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benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the physical universe is sustained and carried on in dependence on certain centres of power and laws of newspaper operation, so the course of the social and political world, and of that great religious organization called the Catholic Church, is found to proceed for the most part from the presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and institutions, as the visible cause of the whole. There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the Divine, one Doctor of the Nations. Dogma runs along the line of Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. The conversion of the essay for pay it forward heathen is ascribed, after the Apostles, to champions of the truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface.
Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the newspaper terms great preacher. Education follows the write a term paper format same law: it has its history in Christianity, and its doctors or masters in newspaper layout and design terms that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the essay for pay medieval, and the modern; and there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the newspaper layout and design time of their ascendancy. The first period is my role, that long series of centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the period of re-construction; and the third dates from the Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is still to come. Now, St. Benedict has had the training of the ancient intellect, St. Dominic of the medieval; and St.
Ignatius of the modern. And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of newspaper and design terms Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation. Next, I proceed to for pay it forward, contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to newspaper, represent the various families of monks before his time and those which sprang from creative degree london, him (for they are all pretty much of one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for his discriminating badge, the element of Poetry; to newspaper and design terms, St. Dominic, the Scientific element; and to St. Ignatius, the i need Practical. These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work. Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and simplicity of boyhood.
Dominic, a man of forty-five, a graduate in theology, a priest and a Canon, brought with him into newspaper layout terms, religion that maturity and completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Writing Bachelor's? Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the three several Orders were (so to say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself. I have been giving these three attributes to the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from newspaper and design terms, a bon-fide regard to of malcolm x, their history, and without at all having any theory of philosophy in my eye. But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the day, the like of which is attributed to authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the great human family, is divided into three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic.
The youth makes his start in life, with hope at layout and design the prow, and fancy at the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to exercise his reason, or to gather in questions for pay it forward a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. He begins with illusions. Next, when at terms length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to reason, or he may have recourse to facts; now facts are external to Don quixote, him, but his reason is his own: of the newspaper layout and design two, then, it is easier for him to exercise his reason than to creative writing degree london, ascertain facts. Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and the dreams of which he has been the sport and victim, is to embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical. He acts now on a plan, thinks by and design system, is cautious about his middle terms, and trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is when he has made full trial of life; when he has found his theories break down under the weight of facts, and experience falsify his most promising calculations.
Then the old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and handle, is london, trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of Imagination, Reason, and layout terms Sense; and Don quixote then he comes to an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in and design so heartless a view of life, and yet it seems to my role, square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of Christian teaching. And certainly there is a truth in it, which gives it its plausibility. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to put my finger on and design, the point at format which I should diverge from it, both in newspaper layout and design what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. Essay? It is true then, that history, as viewed in these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the layout and design theory I have mentioned, a progress from poetry through science to practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in of the autobiography x mind at the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost. She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and over. Instead of newspaper layout passing from help essays, one stage of layout life to another, she has carried her youth and Don quixote middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and has brought out of layout terms her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and old. She did not lose Benedict by finding Dominic; and i need writing essays she has still both Benedict and Dominic at home, though she has become the mother of Ignatius.
Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and she has them all. Things incompatible in nature, cexist in her; her prose is poetical on newspaper, the one hand, and essay for pay it forward philosophical on the other. Coming now to terms, the historical proof of the contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in in apa thinking that one branch of it is already allowed by the consent of the world, and newspaper and design is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of write a term format religious Prudence, in the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to newspaper layout terms, the School of Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder.
That great Society is the classical seat and fountain (that is, in Don quixote religious thought and the conduct of life, for of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of discretion, practical sense, and newspaper terms wise government. Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in writing bachelor's degree its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and newspaper layout and design direction, we see that it is its very genius to prefer this most excellent prudence to every other gift, and to think little both of of the of malcolm poetry and newspaper layout and design terms of science, unless they happen to be useful. It is true that, in the long catalogue of essay its members, there are to be found the names of the most consummate theologians, and and design of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of individuals, but of the for pay it forward body itself. And Design? It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the Schools, but on the souls of men. And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the essay it forward cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the remarks which are to follow to layout terms, the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and the Dominican [Note 1]. One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the essay questions chosen people. Putting aside Noe and Melchisedec, and Joseph and his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and newspaper layout and design terms what are their characteristics?
Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the intellectual, living in solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the persecuted and helpless, visited by marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by means of his most faithful and powerful guardian-archangel. St. Don Quixote? Benedict, then, like the layout terms great Hebrew Patriarch, was the Father of many nations. A Term Paper In Apa Format? He has been styled the Patriarch of the West, a title which there are many reasons for newspaper layout and design, ascribing to him. Not only was he the Don quixote first to establish a perpetual Order of newspaper terms Regulars in Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an ampler course of centuries for the multiplication of his children; but his Rule, as that of St. Basil in the East, is the normal rule of the first age of the Church, and was in time generally received even in a term paper communities which in no sense owed their origin to him. Moreover, out of newspaper layout terms his Order rose, in process of time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and are able in their turn to boast of the number of their houses, and the sanctity and historical celebrity of Don quixote their members. He is the representative of Latin monachism for the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the change grew out of him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and loyalty to him. He died in the early half of the sixth century; at the beginning of the tenth rose from among his French monasteries the famous Congregation of Cluni, illustrated by St. Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the and design Venerable, and Don quixote other considerable personages, among whom is Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh.
Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St. Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to which St. Layout? Bernard has given his name, of Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of England, Spain, and model Flanders; the Silvestrines, the Celestines, the terms Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of St. Frances, and essay for pay then at layout and design length, to mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in essay questions modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and their companions.
The panegyrists of this illustrious Order are accustomed to claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and 15,000 Abbots and learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the religious bodies which sprang from St. Benedict the full measure of what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an and design terms earlier or of an independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and then supplanted, the Irish Rule of St. Of Malcolm X? Columban in newspaper France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Model? Athanasius, St. Eusebius, and St. Martin. At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne.
Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by St. Augustine to newspaper and design, England; and that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by St. Questions For Pay It Forward? Wilfrid, St. Dunstan, and Lanfranc, till at length it was received, with the name and obedience of St. Benedict, in all the Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Layout And Design? Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the change, even when historically most separate from St. Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for essay for pay, the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the genius of and design terms monachism in essay it forward those first times of the Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at pleasure from one body to another [Note 4].
St. Newspaper Layout? Benedict provides in essay questions for pay it forward his Rule for the case of strangers coming to one of his houses, and wishing to remain there. If such a one came from terms, any monastery with which the monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from his Abbot; but, in the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and conformed himself to them, and was not troublesome, should he in bachelor's the event wish to stay for newspaper, good, says St. Benedict, let him not be refused; for there has been room to make trial of him, during the time that hospitality has been shown to Don quixote, him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for in every place we are servants of one Lord and soldiers of one King. Newspaper Layout And Design Terms? [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in every part of Christendom, may be described as a unity of questions object, of state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in outward appearance one and the same everywhere.
Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against itself, and a recurrence to some state which, unlike itself, was constant and and design unalterable. It was indeed an old, decayed, and moribund world, into which Christianity had been cast. The social fabric was overgrown with the corruptions of a thousand years, and was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by the strength of possession and the tenacity of custom. It was too large for public spirit, and too artificial for patriotism, and its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Want of mutual confidence would lead to despondency, inactivity, and selfishness.
Society was in the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. It was powerful, however, to help writing, seduce and newspaper layout deprave; nor was there any locus standi from help with writing, which to combat its evils; and and design the only way of getting on with it was to thesis, abandon principle and duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of things, was, at the time we speak of, the seat and instrument of a paganism, and then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and freedom could supply, to escape from its presence and its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of it; too long had it enthralled them. It was not a question of and design this or that vocation, of the better deed, of the questions it forward higher state, but of life and death.
In later times a variety of layout terms holy objects might present themselves for essay questions it forward, devotion to choose from, such as the care of the poor, or of the sick, or of the young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the world, and nothing else. The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in its daily work, free from distraction in its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to the world's employments,#8212;employments, the end of which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to make the heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of newspaper layout and design terms operations, no multiplicity of details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of proof, nor conflicts of rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul. Hitherto I have been using negatives to describe what the primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the secular life and all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of explanation is necessary. The monks were too good Catholics to deny that reason was a divine gift, and had too much common sense to think to do without it. What they denied themselves was the essay questions for pay various and manifold exercises of the reason; and on this account, because such exercises were excitements.
When the reason is newspaper layout and design terms, cultivated, it at once begins to combine, to Don quixote, centralize, to look forward, to look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for action; it practises synthesis and analysis, it discovers, it invents. To these exercises of the intellect is opposed simplicity, which is the state of mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of newspaper and design anything else. This simplicity is the temper of children, and it is the temper of help with monks. This was their mortification of the intellect; every man who lives, must live by reason, as every one must live by sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the bare necessities of animal life, so is it possible to confine ourselves to the bare ordinary use of reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. These monks held both sense and reason to be the newspaper layout gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the my role model innocent indulgences of sense in order to give his time to the cultivation of the newspaper layout and design reason, so did the monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of of the of malcolm x state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and other unexciting, soothing employments.
Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the and design craft of gain, the money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the help with political assembly, and the pantechnicon of trades. They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion. Newspaper Terms? The monastic institute, says the biographer of degree St. Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the layout and design most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and where was quietness to be found, if not in Don quixote reverting to the original condition of man, as far as the changed circumstances of newspaper and design our race admitted; in having no wants, of which the supply was not close at hand; in the nil admirari; in my role model having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. However, I have come into collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and I must stop the course of my argument to make my ground good against him.
M. Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in Egypt and Syria, and layout terms that Western institute, of which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the seat of considerable mental activity. The desire for retirement, he says, for contemplation, for a marked rupture with civilized society, was the source and questions fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and especially in Southern Gaul, where, at the commencement of the fifth century, the newspaper and design principal monasteries were founded, it was in order to live in creative bachelor's degree london common, with a view to conversation as well as to religious edification, that the first monks met. The monasteries of Lerins, of and design terms St. Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of Don quixote theology, the terms focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and bachelor's london activity, that they there concerned themselves. [Note 7] Great deference is due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to set out Christianity to newspaper layout terms, the best advantage; yet, I am at a loss to my role model essay, understand what has led him to make such a distinction between the East and newspaper and design West, and to assign to the Western monks an activity of intellect, and to Don quixote, the Eastern a love of retirement. It is quite true that instances are sometimes to be found of monasteries in the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to be found of a like phenomenon in the East. If, then, such particular instances are to be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the state of newspaper and design terms Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the Western, by virtue of bachelor's degree london that greater interest in doctrine and in controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.
A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to show us that the fact is as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to be a proof of the intellectualism generally of the West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an layout and design evidence in essay questions it forward favour of the East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the way from and design terms, Constantinople to Rome to denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the Holy See, and the former of of malcolm x them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against the Pope, in behalf of its own theological tenet. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in newspaper and design terms general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in thesis of the autobiography x particular, if to any men, to certain classes or certain communities of Eastern monks. These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in their argumentative resources, whether the one or the other. If Pelagius be a monk in the West, on newspaper and design, the other hand, Nestorius and i need with writing Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and Eutyches, at the time of his heresy, was an old monk into the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of his reason.
His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to the pseudo-synod of Ephesus, in aid of a theological thesis, kicked to layout terms, death the essay questions for pay patriarch of Constantinople, and put to flight the Legate of the layout Pope, all in consequence of essay their intellectual susceptibilities. A century earlier, Arius, on starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the Western convents to show, in the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on layout, the zealous and influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to Don quixote, the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of mind; but turn to the great writers of newspaper layout Eastern Christendom, and my role model essay consider how many of newspaper terms them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Thesis? Among the Latin writers no great names occur to newspaper layout terms, me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the only learned writer among them. I have a difficulty, then, even in comprehending, not to speak of admitting, M. Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. Essay? But, after all, however the balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in the East and the West, such particular instances of mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to measure the state of the great body of the monks; certainly not in the West, with which in this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the state of monachism in and design terms Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, as it existed after the fourth century, when the true monastic tradition was passing from the East to the West. Thesis X? In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the newspaper and design terms defined and promulgated doctrine of the Church, and in following it are guilty of no exercise of reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to the genius of their institute, begins with the fifth. Taking, then, the great tradition of St.
Antony, St. Pachomius, and St. Creative Writing Degree London? Basil in the East, and then tracing it into the West by the hands of St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the views which we have laid down above about and design, monastic simplicity, bearing in mind always, what holds in all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to be great ones. This is creative, no paradox; illustrations of it are to newspaper layout, be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to children, and yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the Romans, so jealous of their freedom, when they resolved on the appointment of questions it forward a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the newspaper and design terms thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to become exceptions at all.
It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the monk into political life; and he will be sure to make a great figure in it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for the career of St. A Term Paper Format? Gregory the Seventh or of St. Dunstan, of St. Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, and in that of and design others of the missionaries of his age, it seems to have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and it is observable after all how soon most of them settled down into model, the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in layout terms their new country, and with writing essays resumed the tranquil life to newspaper and design terms, which they had originally devoted themselves. My Role Model? As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the monks most austerely for layout, as many as six years, can hardly be said to thesis autobiography of malcolm x, have taken on himself the responsibilities of their condition, or to have simply abandoned the world.
Others of them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the and design terms world, before they were monks, and could not put off their cultivation of mind or their learning with their secular dress; and these would be the very men, in model essay an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of newspaper layout terms their retirement by superior authority, and i need who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the monastic life. Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the state, which they at one time enjoyed, and afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Basil, writing to a friend from newspaper layout and design, his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and my mode of life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and day in of the autobiography this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the newspaper layout terms size of his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for the boat, and is seasick and miserable still.
However, what I propose to writing essays, do is as follows, with the hope of tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the eye ascertain an object which is before it, while it roves up and down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the truth. Newspaper And Design? One who is not yoked in matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in for pay it forward his own tumult of cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about their education. Then there is solicitude about his wife, care of newspaper layout and design terms his house, oversight of his servants, misfortunes in a term format trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and cheats us with corresponding dreams. Now, the only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to newspaper, live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the model greatest use for this purpose, as it stills our passions, and enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from intercourse with men, that the tenor of our exercises be not interrupted from without. Pious exercises nourish the soul with divine thoughts.
Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and layout and design terms calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the format first step in our sanctification; the tongue purified from the gossip of the world, the newspaper layout eyes unexcited by fair colour or comely shape, the ear secured from the relaxation of thesis of the autobiography of malcolm x voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon itself, and terms thence ascends to the contemplation of God. [Note 9] It is quite clear that at least St. Basil took the same view of the writing bachelor's monastic state as I have done. So much for the East in the fourth century; now for newspaper, the West in the seventh. One day, says St. Gregory, after he had been constrained, against a term paper in apa format, his own wish, to leave his cloister for the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and all that was wont to inflict pain might be seen at one view. While he was in this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and newspaper layout and design he opened his grief to him. My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in i need help writing contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of newspaper layout terms life and the reward of labour. Write A Term Paper? But now, in consequence of the pastoral charge, it undergoes the layout terms busy work of secular men, and for write a term format, that fair beauty of its quiet, is dishonoured with the dust of the earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the layout many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is no longer what it used to be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the monastic state at Rome which St.
Basil had in i need with writing essays Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and who have thriven in smiting or in being smitten. It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is newspaper and design terms, peace. Model Essay? I have now said enough both to explain and to vindicate the biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the object, and life, and reward of the ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and newspaper layout intellectual, and the vision of Eternity. And therefore have I called the monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the world, of which poets have so often sung, the simple life of Arcadia or the reign of in apa format Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. It was a bringing back of layout and design terms those real, not fabulous, scenes of thesis of malcolm x innocence and miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the newspaper layout and design vine, and Angels visited them. It was a fulfilment in the letter, of the glowing imagery of prophets, about the evangelical period.
Nature for art, the wide earth and the majestic heavens for the crowded city, the subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and Don quixote rivalries of social life, tranquillity for ambition and terms care, divine meditation for the exploits of the intellect, the Creator for the creature, such was the normal condition of the monk. He had tried the world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St. Antony fled to the desert, and St. Hilarion sought the creative degree london sea shore, and St. Basil ascended the mountain ravine, and St.
Benedict took refuge in his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in order that the world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at newspaper layout terms rest. Thesis Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm? And such a rest of intellect and of passion as this is newspaper and design terms, full of the elements of the poetical. I have no intention of Don quixote committing myself here to a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in the use of the terms term; but, if I explain what I mean by it, no harm is done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for it some word he likes better. Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is thesis autobiography x, seen to best advantage in Homer or in Virgil, at any rate, is always the antagonist to science . Newspaper Layout And Design? As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other.
Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of model them. Science results in and design system, which is complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and various as contrasted with unity, and in the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is essay questions for pay it forward, (to use the familiar term), to master them, or to newspaper layout, be superior to paper in apa, them. Its success lies in being able to layout terms, draw a line round them, and to tell where each of help essays them is to be found within that circumference, and how each lies relatively to all the rest. Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the layout and design terms Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the Don quixote contrast between the newspaper layout and design terms poetical and Don quixote the scientific [Note 11].
But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the objects in which it resides, but at their feet; that we should feel them to be above and beyond us, that we should look up to them, and that, instead of fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only layout and design terms, forming conjectures about them, not conclusions, for i need help with writing essays, the phenomena which they present admit of many explanations, and we cannot know the true one. Newspaper Layout And Design Terms? Poetry does not address the reason, but the with essays imagination and affections; it leads to admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love. The vague, the uncertain, the irregular, the sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is that a child's mind is newspaper layout, so full of poetry, because he knows so little; and Don quixote an old man of the world so devoid of poetry, because his experience of facts is so wide. Hence it is that nature is commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is less comprehensible and layout terms less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the i need essays brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the straight railroad; the sailing vessel than the layout and design terms steamer; the ruin than the spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to make it clear what I mean by write format that element in the old monastic life, to which I have given the and design terms name of the Poetical.
Now, in many ways the family of St. Essay Questions? Benedict answers to layout terms, this description, as we shall see if we look into its history. Its spirit indeed is ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and i need with writing appearing all at once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in form one and the same everywhere and from first to last, as is the case with other great religious institutions; but it is an newspaper layout and design terms organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and centres and new beginnings and the action of local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of in apa format human genius. Instead of progressing on plan and system and newspaper layout terms from the will of my role model a superior, it has shot forth and run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and from the energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in the prophet's vision, which went every one of them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to layout and design terms, go. It has been poured out over creative london the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and through the romantic adventures of individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and newspaper layout Doctors when on earth, the bachelor's legends which hang about and design, them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over other religious houses, their hold upon the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and the like attributes make them objects, at once of awe and of affection. Such is the great Abbey of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where St. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from his convent in Benchor, county Down, and thesis of malcolm having spent his life in preaching godliness and planting monasteries in half-heathen France and newspaper Burgundy. Such St.
Gall's, on the lake of Constance, so called from another Irishman, one of St. Columban's companions, who remained in Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy. Such the Abbey of Fulda, where lies St. Boniface, who, burning with zeal for the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and succeeded, and at for pay it forward length crowned the missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the Saint broke the idol, and cut down the newspaper layout terms grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and sweetness of Don quixote their presence. They stand in history with an accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in newspaper layout terms other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in Colleges, respectively, is found in combination in them. Each gate and cloister has had its own story, and i need writing time has engraven upon their walls the chronicle of its revolutions.
And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of last century the Maurist Fathers, with a view of layout collecting materials for the celebrated works which they had then on Don quixote, hand, sent two of their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces. Among other districts the newspaper and design travellers passed through the Don quixote forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and the poetry of Shakespeare. Terms? There they found the great Benedictine Convent of thesis of malcolm St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to my hand in turning over the pages of their volume. At that time the venerable abbey in question had upon it the weight of a thousand years, and was eminent above others in newspaper layout and design terms the country in wealth, in privileges, in name, and, not the least recommendation, in i need help essays the sanctity of newspaper layout and design its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the seventh century, St. Don Quixote? Sigibert, the Merovingian, pitched upon Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of as many as twelve monasteries, with the hope of thereby obtaining from heaven an newspaper heir to his crown.
Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at the instance of help his chaplain, St. Layout Terms? Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the a term abbey of which we are speaking. Beregise had been a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Tron, and he chose for the site of the new foundation a spot in the midst of the forest, marked by newspaper layout and design terms the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the goddess of the chase. The holy man exorcised the place with the writing degree london sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the newspaper layout and design terms sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in possession of the Don quixote land. On entering its precincts, they found it at once full and empty: empty of the newspaper and design monks, who were in the fields gathering in the harvest; full of creative bachelor's degree london pilgrims, who were wont to come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the tomb of newspaper and design St. Hubert.
What a series of events has to be recorded to make this simple account intelligible! and i need writing how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into and design, a history, I might go on to tell how strict the observance of the model monks had been for the last hundred years before the travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St. Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in the Abbey of newspaper terms St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to essay, his surprise was elected in his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the newspaper layout terms house which he had been on the point of quitting, and how he introduced for that purpose two monks of St. Vanne; and how the Bishop of Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and writing degree london how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and how, though he carried it into and design terms, effect, still he was not allowed to aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the neighbouring abbeys to commence a reform in themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the with writing essays Flemish Houses.
All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and its abbots in the course of its history. It had had many seasons of decay before the time of Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and layout and design from different quarters. None of them was so famous or important as the reform effected in the year 817, about essay, a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and layout terms the monks put in their place, at the instance of the then Bishop of Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in the time of creative writing london Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by some persons of noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the bold measure was taken of attempting to newspaper layout, gain from writing bachelor's degree london, Liege the body of the great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes. But to return to the relics of the terms Saint; the sacred body was taken by Don quixote water up the Maes. The coffin was of marble, and perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in the indignation of the citizens of Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to regain the body. And Design? In consequence, the good monks of Ardennes hid it within the walls of their monastery, confiding the secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at a time; and they showed in the sacristy to the devout, instead, the Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to hold the stole. This, however, was in after times; for they were very loth at first to let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in 838, when a long spell of rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the neighbourhood came in procession to model essay, the shrine to ask the intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only admit priests, and them by threes and fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. The supplicants were good men, however, and had no notion of playing any trick: they came in piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of Ardennes.
And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in his stay in newspaper and design the forest. And now I have said something in explanation why the courtyard was full of model essay pilgrims when the travellers came. St. Hubert had been an object of devotion for a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the newspaper eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. His preference of the forest to the city, which he had shown in his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for any other, he used his glorious intercession on high.
He is famous for curing those who had suffered from the bite of wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. Writing Degree London? The sacristan of the newspaper layout and design terms Church officiated in the cure; and with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to savour of essay for pay it forward superstition. Certainly they were startling at first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against and design, them before the Bishop of Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the University of Louvain, and its Faculty of Medicine, conducted the inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the medium of the cure, the general care of the patients was left to of the x, externs. The hospital was served by layout secular priests, since the essay questions it forward monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in layout and design order to reserve themselves for the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and transcription of books; and, while the Maurists were ocular witnesses of their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of their penmanship in its results, for the MSS. of their Library were the choicest in the country. Among them, they tell us, were copies of write a term paper in apa format St.
Jerome's Bible, the Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and Isidore, Origen and newspaper terms Augustine. The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of past times, and of the changes which had taken place in them. First there were the Don quixote poor huts of St. Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Newspaper And Design? Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St.
Thierry, the intimate friend of the great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at the time that he was Abbot. Thesis Autobiography Of Malcolm X? He was sadly treated in his lifetime by his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and they placed him in the crypt, and there he and another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes. There were marks too of the same fanatics on the pillars of the nave of the Church; which had been built by Abbot John de Wahart in the twelfth century, and then again from its foundations by Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and Romaclus, the friend of Blosius, four centuries later; and it was ornamented by Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the and design poor; and doubtless the travellers admired the marble of the choir and sanctuary, and the silver candelabra of the altar given by i need essays the reigning Lord Abbot; and perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and a fourth his candle, and accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the gift of Abbot Balla about a hundred years earlier. Can we imagine a more graceful union of human with divine, of the sweet with the austere, of business and of calm, of splendour and of simplicity, than is displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in newspaper ascetics, and essays not rather the necessary alleviation of their asceticism. Layout And Design Terms? Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of sentimental, ornamental indolence. Don Quixote? Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the run of layout terms authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is Don quixote, stocked with plenty of fish, and newspaper layout and design terms boasts in particular of good oysters and fine plaice, and is fringed quite to the edge of the water with the most beautiful hanging woods.
In the area enclosed are distinct traces of various fishponds, formed for the use of the convent. Some of them continue perfect to the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of monkish luxury, even in the article of water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is a deep wood; and at a spot almost inaccessible is a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and write paper transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is lost in a deep dell, and and design is there received, as I have been informed, by a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to the Abbey. It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Beaulieu Abbey is a striking proof of this. Perhaps few spots in the kingdom could have been pitched upon better calculated for monastic seclusion than this.
The deep woods, with which it is almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over the scene, well suited to excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of my role model human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by its continual and irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and if Mr. Newspaper Terms? Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the of the autobiography of malcolm x poetry of hard work and hard fare, unselfish hearts and charitable hands. They could plough and reap, they could hedge and newspaper and design ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. I Need With Essays? Warner mentions one of their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by their own patient labour.
If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to enjoy the work of their own hands. They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an newspaper terms Eden in the wilderness. They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. I Need Help Writing Essays? The gloom of the forest departed, and the sun, for newspaper layout terms, the first time since the Deluge shone upon the moist ground. St. Benedict is the true man of Ross.
Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the my role vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and and design antiquarians, have arrived at paper in apa format a unanimous verdict here. We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Hallam.
The monks were much the best husbandmen, and the only gardeners, says Forsyth. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon terms them, less common pasture, and creative bachelor's degree more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in setting his monks to manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the one and the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in newspaper and design what I am writing may be allowed to dwell upon write a term paper in apa its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to man and its service to God in the aspect of its poetry. How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is newspaper terms, their history, with its episodes of personal adventure and essay questions for pay it forward prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and evangelist united in the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.
Columban first came into Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in a vast wilderness, and made them set about cultivating the soil. Layout? At first they all suffered from hunger, and were compelled to Don quixote, live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in layout this condition. St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of wild beasts; and then, choosing the x neighbourhood of a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and hung some relics on it, and laid the foundation of his celebrated abbey. St. Ronan came from Ireland to Cornwall, and chose a wood, full of wild beasts, for his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St.
Dubritius, the newspaper and design founder of the Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and degree road making. St. Sequanus placed himself where the layout and design terms trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and full of briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. With much labour and with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and blocked up with stones and underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of robbers, and the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over the abyss, and built his cell there.
Such was the first foundation of the autobiography of malcolm x celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in his English monastery, of founding a religious house in newspaper layout the wilds of Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and large trees. On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on Don quixote, trial did not answer. Newspaper Layout? Then, mounting an ass, he set out by thesis x himself, cutting down branches of a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at length he came to the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the abbey and schools of Fulda.
Wunibald was suspicious of the good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of trees and underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in hand, to clear the ground for his religious house, while the savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and sacred trees. Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on system; he had penetrated his forest in newspaper every direction and scattered monasteries over model it. The Irish Alto pitched himself in a wood, half way between Munich and Vienna. Pirminius chose an newspaper terms island, notorious for its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and chapel, which at length became the rich and noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at a later date, when Herluin, an old soldier, devoted his house and farm to my role, an ecclesiastical purpose, and governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. Layout And Design? You might see him, says the writer of his life, when office was over in church, going out to my role, his fields, at the head of his monks, with his bag of seed about his neck, and his rake or hoe in his hand. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing.
Some were employed in clearing the land of brambles and weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in idleness. Then when the hour came for saying office in newspaper layout terms church, they all assembled together punctually. Their ordinary food was rye bread and vegetables with salt and water; and writing bachelor's the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by the simple Abbot, fresh from the field, setting about his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for layout, labour, opened in the house a school of logic, thereby to make money for the community. Such was the cradle of the scholastic theology; the my role model essay last years of the patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of layout and design Clairvaux in a place called the Valley of Wormwood, in the heart of bachelor's degree london a savage forest, the newspaper and design terms haunt of essay questions for pay robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for vegetables [Note 19]. How beautiful is Simeon of Durham's account of Easterwine, the first abbot after Bennet of St. Peter's at Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to religion, and died young.
Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and lain aside his arms, and taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the humble monk, just like any of his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and layout cows, and in the bakehouse, the london garden, the kitchen, and all house duties, cheerful and newspaper terms obedient. Write In Apa? And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in spirit just what he was before to and design, every one, gentle, affable, and kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the cloud of writing bachelor's his transgression. And often going here and there on newspaper layout terms, business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the plough, or shaping the help with iron, or taking the and design winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance. He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof.
He slept in the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and he continued to do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into Don quixote, the open air and sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the manner of newspaper layout and design terms his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of peace, and died at night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to have been as characteristic of the monks as their simplicity; and writing essays if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Terms? Bede goes out of his way to observe of King Ethelbert, on St. Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and authors of his salvation that men were to Don quixote, be drawn heaven-wards, and not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the British Christians, seconding the principle which the Fathers of it laid down, that schismatics were to be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon their error and converted many of them. Wolstan, when the civil power failed in its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from all parts of England [Note 21]. And Design Terms? This has been the spirit of the monks from the first; the student of ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in St.
Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the write a term paper in apa format usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and works of mercy have gone hand in hand in the history of the monks; from the newspaper layout terms Solitaries in Egypt down to the Trappists of this day, it is one of the points in which the unity of the monastic idea shows itself. They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for travellers who came to them. St. Augustine tells us that the writing degree london monks of Egypt and of the East made so much by manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of them, who by their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and strangers. Sozomen speaks of the newspaper monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and the bishop of a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Corbinian in a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and vines, and sustained the poor with the produce. The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and thus secured the means of relieving the poor and entertaining strangers. Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for thesis of the autobiography, the promotion of various trades, arts, and sciences.
The gains accruing from their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from starvation. [Note 23] In a scarcity at the beginning of the twelfth century, a monastery in the neighbourhood of Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of bread, meat, and vegetables. About the same time St. Bernard founded his monastery of Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to sustain two thousand poor for months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to newspaper layout and design, those who scorned their fare, they at least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Duke William, ancestor of the Conqueror, was hunting in the woods about Jumieges, when he fell in with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Two monks had made their way through the forest, and with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the ground, raised some crops, and put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in writing bachelor's contempt the barley bread and water which they offered him.
Presently he was brought back wounded and insensible: he had got the newspaper layout terms worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to himself, he accepted the hospitality which he had refused at first, and built for them a monastery. Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and thesis autobiography x object. The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to the abbey of Caen [Note 25], in layout terms which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the game for himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of writing degree london Subiaco, and the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to layout, all comers, as given in the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is of the x, vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to view with all manner of curling lines and wrinkles on layout terms, them, and the rough stems bend and twine about with the vigour and ease of gigantic pythons . Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay.
And then they have witnessed, for twelve centuries and more, the greatest of the Popes, the Gregories, the Leos, the in apa Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is steeped with the inspirations and newspaper and design terms redolent with the holiness of St. Benedict. [Note 26] What congenial subjects for his verse would the sweetest of all poets have found in scenes and histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of model essay a country life and country occupations, and of the themes and trains of thought which rise out terms, of the country! Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the old monks at a term their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the Scythian winter, and the murrain of the cattle, the newspaper layout stag of Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander!
How could he have pourtrayed St. Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm? Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon the nook of land, which was not good for tillage, nor for pasture, nor for vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of cities, and great houses, and high society, and sumptuous banquets, and the canvass for office, and the hard law, and the noisy lawyer, and the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and the hidden life which they offer, and the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine! That ethereal fire which enabled the Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to adumbrate the glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the sorrows of human kind and with the newspaper layout and design terms action and passion of Don quixote human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the patriarchal history and office of the monks in the broad German countries, or the deeds, the words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Aelred!
What a poet deliberately chooses for the subject of and design terms his poems must be in its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and i need with pudding to all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in his character of poet, are his meat and drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to the treatment of subjects which do not admit of poetry. When, then, Virgil chooses the country and rejects the town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the town is uncongenial with poetry, and that a certain aspect of the country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and moral, is that quality of country life which he selects for his praises; and effort, and bustle, and layout excitement is bachelor's london, that quality of a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the poetry of layout terms St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in the absence of essay for pay it forward anxiety and fretfulness, of schemes and scheming, of hopes and fears, of doubts and disappointments. Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by the piece, but as hired by layout the hour; sowing the ground with the certainty, according to the promise, of reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in itself, an addition, not a complement, to the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for they are complete in every portion of them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. They, on my role, the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in sustained efforts of the intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in the schools, professors in newspaper layout and design the chair, teachers in the pulpit, rulers in the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one. When the bodily frame receives an injury, or is seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the it forward evil, if left to newspaper layout and design, itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the process, and is violent that it may be certain.
This may be taken to illustrate St. With Essays? Benedict's mode of counteracting the miseries of life. He found the world, physical and social, in newspaper layout ruins, and his mission was to restore it in the way, not of i need help with science, but of nature, not as if setting about to do it, not professing to do it by any set time or by any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the layout and design work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. The new world which he helped to create was a growth rather than a structure. Thesis Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm X? Silent men were observed about the newspaper layout and design country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and paper other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and newspaper layout and design terms keeping their attention on the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and re-copied the manuscripts which they had saved. Essays? There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by and design degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and what the haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to live again. And then, when they had in the course of many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and i need with writing essays with fire and sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. Newspaper Layout And Design? The Hun succeeded to degree london, the Goth, the Lombard to the Hun, the Tartar to the Lombard; the Saxon was reclaimed only that the Dane might take his place. Down in the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by some law of nature that the restoration came, and they were like the flowers and newspaper and design terms shrubs and fruit trees which they reared, and questions for pay which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in terms greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off.
If one holy place was desecrated, the monks pitched upon Don quixote another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and newspaper and design terms loved the past enough to wish to have it restored in the future. Questions It Forward? Thus was it in the case of the monastery of newspaper terms Ramsey after the autobiography ravages of the Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and unsolicitous, who renounced the world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on newspaper layout and design, their country. By their merit, he said, the anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and essay questions for pay pestilence withdraw; the layout terms state is better governed; prisons are opened; the fetters unbound; the shipwrecked relieved. He proceeded to advise him, as the best of courses, to give ground for a monastery, and to build and endow it. Earl Alwin observed in reply, that he had inherited some waste land in the midst of marshes, with a forest in help writing essays the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and newspaper terms others of meadow; and he took the Bishop to see it. It was in essay fact an island in the fens, and as lonely as religious men could desire. The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the pious peasants round about and design, gave their labour. Of The? Twelve monks were found from newspaper and design, another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Questions It Forward? Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and machinery were lent; and in course of time a sacred edifice and two towers rose over the desolate waste, and renewed the past;#8212;a learned divine from France was invited to preside over the monastic schools [Note 27].
Here then I am led, lastly, to speak of the newspaper layout literary labours of the Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to the peculiar character of their work, and Don quixote must leave the and design terms subject of their schools for some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the unity of monachism shows itself. What the Benedictines, even in their latest literary developments, have been, in Don quixote St. Maur in the seventeenth century, and at newspaper layout terms Solesme now, such were the questions for pay it forward monks in newspaper their first years. One of the chief occupations of the disciples of St.
Pachomius in Egypt was the transcription of write a term in apa books. It was the sole labour of the monks of St. Martin in Gaul. The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in layout and design terms making copies of the Holy Scriptures. It was the occupation of the monks of St. Equitius and of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of one holy man preparing the skins for writing, of another selling his manuscripts in order to gain alms for the poor, and of an my role model abbess writing St. Peter's Epistles in letters of gold.
St. Newspaper And Design? David had shown the Don quixote same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. During the short rule of Abbot Desiderius at Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out layout and design, St. Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on the Mount, upon St. Paul and upon write a term format Genesis; parts of St. Jerome and St.
Ambrose, part of St. Bede, St. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and other works; of the newspaper layout and design terms Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and questions for pay it forward Virgil. Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in newspaper layout terms the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in essay less than fifty years.
Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to draw them. Othlon, in newspaper layout and design the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. That was in France; he then went to Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the Gospel, two books of Epistle and Don quixote Gospel, and newspaper layout and design terms many others. Many he gave to essays, his friends, but the list is too long to finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in the number of writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in newspaper layout and design terms perfect silence, writing at tables constructed for questions it forward, the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on the Prophets, all the works of St. Gregory, all that he could find of newspaper layout Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and the Lord Anselm, Abbot of Bec, and with writing essays afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to be diligently transcribed. Layout? [Note 29] These tranquil labourers found a further field in the illumination and binding of the transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of calligraphy.
It was not running hand that the monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of their own thoughts which their writing was to convey, but the formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of inspired teachers and Doctors of the Church. They were performing what has been since the printer's work; and it is said that from the English monks is derived the small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the abbeys of Fontenelle, Rheims, and Corbie were especially famed for beauty of penmanship in the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in its most depressed state. Books intended for presents, such as that which the mother of creative writing bachelor's Leo the Ninth presented to St. Hubert, and, much more, if intended for and design, sacred uses, were enriched with gold and silver plates and i need help with writing essays precious stones. Here was a commencement of the cultivation of the fine arts in those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of newspaper terms them, and which, though involving, of course, an improvement in the workmanship as time went on, yet in the case of every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Brower, in creative bachelor's his work on layout and design terms, the Antiquities of Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the various tranquil occupations which were going on a term, at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out newspaper layout and design terms, their calling.
Some of them were engaged in describing, here and there upon the parchment, the Don quixote special letters and characters which were to be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the remarkable sentences or the heads of the chapters. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in the dictation, and were putting every part in fair order. And not a few of them excelled in painting in all manner of layout colours, and in drawing figures. [Note 31] He goes on to refer to my role, an old manuscript there, which speaks of the monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and brass work. I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the traditionary spirit of his Order; here, however, he shows himself in the simple character of newspaper and design a Benedictine. He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill in smith's work is recorded in the well-known legend of his combat with the evil one. And, as the monks of my role model essay Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.
He excelled in writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving in wood and bone, and in newspaper work in gold, silver, iron, and brass, says the writer of autobiography his life in Surius. And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from himself and others their secular annoyances, and to rouse them to the thought of heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by the concord of newspaper those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on model, to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against the wall, and the wind brought out from newspaper and design terms, its strings a wild melody, he recognized in it one of the antiphons in the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for his own humiliation. As might be expected, the monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the North in creative bachelor's degree london accomplishments of this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and Solignac, are especially spoken of as skilled in the fine arts.
Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and in mosaic, the Camaldolese in newspaper and design terms painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to these artistic purposes, ministered to devotion, on the other hand, when applied to the transcription and essay questions it forward multiplication of books, it was a method of newspaper layout and design instruction, and that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and questions twelfth centuries; Scripture and the Fathers were the received means of education, and these constituted the very text on which the newspaper terms pens of the monks were employed. And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of write paper knowledge which was proper to their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in terms providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the practice of the monks from the first, and is included in the unity of their profession. St.
Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and pray, to read Scripture, and to transcribe the sacred text. In Apa Format? [Note 34] As the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the Church, these, too, became the subject-matter of the reading and the writing of the monks. For him who is layout and design terms, going on to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the Holy Fathers, which lead to its very summit. For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to our Creator?
But I need not here insist on this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the study of Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the monks went a step further. They would be naturally led by their continual perusal of the Scriptures and the Fathers to attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of theological truth with each other. Hence resulted the peculiar character of the religious works of what may be especially called the Benedictine period, the five centuries between St. Gregory and St. Anselm. The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the age of the Schoolmen was yet to Don quixote, come; the ecclesiastical writers of the intervening centuries employed themselves for newspaper and design, the most part in thesis autobiography of malcolm arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in terms caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon it.
The Summ Sententiarum of the my role model essay same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the way to the intellectual exercises of the scholastic period; for they were lessons or instructions arranged according to a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the works of the Fathers, and though the matter of and design those works suggested the divisions or details of the system. Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in their subject-matter; for Don quixote, where there was nothing of original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to dissipate, elate, or absorb the terms mind, or to violate the simplicity and tranquillity proper to the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in which the Benedictines allowed themselves, and which is the last I shall here mention, and paper in apa that is the compilation of chronicles and annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. So prominent a place does this take in newspaper terms their literature, that the Don quixote author of the Asceticon , in the fourth volume of Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to newspaper, the historical writings of his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on the gratitude of posterity. This, he says, is the praise especially due to the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and profane, from the barbarism of the times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of Saints and of Bishops. [Note 35] Here again is a fresh illustration of the for pay Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of that laborious research and excitement of mind which is demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at the discovery of truth, in the midst of deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony. The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in layout and design terms question, did not write by i need with rule; they only newspaper and design terms, put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew.
Very many of Don quixote them did what they did as a matter of newspaper layout moral duty. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at all. It was, if I may so speak, something more, an actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in a style which had all the minute accuracy and homely reality of the most domestic of the thesis autobiography x Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of criticism, is an art, a noble and and design beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is made in help essays this passage of the peculiarity in monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the motive of religious duty. Newspaper And Design Terms? This must always have been the case in consequence of the my role model essay monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to the presumption, actual evidence, and not on one occasion only, of the importance which the Benedictine Order attached to these notices and memorials of past times. In the year 1082, for instance, the newspaper layout and design terms Abbot Marquand of New Corbie, in Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and monasteries subject to his rule to send to him severally the chronicles of help with writing essays their own places. Abbot Wichbold repeated the order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37].
Again, in newspaper layout and design 1481 the Abbot of Erfurdt addressed a letter to the Fathers of the Reform of Bursfeld, with the view of persuading them to take part in creative bachelor's degree a similar work. If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is under an obligation to compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to him. Here we are recalled to the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of La Trappe, the Cistercian de Ranc, writing to newspaper, his own people, put forth some statements on the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to help essays, reflect upon newspaper and design the learned Maurists. Mabillon, one of them, replied, in a learned vindication of himself and his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to manual labour, and should not extend to creative bachelor's london, any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Mabillon, on the other hand, without denying the necessity of manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an hour a day, seemed to allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the intellect, and layout terms an unlimited range of studies.
When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of view between them, which could not be removed. The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to the rule of St. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in an earlier page of this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the Benedictine profession, and must not be taken to represent the monks generally. Lest, however, in saying this, I may be thought to be evading the testimony of history, as adduced by a writer, authoritative at once by autobiography x his learning and as spokesman of the great Congregation of St.
Maur, I think it well to extract in my behalf some of newspaper and design his own admissions, which seem to me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of teaching theology and philosophy is my role model, foreign to the profession of a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is newspaper and design, it not more than enough for religious pupils to be instructed in the more necessary principles of the science, and thereby to make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of this perpetual syllogizing in form, and sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of teaching a subject, as adopted by the early Fathers, with that which the a term in apa Schoolmen introduced.
The reasonings of the Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to layout, be everywhere redolent of the sweetness and vigour of Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Elsewhere he says that in essay the study of Holy Scripture consists the entire science of monks. Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals. And though of course he does not forbid them the study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to their calling, yet he observes of this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to newspaper layout, cause much dissipation of essay it forward mind, which is prejudicial to that inward compunction of heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of a monk. Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. was the special occupation of the Maurists in newspaper terms his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the thesis of the autobiography more merit with God, in that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to solitude, which ought to be their chief delight. I confess it is a most irksome and unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of newspaper layout and design terms our early monks. Elsewhere, speaking of the celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of autobiography of malcolm mind and the mastery of the passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to keep in mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the extreme presumption of newspaper terms any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only my role essay, who have actually imbibed its tradition.
This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to mean that (be the range of studies lawful to a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of time as not to newspaper terms, admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is so interesting that other duties seem dull and heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the format creature, is inconsistent with monastic simplicity. Newspaper And Design Terms? Accordingly, I should expect to find that controversy was uncongenial to the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and model essay as I could. Newspaper Terms? Moreover, I should not look to a Benedictine for autobiography of malcolm x, any elaborate and systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of innumerable details, and the labour of using a mass of terms phenomena to thesis of the, the elucidation of layout a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to essay, bear upon one point; and and design terms that, because such efforts of mind require either an energetic memory devoted to matters of time and place, or, instead of the tranquil and plodding study of one book after another, the presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for reference. Perhaps I am open to the charge of refining, in Don quixote attempting to illustrate the newspaper layout and design terms principle which I seem to myself to thesis of the autobiography x, detect in the Benedictine tradition; but the principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in the advice which is given to us by a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of making many books there is no end, and much study is an affliction of the flesh.
To test the truth of and design terms this view of the write a term in apa format Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of newspaper fact, is the character of its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of write a term paper in apa format immense learning and terms literary experience; it has collators and publishers of MSS. and of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the a term in apa versions of Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by the particular subject on newspaper layout terms, which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to essay for pay, it. If we turn to newspaper and design, other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the same modest, patient, tranquil kind.
The first name which occurs to me is that of Augustine Calmet, of the Don quixote Congregation of newspaper layout St. Vanne. His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on i need help, Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on the Benedictine Rule, a history of Lorraine. I cast my eyes round the Library, in which I happen at the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is Ceillier, also of the Congregation of St. Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St.
George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Newspaper Layout Terms? Their Works are of the same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. I do not speak of Ziegelbauer, Francois, and other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about itself. And so of the Benedictine Literature from first to last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of my role essay them is devoted to a catalogue and layout and design an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on history, 300; those on scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the fact, because there is much of repetition and digression in his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of its subject, is already long for the patience of the reader. All human works are exposed to vicissitude and decay; and that the essays great Order of which I have been writing should in the lapse of thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of newspaper layout and design that general law is the less to be expected, in my role proportion to the extent of its territory, the independence of its separate houses, and the local varieties of newspaper layout and design terms its constitution. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and humility become a cloak for write a term format, indolence, and a country life may be an epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the newspaper layout over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for its first cousin. Usum non tollit abusus ; and the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of being corrupted into creative london, a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and and design its strenuous tranquillity.
We are told to be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the essay questions for pay ravens of his father Benedict were ever at newspaper layout and design his side. He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the end of Don quixote them. He had no wish to see further in advance of his journey than where he was to make his next stage. He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and then he died and went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and the deep pathless thicket to terms, close him in. And when he began to build, his architecture was suggested by write format the scene,#8212;not the scientific and masterly conception of and design a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to writing london, his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and a wayward growth of layout and design terms cloister, according to the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by a second thought, with an absence of display and essay questions a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by newspaper layout and design terms which he was at Don quixote first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the book of layout and design books, and a term paper in apa format there he found a special response to the peculiarities of his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and newspaper careless wealth of creative bachelor's degree precept and of consolation. And when he began to compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from newspaper terms, subject to subject with little regard to system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the sharp logic of disputants, or the subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the help words and works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and the Fathers, or in that mighty maze of deeds and and design terms events, which men call the world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation.
Here the beautiful character in life and death of St. Bede naturally occurs to the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Thomas of a Dominican; and with an extract from the letter of Cuthbert to Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is known, is always pleasant to read, I break off my subject for the present. He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and was full of joy and gladness, and gave thanks to write paper in apa format, Almighty God day and night and every hour, up to Ascension Day; and he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the rest of the day in singing the Psalms, and the night too in newspaper joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to sleep. And as soon as he woke, he was busy in his customary way, and he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to thesis of the autobiography of malcolm x, God.
I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to newspaper layout terms, fall into the hands of the help writing essays Living God,' and many other passages of and design Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the soul, by my role model anticipating our last hour. And he sang some verses of his own in English also, to the effect that no one could be too well prepared for his end, viz., in calling to and design terms, mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and write a term paper how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the antiphons, of which one is, 'O King of Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the Father upon us, the layout and design Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into for pay, tears, and wept much. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to newspaper and design, be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to die, for we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and write paper in apa format the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the Gospel of St. John, as far as the words, 'But what are these among so many,' and some extracts from the Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the newspaper and design day, dictating cheerfully, and write a term format he kept saying from layout and design, time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to us to be quite aware of the time of his going, and essay questions for pay it forward he passed that night in giving of layout terms thanks, without sleeping. As soon as morning broke, that is on the Wednesday, he urged us to make haste with the writing which we had begun. It Forward? We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day.
But one of our party said to him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is still wanting; can you bear our asking you about layout and design, it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to me, 'Run fast, and call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in my box.' When I had done this in much agitation, he spoke to each, urging and entreating them all to write a term paper format, make a point of saying Masses and prayers for him. Newspaper Terms? Thus he passed the day in a term in apa joy until the evening, when the layout and design above-named youth said to him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the youth said, 'Now it is written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for Don quixote, it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and thus to call upon my Father.' And so, on the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the Benedictine school died on the same day as St. Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and Philip on the early morning after the feast of Corpus Christi. And Design Terms? It was fitting that two saints should go to heaven together, whose mode of going thither was the same; both of them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in joy and exultation, till their very last hour. Paper? 1. Owing to the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Helyot, Hist. Layout And Design Terms? Mon.
Ziegelbauer, Litt. Hist. Soame's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 26. Brockie. Prf. ad Regul. Of The Of Malcolm? Buckingham's Bible in newspaper layout and design the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. Essay For Pay It Forward? 3. Butler, June 22. Layout And Design Terms? 4. Thomassin, Disc.
Eccl., t. i., p. 705. Calmet, Reg. Ben., t. ii., p. 25. Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. i., prf., § 19. 6. Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. iv., p. 1, p. xxxvii.
7. History of Civilization, vol. ii., p. I Need Help Writing? 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. 10. Dial., i. 1. Vid . Essays, vol. ii., p. 284. Newspaper And Design Terms? Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. I Need Help With? Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. i., p. 1043. Moreri, art.
S. Hubert. Gallia Christ., t. iii. p. 966. Mabillon, Annal. Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. etc., t. i., p. 153. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. vi., p. 296. 13. Newspaper And Design Terms? Vol. i., p. 237, etc. 14.
Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. iii., p. 436. Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. A Term Paper? 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 21, etc. Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 75, Bohn.
15. Neander, Memorials, pp. Newspaper Layout? 436, 451, 473, Bohn. Write A Term? Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Calles, Arm. Germ., t. i., pp. 200, 276, 317, 318. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. Newspaper Layout? ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. Write A Term Paper? 16.
Meyrick's Willibald, p. 68. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Calles Ann. Germ., t. i., p. 191. 17. Butler's Lives, Aug. Newspaper Layout Terms? 20. 18. Essay Questions For Pay It Forward? Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. 19. Thomass. Disc. Eccl. t. iii., p. 513. 20. P. 93. The passage seems taken from Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Newspaper Layout? Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Angl. Paper In Apa Format? 23. Eccl. Newspaper Layout And Design? Hist., vol. vii., p. 331, Bohn. 24. Duchesne, Script. North., p. 236. 25. Turner, Middle Ages, vol. v., p. 89. 27. Vid . Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. iii., p. 468. 28. Pallad, c. 39.
Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. My Role? Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Thomassin, Disc. Layout Terms? Eccl., t. iii., p. 505. Ziegelbaum, Hist. Litt. Bened., t. Thesis Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm? ii., p. 510. 29. Annal. Camald., t. And Design Terms? vii., p. Writing? 300: vid . other instances in Maitland's Dark Ages, and Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is deficient in references. 30.
Guizot's Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 236, Bohn. 32. Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. Newspaper? i., p. 167, and essay the whole chapter. 33. Meehan's Marchese, p. xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Maur. 1770, p. 21.
35. P. 379. Newspaper Layout And Design Terms? Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into Italy by the Benedictines of Subiaco. Vid . Dr. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Introd. Eccles. Hist., p. 56. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 401.
38. Ibid ., t. i., p. 424. For lists of monastic histories, vid . Mr. Dowling, Introd. E. H., p. 260; the Asceticon as above, § 26. Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm X? Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and newspaper terms Cath., p. 195. 39. Stud.
Monast., ed. 1732; t. i., pp. 52, 135; t. ii., p. 2; t. i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. 40. Autobiography Of Malcolm X? The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is and design, here intended. Not means Musical Notes, according to Du Cange. According to Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. Write A Term Paper Format? Litter. t. iii., p. 253, the word means penmanship.
Newman Reader #151; Works of layout terms John Henry Newman. Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved .
Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
Layout and Design
Reviewing a Manuscript for Publication. Professor, Department of terms Information Systems. School of Business. Virginia Commonwealth University. Published as an invited note in. Journal of Operations Management. Volume 13, Number 1 (July 1995), pp. 87-92. If you copy, download, or circulate this paper, please simply inform the author (at email@example.com ) that you are doing so. This paper is i need writing, based on remarks that the author prepared for presentation at layout, the New Faculty Workshop held at the 23 rd Annual Meeting of the Decision Sciences Institute in Miami Beach, Florida, November 22, 1991. This paper offers suggestions about how to a term format, review a manuscript submitted for publication in the fields of terms management information systems, organizational studies, operations management, and management in general.
Rationales for essay questions it forward, the suggestions and illustrative sample comments are provided. o Action 1: Start out with your own summary of the manuscript. o Action 2 : Let the editor and author know what your expertise does, and does not, cover. o Action 3: Give action-able advice. o Action 4: Convince the newspaper layout terms authors by arguing from their own assumptions and framework. o Action 5: Provide both (1) your general, overall reaction and (2) a list of specific, numbered point-by-point comments. o Action 6: List the manuscripts strengths. o Action 7: Quote, give the page number, or otherwise explicitly locate the parts of the manuscript to which you are referring. o Action 8: Offer comments on tables, figures, and diagrams. o Action 9: Be kind. o Action 10: Be frank, in my role model essay a tactful way, about your own emotional reaction.
o Action 11: Do some of your own library research. o Action 12: If rejecting the manuscript, suggest what future research efforts might examine. o Action 13: If recommending a revision, spell out alternative scenarios for how the revision could be done. o Action 14: Provide citations or a bibliography. o Action 15: Date your review.
As management researchers, we regard the layout behavior of managers, systems professionals, and other organizational participants to be a manifestation of the values that they hold as members of their organization and their profession. In the same way, we may regard our own behaviors, as reviewers of manuscripts in the double blind reviewing process, to be a manifestation of the values that we hold as members of the community of scholars. Write A Term Paper? As an terms author and editor, I have seen our community manifest the best and the worst of human values in the anonymous reviews offered on manuscripts submitted for autobiography, publication. Layout? Some reviewers rise to the occasion and give extensive help, even though the anonymous reviewing process promises them nothing in return for their efforts. Other reviewers hide behind the anonymity of the reviewing process, offering negative remarks that they would not have the courage to voice in public. My immediate purpose is to offer suggestions, based on the reviews I have seen as an author and my role editor, about how to provide useful, kind, constructive, and responsible reviews of manuscripts submitted for publication. Newspaper Terms? I offer these suggestions to my colleagues who review manuscripts submitted for my role, publication in research journals in management information systems, organizational studies, operations management, and other fields of management.
1. Suggestions for newspaper layout terms, Reviewing a Manuscript. For many of the suggestions below, I offer sample comments to illustrate my points. I have based these comments on i need with writing essays actual reviews. 1.1 Start out with Your Own Summary of the Manuscript. Apparently, at least in this case, the summary was provided for layout and design, the benefit of the senior editor, not necessarily the author. My Role Essay? The associate editors review was, I realized, as much a recommendation to the senior editor as it was an newspaper layout explanation to the authors. Write Paper Format? Because a reviewers review is, in the same way, a recommendation to an editor, I have come to believe that a summary of the manuscript being considered is no less useful in the reviewers review. I now believe that an opening summary may also be useful to the manuscripts author and to the reviewer himself or herself. For the author, how effectively the reviewers summary does or does not capture the gist of the manuscript may serve as one measure of how effectively the manuscript communicates its message. For the reviewer, the very exercise of composing a summary encourages and virtually assures a thorough reading of the manuscript. Opening summaries are also useful to the editor when the manuscript is controversial.
Occasionally, as an editor, I have wondered if the different reviewers assigned to a controversial manuscript have actually been sent the same manuscript. An opening summary of the manuscript, presented from the reviewers own perspective, would be a big help to the editor when he or she is trying to reach a decision on a manuscript that evokes controversial reactions. Some illustrative sample comments are: o This paper represents a major effort to newspaper and design, test two competing theories about write a term user satisfaction with electronic mail. The methodology of the paper consists of. The data were gathered from two field sites. The major finding was that. The contributions to theory and practice would appear to layout terms, be. o This manuscript pursues two somewhat conflicting goals.
It attempts to, while it also tries to. The authors do a good job of the first one, but their treatment of the second one raises more questions than it answers. 1. Don Quixote? 2 Let the Editor and Author Know What Your Expertise Does, and Does Not, Cover. o I read the and design paper from two perspectives: 1) someone who has employed the of malcolm x same methodology that the authors are using and 2) someone who is not familiar at all with the and design substantive area that the authors are investigating. My criticisms and suggestions are offered entirely from the first perspective. o For the reader, such as myself, who is creative bachelor's london, unfamiliar with concepts X, Y, and Z, the authors present no helpful explanation of these concepts or justification for terms, their inclusion in the study in the first place. o Another problem I had is that, probably like most of the people who read this journal, I am not deeply read in all three of the my role essay research fields that the authors draw upon. I cannot judge how well this paper builds on and design terms past research. 1. 3 Give Action-able Advice.
Advice stated in Don quixote the form of do-able tasks is mutually advantageous to the author and the reviewer in the event that the editor asks for a revision. For the author, the advised actions point to a fixed target where he or she may aim the revision. For the newspaper layout and design terms reviewer, the advised actions (as further interpreted by the editor) may serve as the criteria on which to judge the Don quixote revision. In contrast, a reviewer who offers vague generalities, and layout terms no action-able advice, in his or her first review would have no real handle with which to approve or disapprove the paper in apa format revision; such a reviewer might very well find a revision returning to haunt him or her. o If my concerns can be addressed successfully in a revision, then I believe the paper should be published. Newspaper Layout And Design Terms? I have four major concerns. They are. o Therefore, I recommend rejection, but would be willing to review a revised version if (1) and (2) . o The following suggestions are provided to improve the write format weaknesses pointed out above: 1. Clearly state the objectives, contributions, and limitations of the study. 2. Provide a definition of what you mean by layout terms, Organizational Support System and use it consistently throughout the paper.
3. Using this definition, narrow down the literature review. 1. Of The? 4 Convince the layout and design terms Authors by essay it forward, Arguing from Their Own Assumptions and Framework. A reviewer can always take issue with a manuscripts assumptions and framework. However, disagreeing with the assumptions is not always an effective reviewing strategy because, strictly speaking, all assumptions are incorrect for what they assume away. An alternative strategy is to accept the manuscripts assumptions (if only for the sake of argument) and then to point out any shortcomings in the manuscript by examining the consequences that follow from these assumptions. (Indeed, if the newspaper layout and design terms assumptions lead to model, no objectionable consequences, then the newspaper layout terms assumptions might not be bad assumptions in the first place.) By casting the paper format review in terms of the newspaper authors own framework, the reviewer might then be more likely to convince the of the autobiography of malcolm authors by layout, courting and affirming the authors, rather than by disputing the a term in apa authors. o On the and design terms first page, the paper says that it will do the following The rest of the paper, however, does not follow through adequately on what it promised to essay questions for pay, do.
In particular, according to the standards of the and design terms research framework that the authors themselves have chosen, the for pay it forward following things still need to be done or need to be done better Still, there is layout, much potential value in what the paper initially proposed and I encourage the paper format authors to flesh out the papers ideas more thoroughly. Along these lines, my suggestions are. If the reviewer wishes to suggest a different framework and set of assumptions to the authors, this suggestion would be more convincing after the reviewer has demonstrated that he or she has given due consideration to the authors original framework, rather than dismissing it outright. 1.5 Provide Both (1) Your General, Overall Reaction and layout (2) a List of Don quixote Specific, Numbered Point-by-Point Comments. As an author, I have received some reviews consisting entirely of numbered, point-by-point comments that give the impression that the reviewer was simply typing up his or her review as he or she was reading my manuscript linearly, sentence-by-sentence, turning it page-by-page. Whereas such a review might be detailed and even exhaustive, I have found that such reviews sometimes negatively criticize me on newspaper and design terms matters that I actually address satisfactorily later in the manuscript. These reviewers do a good job of analyzing the words in my manuscript, but they appear to put no effort into discerning what I meant by these words. My impression has been that these reviewers considered the reviewing job to be a burden and i need with writing just wanted to get it over.
I have found that if there is no statement of an overall reaction from the newspaper layout terms reviewer, I am sometimes left wondering about what the reviewer really means. In fact, in this situation, I sometimes wonder if the my role essay reviewer himself knows what he means. For these reasons, I believe that a general, overall reaction or overview from the reviewer is needed as much as his or her specific, point-by-point comments. Numbering the major points in a review is helpful to the editor and author. For instance, an editor could then conveniently say to the author, Pay particular attention to points 2, 3, and 5 by Reviewer 1. . 1. 6 List the Manuscripts Strengths. Perhaps the most disheartening review I have ever seen is one that began with the single-sentence paragraph, There are several problems with this paper, and followed with a numbered, blow-by-blow listing of all the newspaper layout and design alleged problems in the manuscript.
An accompanying listing of the manuscripts strengths would have made the review more palatable (and hence convincing) to the author. A listing of the manuscripts strengths takes on added importance when the reviewers recommendation is that the manuscript should be rejected. Is there really nothing in the manuscript that would make it worthy of a revision? Making up a list of the manuscripts strengths would help make sure that no stone is left unturned. o The major asset of this manuscript is that it presents a new approach toThis, in turn, raises interesting general issues such as: (1)(2)(3). o Major strengths. 1. The objective of this paper is of high interest and use to IS managers. 2. The authors are exceptionally clear about how this study builds on past studies. 3. The methodology, while new to with, IS, is clearly explained. 1. 7 Quote, Give the Page Number, or Otherwise Explicitly Locate the Parts of the Manuscript to Which You Are Referring. This will pinpoint what you find difficult to understand, what you disagree with, or exactly what you believe needs to be changed.
Moreover, if the author should disagree with your assessment, then the author may respond precisely to your objection. o In the third paragraph on page 9, it is not clear to me that the layout and design authors understand the concept of construct validity. o On page 3, in the literature review section, the paper says, only 12 percent of the past studies examined the same factors we will be examining in this study. Exactly which studies were these?I do not doubt your statement, but I would like to be able to evaluate it for myself. o On page 2, why does the prior research necessarily suggest that we need to study this topic, as you claim? 1. X? 8 Offer Comments on Tables, Figures, and Diagrams. Because tables, figures, and diagrams often appear at the end of the manuscript, they often do not receive the attention they deserve. Newspaper And Design Terms? However, I believe that reviewing an essay questions it forward illustration can be equivalent to reviewing a thousand words. Because illustrations are often overlooked in layout terms reviews, a detailed comment about an illustration might favorably impress the of the autobiography x author and editor, suggesting to them that the reviewer is especially conscientious. Also, suggesting a new table, figure, or diagram may encourage the author to sharpen his or her argument. o Table 6 makes no sense to me.
The labels along the vertical axis are mentioned nowhere in the text. o I dont understand the newspaper layout and design terms reason for including Figure 4. What is the relevance of the number of X broken down into three categories? There are tactful ways to express negative criticisms. For example, if you are unsure what the contribution of the manuscript is, say Whats new? instead of So what? I believe that if the criticism cannot be stated in a kind and constructive way, then the criticism might not be worth stating at all. Also, unkind remarks in a review that is otherwise valid may create difficulties for the editor who would like to persuade the thesis of malcolm author that the review does have merit. 1. 10 Be Frank, in a Tactful Way, about and design terms Your Own Emotional Reaction. Some reviews tend to be dry. As an author and editor, I find that any hint or explicit statement about the reviewers feelings will help me to interpret what he or she means. o I had a hard time making a recommendation on this manuscript . . .The paper is nicely written and competent, but dull.
It is hard to Don quixote, get excited about the findings. o I am very excited about this paper. Newspaper Layout Terms? At a recent conference a colleague and a term format I were on a panel where we debated similar points. 1. 11 Do Some of Your Own Library Research. In my experience as an author and editor, I tend to give an newspaper terms extra measure of credibility to reviewers who have done some library or other research for their review.
This effort makes the review appear sincere and convincing. A quotation from a book or article that the reviewer has looked up can be impressive. o On page 14, I was intrigued by the papers quotation of Carlson, so I decided to look up Carlsons article. My interpretation of Carlsons article is. . . 1. 12 If Rejecting the Manuscript, Suggest What Future Research Efforts Might Examine. Our own behavior as reviewers in the double blind review process reveals our individual values, which may include adversarial values and Don quixote collegial values.
Rejecting a manuscript and offering only the reasons for layout and design, rejection reveals a person who has no contribution to make to the overall community of scholars. Rejecting a manuscript, but also offering suggestions about what the author could pursue instead or pursue differently in future research, reveals a person who is integrated into the community of scholars and writing bachelor's degree seeks to foster its growth. 1. 13 If Recommending a Revision, Spell Out Alternative Scenarios for How the Revision Could be Done. Simply saying this paper needs a good re-write is layout and design terms, not, by itself, helpful, especially if it is true. Often, there is more than one way to revise a manuscript.
Suggest two or more scenarios, mention what you believe to for pay, be the advantages or disadvantages of newspaper and design each one, and creative bachelor's london leave the and design choice up to the author. 1. 14 Provide Citations or a Bibliography. A citation that the Don quixote author finds helpful can be as valuable as a thousand or more words in the rest of the newspaper terms review. As an author and editor, I do not appreciate late reviews. Once, I noticed that a colleague of mine prominently displayed the current date at the top of a review that he was about to essay, send in. And Design Terms? He said that the i need date would let the authors of the manuscript know that, if the overall cycle time on their manuscript was excessive, he was not the cause. Layout? I also suspect that a date on a review can function as an incentive for subsequent participants in essay questions it forward the review process to act on newspaper layout and design terms the manuscript promptly.
I see four benefits to engaging in the effort of reviewing a manuscript submitted for publication. Benefits to the Reviewer in the Short Run Typically, a reviewer will receive the reviews by the other reviewers and the editor. Doing a review therefore confers an insiders view of the reviewing process. Of Malcolm? The reactions of the other reviewers and the editor all contain potential lessons for ones own manuscripts to be submitted for publication. In reviewing manuscripts, one also gains access to invaluable bibliographies. Access to these bibliographies is sufficient justification, in itself, to find the time to participate in the reviewing process. Benefits to the Reviewer in the Long Run Good reviewers are hard to find. Newspaper Layout? A track record of i need help with writing essays good reviews will enhance ones reputation with editors, who may then serve (if need be) as job contacts or outside reviewers in newspaper terms ones tenure, promotion, and re-appointment process.
In this regard, ones performance in Don quixote his or her review of layout and design a manuscript can be compared to ones performance in a job interview. Good reviews can benefit ones career. Benefits to Others Numerous people have helped me launch my career as an university teacher and researcher. When they ask me to review a manuscript for which they are the i need with writing essays editor or track chair, I regard their request as an opportunity for me to return some of the help they have given me. In our research culture, doing a review of newspaper layout and design a manuscript is a socially significant gesture. Benefits to Ones Own School of questions Thought As an author, I often have the newspaper layout and design terms experience in which reviewers, hostile to and ignorant of the i need with writing research traditions that I embrace, misreview my submission. Therefore, whenever I find that I am a reviewer for a submission that falls in my own school of thought, I expend extra efforts to give it a careful, constructive review.
Realizing that the layout terms refereeing process is political, I will do my best to be supportive and affirmingly critical, drawing attention to write paper format, any major significant points in the submission and delineating in newspaper layout explicit, constructive, and action-able ways how the authors research can be improved. As a result, the editor would, if necessary, have some ammunition with which to essay questions, neutralize any hostile and ignorant reviews and and design thereby to justify a positive editorial decision on this submission. No review of a manuscript must incorporate all the features I have described above. I am also confident that there are additional useful features I have not yet encountered. I have identified these features based on my own experience as a member of the management research community. I encourage my colleagues to do the same. Do actual instances of good reviews follow from rules for how to review a manuscript for publication, or do rules for Don quixote, how to review a manuscript for publication follow from actual instances of good reviews?
I believe that there is newspaper layout and design, some truth to both. Following any set of guidelines for how to my role model essay, do a review may be helpful, but should not dissuade the newspaper layout creative and caring reviewer from i need, innovating additional reviewing methods.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on newspaper layout, some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to creative london, enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an terms, assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Don Quixote. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Newspaper. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to with writing essays, detail what the book was about, the and design names of the main characters, what the Don quixote theme of the book is, and where the newspaper terms events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and Don quixote the plot.
Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. Newspaper Layout And Design Terms. These are usually limited to questions for pay it forward, the earlier grades when students are still learning to newspaper terms, read. Writing Degree London. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to terms, read a picture book with the class and have students fill out model, a worksheet afterwards.
If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out and design terms, a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to write a term paper format, their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by layout, filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. I Need. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and newspaper layout and design terms the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.
New York. Essay It Forward. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. Newspaper Layout Terms. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the with most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of and design, a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in creative writing, paragraph form.
The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into layout terms three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. Creative Writing Degree London. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters.
Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and layout can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. Thesis Of The Autobiography Of Malcolm X. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the and design ending. My Role Model. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school.
Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for newspaper, high school students. Format. The great thing about these assignments is newspaper layout and design that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. I Need Essays. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for newspaper, Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report.
Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the with ending. Newspaper Layout And Design. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by my role model essay, one of the newspaper layout and design main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to creative writing london, answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article.
What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the layout terms report, but it is the most difficult part. Write A Term Format. Finishing up that report in the following steps is layout terms a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the questions it forward book report from beginning to newspaper layout and design terms, end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report.
Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for writing bachelor's degree london, points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for and design terms, changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.
Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for my role model, things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to layout and design terms, the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. Write A Term. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report.
Print out a fresh copy of the report. Newspaper Layout Terms. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in essay questions, the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is newspaper layout and design ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the Don quixote curriculum.
That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on newspaper, the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out essay it forward, a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an newspaper layout and design terms, extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date.
Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to i need help writing essays, spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the newspaper layout and design option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the essay report being due. Layout And Design Terms. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for my role model essay, the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity.
Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Newspaper Layout. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.
Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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Layout and Design
Free Essays on newspaper layout and design Division Clarification Essay. Clarification Division Essay A classification- division essay presents an writing essays, analysis by layout and design terms separating items: if you are classifying, you are placing different items into a set of categories. Each member of each category must be logically related. Questions For Pay. For example, you can classify people by newspaper and design terms age category: child. 1. Don Quixote. Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example Essay 81 - 100 www.studymode.com/. /descriptive-writing-afro-asian- essay -example-pa. ? * 20+ items - Free Essay about Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example . Layout And Design. question you essay may require -starting point transistor and ending condition . Portfolio _______- __________________ Essay Cover Sheet Instructor Student Identification Prefix Number Please type or print. Model. What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the assignment.) Assignment-Descriptive Essay The idea here is to find a place that. This essay will aim to explain the main differences between Marxian, Durkheimian, and newspaper layout Weberian approaches to thesis of the autobiography x, social inequality. This essay will aim to explain the main differences between Marxian, Durkheimian, and Weberian approaches to social inequality. And Design. It will begin with each Marx's approach to social inequality, which he believed economic factors to writing london, be the sole cause of this social phenomenon.
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Ch.12 13 Notes To put ideas and scattered bites of information into layout and design terms, a useful, coherent order you use the methods of classification and thesis of the autobiography division . Division is the process of breaking whole into parts, and classification is the processes of sorting individual items into categories. By breaking a large. Bshs 395 The interview process Essay week 2. Instructor Michael Moore The Interview Process The purpose of this essay is to explain the terms, assessment interview process. Model. This essay will feature an newspaper layout, imaginary interview involving the client and helping process. The significance of the interview process. Hitler Youth Essay – Modern History Hypothesis: With the support of the Hitler Youth, Adolf Hitler was trying to write, completely fulfil his dreams of “Lebensraum” as outlined in “Mein Kampf”. Therefore the real purpose behind the Hitler youth was to make the German youth obedient, fit, physically strong. The Different Forms and Styles of Essay Writing. eEssay An essay is a piece of newspaper layout and design writing which is often written from an essay questions, author's personal point of view.
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World Literature and Composition - Brother Richard Kovatch. discussion and essay . My approach in essay questions for pay class discussions and terms essay assignments has been influenced by Sidney B. Simon’s Values Clarification (Simon, Howe, and Kirschenbaum. Values Clarification : A Handbook for Practical Strategies for Don quixote Students and Teachers. New York: Hart, 1972). My format for essay -writing. hilosophy is more of an intellectual activity in which one engages than a specific subject matter which one studies. Consequently, a philosophical essay should show this intellectual activity at work--by intelligently discussing a chosen philosophical issue or problem and by critically defending a stand. The Division /Classification essay utilizes what was learned with comparison/contrast. Again, division /classification deals with how the newspaper layout, essay is structured. Following the following formula can help with division /classification formatting: Start with a broad TOPIC. Paper In Apa Format. Break that topic down into at.
Soldiers responsibility to make sure that they understand. Newspaper And Design Terms. I am in a no win situation, if I ask for clarification SFC Green gets upset and says I am getting on her nerves, if I don’t ask for clarification , SFC Green says I am disrespectful. Either SFC Green allows me to ask clarifying questions or she. equals 7 x 5? by Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D. Book: Your biblical book essay must include: The basic literary genre, authorship, date written, key themes, purposes, major events, and main personalities. Person: This essay must include: The dates of the character’s life, place of thesis autobiography x birth, summary. Division of Labor Introduction: The phrase “ division of labor” has many different definitions that can be used in different contexts. The Encyclopedia of Sociology helps explore the and design, many different ways division of labor can be defined, and write a term paper recognizes that all major sociologists considered this topic. Sample Essay “The Most Dangerous Game” Even a “Psycho” Deserves a Second Chance Red lips. Sharp pointed teeth.
Murderer. Psycho. These are some of the characteristics that are most remembered about General Zaroff. He is often seen as the crazy, evil person who deserves to be punished. Little. Consumption Creates New Social Divisions.
TMA 02 Essay Plan Introduction Give brief outline to essay , paragraph by paragraph. Consumer society? Bauman. Veblen claims, Supermarket winners? Losers? Paragraph 1 Industrial society Rich, poor divide intensified Meaning of consumption meaning or social divides Main social division lessened.
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