” but—“If you get out of this, if you’re judged to be innocent, you should go out and talk about spousal abuse. Do you realize how many women and men you could help?” “ I never did anyth— ” I said, “Fuck you, O. J.” Of course, he continued to deal with me… but he’s a cold-blooded killer. BLVR: Didn’t he try to bar publication in the end? LS: He threatened at the beginning, and when the art therapy assignments, movie was made, he sued me, and the judge threw it out. BLVR: I read some descriptions of the courtroom scene in phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies a book called Anatomy of a Trial . The author describes you, Joe McGinniss, Dominick Dunne—it sounded like every writer who writes about the legal system and crime was in that courtroom. Thesis! Where do you think you fit into that landscape?
LS: Hmm… the phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, least professional writer of conclusion, all of them, the least original writer of all of them. Uh. But the one that truly is the best Avon salesgirl or Fuller Brush salesman… BLVR: You can’t be this humble and phd dissertation get all this done. LS: Look, you’re interviewing me, so I’m obviously using some of my skills in the interview. One of the skills you may or may not have recognized yet. Abortion Essays Thesis! And that is proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, when you’re being interviewed or you’re interviewing somebody else, you always have your voice two or three octaves lower than the other person’s voice. Essay About Importance English Language! That produces a certain ambience, OK?
Which is very powerful, OK? And that was taught to me by a great great lawyer called Edward Bennett Williams in Washington, D.C., when I was very young. Otto Preminger also taught me some good things. Collection;fieldOfStudies! And Bette Davis was my best teacher when I photographed her. She’d sit on the steps of her house and tell me what was going to happen in my first divorce, because she knew.… Even though it was eight years later, she said, “You can’t continue this life, Larry, without getting divorced.” But I haven’t always been this way.
I’ve certainly mellowed as time has gone on—just as Norman mellowed. He was the thesis, boxer in the ’60s and phd dissertation became the rabbi in the ’80s and abortion essays ’90s. We both gained weight, we both have heart conditions, and we both lived on proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, pills. I have five stints in of the flies essay me. Collection;fieldOfStudies! There’s a defibrillator in that room and one in the apartment.
Since I had my heart attack, in 2002, we haven’t had to use it. I want to importance be alive when I die. Phd Dissertation Collection;fieldOfStudies! Honestly, I’d rather drop dead during this interview than die in a hospital bed the lord conch, way Norman Mailer did…. LS: No, I’m very serious about what I said. I’ve been many things in my life, and that’s what’s very confusing even to me. Now I sit and phd dissertation proposal I look at a dog and I try to figure out why a dog doesn’t know the difference between right and wrong. My mind is occupied by first and bad things like that. Why do certain animals not know the difference between right and wrong?
I guess those are things theologists think about. I don’t know if that’s a sign of where I am. BLVR: I want to talk to you about proposal reciprocity with all the people you’ve interviewed over about of learning, the years. I know you do pay people for their time, in accordance with what they normally make sometimes…. What about your relationship with people after the books are published? LS: Well, Nicole Barrett drove up here in a truck. She arrived five days ago, and I had dinner with her, and phd dissertation proposal I knew she was driving across the first good good, country to phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies see me. Lord Conch! She’s still in my life. [Lee Harvey Oswald’s widow] Marina Oswald is still in phd dissertation my life.
There are a lot of men who are still in my life. I think some of them, like [Gilmore’s uncle] Vern Damico, don’t understand the business aspect of it, so they get a bit confused. But when you irrevocably alter someone’s life by something you do, you have an obligation not to disappear, unless they want you to disappear. Essay! That’s been one of the problems with my marriages—they don’t like these people coming back into my life…. BLVR: Well, you have a lot of people, because there have been a lot of projects! LS: That living room—[former FBI agent and Soviet spy] Robert Hanssen’s children sat with other members of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, his family and his closest friend—he’s still in rubric 2015 my life and phd dissertation proposal one of his kids is. Sometimes I don’t speak to prejudice conclusion them for phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies a long time.
I’ve got as many enemies as those that have stayed in my life.… I guess you have to lord of the flies make some enemies… and phd dissertation proposal if you’re as immature as I was in importance of learning some of my ways for many years, you make stronger enemies. IV. Phd Dissertation! “I don’t want [my biography] published while I’m alive, because I want the about importance of learning english, writer to be totally, totally free to write whatever he wants to write.” Schiller wrote four New York Times best sellers, but he is hesitant to call himself a writer. Now he’s heading a decidedly literary pursuit. Even at the writers colony he directs, Schiller has an air of someone who doesn’t quite belong. Phd Dissertation Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! Provincetown is rubric apush 2015, certainly different than Hollywood, where he lives the other ten months of the year. He uses his status to collection;fieldOfStudies his benefit; it defines his drive as an art therapy overachieving outsider with creative problem-solving skills. When he was squeezed out of the O. J. trial, for example, he squeezed himself back in proposal collection;fieldOfStudies by making himself part of O. J.’s defense team. Lawrence showed me Norman Mailer’s study upstairs, promising that Norman’s study “hasn’t been touched, or even dusted, since the prejudice, day he died.” The room had a large Nautilus machine over to phd dissertation one side, and two desks.
One of those desks was covered with his last project. Mailer wrote longhand. Essay Conch! His typical process involved faxing handwritten pages to proposal collection;fieldOfStudies his secretary in first essay good New York, who typed it up and sent it back to Norris, who printed out copies to give back to Mailer. Mailer edited downstairs, at a large dining-room table, where we sat for our interview, looking at the shoreline. Phd Dissertation! The tabletop was pristine aside from the specific place where Mailer edited, which looked like someone had scratched repeatedly on the surface with a pencil, to make a point that Norman was here. I sat at the head of the table, with Mailer’s scratches on my right and essay about importance Schiller on my left. On the porch, a group of collection;fieldOfStudies, poets-in-residence were working with a visiting critic from Oxford. Schiller feels a tension that has dogged and will continue to dog him: how to keep his own legacy separate from Mailer’s. LS: Norman was very special. He was one of the few writers in art therapy assignments the world who was truly accessible to almost anybody.
He would talk and relate to anybody whether they thanked him or not. He wrote about fifty thousand letters in his life. Eight thousand came from writers; sixty-five hundred were answered. Norman Mailer was interested in nurturing young writers. He never wrote two books the collection;fieldOfStudies, same way. You have to constantly work on your craft.
The word intellectual doesn’t exist in my mind. If I were to appraise my capacity to have an intellectual conversation, it would be very low on essays, the totem pole. BLVR: Well, what’s your relationship to proposal reading and writing now? LS: I have to get on long apush, an airplane and fly around the world to read a book. I have to be totally isolated. Collection;fieldOfStudies! The first book I wrote [ Ladies and Gentlemen—Lenny Bruce!! “by Albert Goldman, from the abortion, journalism of phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies, Lawrence Schiller”] was a New York Times best seller. Essay Of Learning! I admire those people who can write great nonfiction or fiction or poetry, because they’re creating something. I absorb. Norman and I built a relationship because he saw a uniqueness in my interview process. And when his biography is written, people will understand what he saw in me that I did not see in myself.
BLVR: Why were you doing this, hiring these writers? LS: These stories interested me, but having a book written was part of a larger plan. First, find a story that has depth and proposal collection;fieldOfStudies general appeal. Pray you can find a writer who has the same interests as you do. Second, once you have a finished manuscript and, if you’re lucky, a best seller, you go looking for abortion thesis the right screenwriter. Third, with a good screenplay you have a movie. BLVR: Are you still chasing stories? LS: Well, the word chasing is a good word.
I did chase stories in my life. I don’t read the newspaper as closely as I used to, but yes, I still am interested. I think I care less about financial security now—it doesn’t matter to phd dissertation proposal me. One person has already accused me of hooking on to Norman’s legacy, but Norris knows that’s not true. I mean, the public doesn’t know my real involvement, and maybe they never will, and that’s fine. The colony is something that everybody said could never happen. I got it off the ground in nine months.
BLVR: I heard Don DeLillo was here…. LS: Sure. Long Apush 2015! A lot of people who wouldn’t normally venture out, I call them up and tell them, “I need your help.” That’s my first line: “I need your help.” A lot of people don’t like my personality. Phd Dissertation Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! They don’t like me. First Good! But they see there’s value in what I could achieve. BLVR: What’s it like to work alone, since so much of phd dissertation, your work is interpersonal? LS: I don’t work alone. I surround myself with talented people. BLVR: Do you ever work alone? LS: What’s the abortion essays thesis, definition of working alone?
BLVR: Sitting in a room. Writing by yourself. LS: Oh, I did that until three-thirty this morning and woke up at seven-thirty. I forgot about proposal your interview, but it beeped me on my cell thing. But quite honestly, yes, I work alone, but I called someone halfway around the world in the middle of the night to ask how to spell a word—all the way in Australia, because of the time difference. LS: That’s immaterial! I’m not afraid!
I stopped Christopher Ricks in the middle of a sentence over dinner and said, “What does that word mean, Chris?” Five minutes later, there was another word, and I said, “What does that word mean?” I mean, I’ve done that my whole life. BLVR: How will you measure the lord of the conch, success of phd dissertation, this colony? LS: If writers talk about the colony and writers are able to see something that benefits them, then it’s successful. Essay Conclusion! I’ve had failures—I’ve been in bankruptcy. Phd Dissertation Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! I overextended myself on a movie in Chernobyl, and I pulled myself out of that in essay about english two years. I’ve made my mistakes. BLVR: What kind of plans did Norman leave, in terms of the colony?
LS: Zero. He had no money. Proposal! No life insurance. He left virtually no funds for his family. The family doesn’t support this financially. I rent this from the family. This is an independent 501(c)(3). There are certainly family members on the board, but it is completely independent. That’s the biggest battle I have.
People don’t understand that Norman has no money. BLVR: How did you decide this needed to be done? LS: About six months before he died, we were sitting here, and he said, “Random House likes this book, so I’m rushing to publish it.” He says, “You know I’m not gonna be here by the end of the year, Larry.” I didn’t know what to long essay say. A few minutes later he says, “You better figure out what’s going to happen to this house and my legacy.” Norris was talking to my wife in the other room. Four weeks later, he was in the hospital. Phd Dissertation Collection;fieldOfStudies! He said, “I can hardly breathe.” He said, “The scar tissue is strangling my lungs.” When I first saw him in the hospital, there was a nurse that just walked in and said, “I know who you are, Mr. Mailer, and I was wondering if you could give me some tips on writing.” He looked at assignments her and proposal said, “What are you doing this weekend?” She said, “I’m going sailing with my boyfriend.” He said, “Well, when you come back, write about what happened over the weekend, and let me see it—I’ll give you some pointers.” So, ten days later, she walks in with the papers. He’s got more IVs coming out. Here he is editing her manuscript. He finally hands it to her and goes back to reading the prejudice essay conclusion, New York Times . She starts reading it over proposal, and over, and she started crying.
There the foundation [for the colony] was being laid. Later, he was buried here in essay of learning Provincetown, and I’m standing over there by phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies that clock with a couple writers. One of them says, “What do you think is going to happen to the house, Larry?” I said, “I know Norman doesn’t want it to be lost to history.” A few minutes later somebody said, “Maybe it’d be nice to apush 2015 have a writers colony.” I walked upstairs and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies stood in the room late that night where Norman wrote, and the next morning I said to Norris, “What do you think of turning the house into essay importance of learning, a writers colony?” She said, “That would be a nice idea.” I said, “Would I have your support?” She said, “You’d have my support in anything you do.” I put some of my money in, called Gunter Grass, Joan Didion, asked for their help—advising me and lending their prestige and their names. And then I was on the phone for three days. In three days, I had everybody.
I don’t think everybody thought it would happen. Proposal! I called Tina Brown and art therapy said, “I need to have breakfast with you. Proposal Collection;fieldOfStudies! I need you to teach me what fund-raising is essay importance of learning english language, about.” Of course, that’s my biggest problem—my personality doesn’t raise money. It goes against raising money. Twenty-five years ago, my personality would have chased everyone away. I couldn’t have run this colony.
But my personality was doing other things—it was getting into prisons. Or the attorney general’s… Norman and I had a big fight in Belarus where we hit each other and pushed each other down a flight of stairs. It was all about whom I was going to bribe and whether we were being set up, and why I had to bribe someone…. We had our differences. Everybody changes. BLVR: Is there anything I haven’t asked you? LS: You didn’t ask me who I slept with last night…. BLVR: Who did you sleep with last night? BLVR: Do you know what’s next? LS: Everything just happens with me—nothing’s thought out.
I mean, there are lots of projects that aren’t finished… but I think this project is worthy of the time that’s put in. If we get one person out of the sixty scholarships, then it’s worth it. My grammar has improved. I know the difference between there and phd dissertation proposal collection;fieldOfStudies their now. BLVR: What about your biography? LS: It’s being written. About Language! I’ve given two years of collection;fieldOfStudies, interviews, twice a week, two hours at a time, eight months out of every year.
The interviews are almost done. It will be published after my death. I don’t want it published while I’m alive, because I want the writer to be totally, totally free to art therapy assignments write whatever he wants to write. BLVR: Did you choose the author? LS: No.
Several authors asked, and phd dissertation I’m giving complete access to one. LS: Yes. There’s a working title, which is I Survived My Mistakes. Some people see a story in it. I just hope it’s not episodic. If someone can find a through-line, that’s fine. I can’t. I’m very eclectic.
I can’t find a through-line. BLVR: I wonder if you think writers need to be more eclectic. You have the longest hyphenated career.… LS: Well, it certainly happened by accident. I’ve been married three and a half times, so I changed my life four times. I reinvented myself four times. Of The Flies! So each morning brings a little wisdom, and then you find out how stupid you were for most of your life. BLVR: I want you to collection;fieldOfStudies sign my copy of The Executioner’s Song. BLVR: [ I look at of the essay conch the empty seat to my right ] I want you to sign it. LS: OK. Not on the title page—that’s Norman’s page.
Suzanne Snider’s work has appeared in several magazines and a few artists’ catalogs. Phd Dissertation Proposal! She teaches courses on oral history, song hunting, and fieldwork at essays the New School University, and phd dissertation collection;fieldOfStudies is currently completing a book about two rival communes on adjacent land.