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Business plan d'une entreprise textile (logiciel Mirage) : Simulation de gestion. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Le secteur textile et plus pr©cis©ment celui de la confection reste un secteur assez attractif bien qu'il semble ©voluer vers un march© en maturit©. Sat Essay. Ce secteur est g©n©ralement analys© comme ©tant un segment fragment© o¹ l'environnement est caract©ris© par une d©stabilisation :forte imitation du produit, cycle de vie produit court (en terme d'usage), effet de mode.La rentabilit© des firmes dans ce type d'environnement d©pend avant tout de la capacit© du dirigeant r©agir tr¨s vite face aux opportunit©s. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis. Or pour cette simulation, la firme dont nous aurons assurer la gestion ©volue justement au sein de ce secteur o¹ la concurrence est de plus en plus rude. Dft+u Thesis. En p©riode 0 la firme fabrique uniquement que deux produits (ACT et BGS). Owl Apa Citation. la firme devra par ailleurs r©ussir combiner diverses politiques g©n©ralement divergentes, ceci afin d'assurer l'int©rªt de chaque acteur de la firme et de tous ceux qui y sont directement ou indirectement li©s. Chemistry A Level Coursework. Il s'agit de cr©er de la valeur pour tous : r©mun©ration des actionnaires en veillant ©galement au taux de croissance interne du capital, avoir une politique sociale coh©rente afin de motiver le personnel et instaurer une harmonie dans la firme ; attirer et fid©liser le client en le satisfaisant par une bonne qualit© et une personnalisation de nos produits ; et entretenir une relation ©troite et continue avec nos distributeurs qui contribuent v©hiculer l'image et la r©putation de la firme. Les objectifs sont donc divers et tendent vers un but commun : le fonctionnement et l'am©lioration de la firme. Thesis. Dans ce cas comment trouver la meilleure strat©gie pour atteindre tous ces objectifs qui sont priori divergents ? Quelle serait l'orientation strat©gique la plus efficace pour amener notre firme ©voluer aussi bien ©conomiquement que socialement ? Pour pouvoir r©pondre de telles interrogations, nous ©tablirons tout d'abord le diagnostic interne et externe de la situation (I) avant d'©tudier et d'©laborer la strat©gie et le plan d'action les mieux adapt©s notre firme (II). Essay On Benefits Bhagavad. Diagnostic de la situation.

Sur le plan externe. Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Synth¨se de situation de la firme. A Level Salters Coursework. Strat©gie et plan d'action. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Strat©gie d'entreprise. My Life As An. Strat©gie d'activit©. Les objectifs de performance (financiers).

Mise en place des outils de pilotage. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. [. Of Reading Bhagavad. ] Le prix Avec un taux de croissance et une demande forte, la firme d©ciderait a priori de garder le mªme prix pour le produit ACT. Purdue Owl Apa. Pour le produit BGS, il conna®t un faible taux de croissance, en plus de l'existence des concurrents (importateurs) qui dominent le march© en proposant un prix inf©rieur celui de la firme. Maryland College Application Essay. Pour ne pas liquider son produit, la firme va essayer de le repositionner par deux possibilit©s ; soit en alignant le prix du produit sur la concurrence (prix concurrentiel), soit en proposant un prix bas de celui des concurrents (strat©gie de p©n©tration) en produisant grande ©chelle, la firme fera baisser ses co»ts unitaires, tout en gardant les mªmes du produit. Owl Apa. [. My Life Immigrant Essay. ] [. Purdue Thesis Citation. ] Ces diff©rentes options strat©giques sont reformul©es par Porter de la mani¨re suivante : il s'agit de trois options strat©giques de base : Domination par les co»ts : (recherche du co»t le plus bas par rapport la concurrence) faire du prix le FCS principal en d©gageant des ©conomies d'©chelle, technologie exclusive, acc¨s pr©f©rentiel aux mati¨res premi¨res. Diff©rentiation : personnalisation des produits par rapports ceux des concurrents et/ou ©largissement de la gamme offerte la client¨le. A Level Salters. Concentration ou focalisation : d©velopper un avantage concurrentiel sur un petit nombre de segment ou sur un segment unique. Citation. Elle peut viser donner un avantage qui porte sur le prix et/ou sur une diff©rentiation per§u par une cible restreinte. Dft+u Thesis. [. Purdue Thesis Citation. ] [. Dft+u Thesis. ] Business plan d'une entreprise textile (logiciel Mirage) Simulation de gestion INTRODUCTION Le secteur textile et plus pr©cis©ment celui de la confection reste un secteur assez attractif bien qu'il semble ©voluer vers un march© en maturit©.

Ce secteur est g©n©ralement analys© comme ©tant un segment fragment© o¹ l'environnement est caract©ris© par une d©stabilisation : forte imitation du produit, cycle de vie produit court (en terme d'usage), effet de mode. Purdue Owl Apa Citation. La rentabilit© des firmes dans ce type d'environnement d©pend avant tout de la capacit© du dirigeant r©agir tr¨s vite face aux opportunit©s. My Life As An Immigrant. [. Purdue Citation. ] [. Of Reading Gita. ] * Main d'?uvre qualifi© * Livraison rapide des commandes et en reste assez faible. Trois types de contrats * Bonne gestion de production temps voulu. Thesis Citation. * Promotion au niveau des distributeurs pour la commande en mati¨re d» la capacit© de production, de niveau int©ressante (PLV). Chemistry Salters. premi¨re livr©e dans le trimestre de production demand©e et de disponibilit© * Promotions des ventes au niveau des de la commande, en plus les du personnel. Owl Apa. grandes surfaces. Chemistry Salters Coursework. MP command©es imm©diatement * Utilisation de machines sp©cifiques. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. * Diff©rentiation des produits ; en Production. As An Essay. [. Citation. ] [. Maryland. ] Grande Surface : obligation d'avoir une force de vente qualifi©e (co»ts de formation : transfert des vendeurs du CT vers GS ) Exclusivit© des ventes en solde sur les march©s ext©rieurs. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Pratique de solde possible que si l'entreprise change la qualit© des produits pour ne pas tromper les consommateurs. Of Reading Bhagavad. Les consommateurs : Marque : facteurs important pour le choix des clients.

Facilit© de transfert : infid©lit© des consommateurs (cherchant de vari©t©s) en cas de rupture de stock. Purdue Thesis Citation. Reports de produit produit et de canal canal qui s'expliquent par une inexistence du produit canal ou de rupture de stock temporaire. Dft+u Thesis. [. Purdue Thesis. ]

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Jersey Hustle: The real-life story of Abscam. on November 25, 2013 at 8:09 AM, updated November 25, 2013 at purdue thesis citation 3:42 PM. The producers of essay “American Hustle” call it a work of fiction. The film is already attracting Oscar buzz, described as “a world of Jersey powerbrokers and purdue thesis citation mafia that’s as dangerous as it is enchanting . hinging on raw emotion, and life and death stakes . Dft+u Thesis. ” Directed by David O. Russell, “American Hustle” stars Christian Bale as a fast-talking con man being squeezed as an informer, and Bradley Cooper as the purdue owl apa thesis FBI agent who uses him. But while names have been changed, and many of its characters transformed or wholly invented by the screenwriters, it is no secret that the highly awaited film, which opens later this month, is dft+u thesis based on purdue owl apa thesis the infamous Abscam case. The real story of Abscam, the sat essay criteria sweeping and still controversial federal corruption investigation that played out from Jersey to Florida in the late 1970s and early 1980s, turned out to be far more bizarre and owl apa thesis outrageous than anything Hollywood could ever imagine. The elaborate sting ensnared seven members of Congress, including six in the House of dft+u thesis Representatives and purdue thesis citation a veteran U.S. Essay. Senator, along with a powerful New Jersey state legislator, three Philadelphia councilmen and a number of high-level political operatives. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis. Abscam involved phony, oil-rich Arab sheiks with suitcases full of cash, stolen artwork, payoffs for Atlantic City casino licenses and backroom influence peddling that generated worldwide headlines and set off political shockwaves for years thereafter.

The undercover probe, which came to light in February 1980, ultimately led to maryland the convictions of Sen. Harrison A. Williams (D-N.J.), Camden Democratic Mayor Angelo Errichetti, New Jersey Democratic Congressman Frank Thompson Jr., and other lawmakers, who were caught on purdue owl apa thesis citation secretly recorded surveillance video accepting tens of on benefits of reading thousands of dollars in bribes. It was a sting that still enrages defense attorneys who say it was based on crimes the purdue citation government itself created. Sharply criticized by one federal district judge who accused the government of using “outrageous” tactics, the affair was flatly labeled a case of prosecutorial misconduct by chemistry a level coursework a former U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey.

But it was an enterprise that rewrote the purdue thesis citation books for FBI undercover operations and led to more than a dozen criminal convictions and rejected appeals. At the center of dft+u thesis it all was an unrepentant, cigar-chomping Runyonesque swindler from Long Island by purdue thesis the name of my life Mel Weinberg. Barely controlled by his FBI handlers, he helped orchestrate the sting operation. Unscrupulous in purdue owl apa thesis, every way, Weinberg had the kind of chutzpah that would enable him to convince his marks, even after inadvertently arranging for delivery of heaping hot corned beef sandwiches and coleslaw to a payoff meeting with an FBI undercover agent posing as an Arab prince, that an emir from the Middle East could love Jewish deli food. Weinberg, now near 90 and of reading bhagavad living in Florida, chortles with delight when asked about the corned beef on rye. “Arabs don’t eat kosher food,” he says and laughs, recalling the details as if it were yesterday. “I couldn’t believe what was going on. I said to myself, ‘If we get away with this, we can get away with anything.’” He makes no excuses about his reputation as a swindler. Purdue Thesis. “I did run cons, no doubt about it,” he admits. “But that’s how they got Abscam started.” I couldn’t believe what was going on. I said to myself, “If we get away with this, we can get away with anything …” “I made it mandatory that guys develop, or make an attempt to develop, more confidential sources,” Good explains. That’s about when Weinberg turned up on the radar.

Mel Weinberg had been running quick-buck schemes all his life, ranging from insurance fraud to investment scams, and dft+u thesis spending his ill-gotten gains as fast as he took them in citation, — not only on the props needed to make his act convincing, such as chartered jets and sat essay chauffeured limousines, but also on purdue women, the horses and expensive booze. He lived on immigrant essay the edge, balancing a wife, a mistress, the purdue owl apa thesis mob, the feds and the people he gleefully swindled, as he jetted from Europe to the Caribbean to South America, working the next big scheme, according to the book “The Sting Man” by the late Newsday investigative reporter Robert W. Greene, whose account of Weinberg’s role in Abscam was the basis for “American Hustle.” “Mel was a fabulous con man,” says Good. “He was a very, very intelligent guy. A little on the crude side, but with a magnificent ability to con people. Maryland College Essay. He was a significant part of the case. Without him, it’s unlikely we ever would have had a case.” Weinberg dreamed big and purdue owl apa thesis citation it was only after setting up one of his more elaborate scams that he finally was nabbed by the FBI. He had been running a new scheme out of a richly furnished leased office in Melville, Long Island, where he had set up a fake international banking and investment firm. He called it London Investors and had bogus agents in Zurich, London and application New York. London Investors held itself out as a facilitator for purdue owl apa, offshore financing, targeting desperate businessmen unable to obtain loans from conventional banks. It was really a “front-end” or advance-fee operation.

In Weinberg’s interviews with Greene, he explained: “It was the biggest, sweetest con game ever born and a helluva money-maker. . I was very democratic. No matter who sent ’em, I scammed ’em.” The scam revolved around hefty advance application fees for “appraisal and processing.” That was the front end. But there was no money at the back end of the pipeline. Weinberg would take the my life fees and then stall for months, sometimes generating more charges, until a letter came from the supposed offshore bank rejecting the loan application. In most cases, the victims did not even realize they had been scammed. But Weinberg’s luck ran out in 1977, when a Pittsburgh real estate man taken in by the scam went to the FBI. Owl Apa. A federal grand jury soon indicted the Bronx-born hustler for mail fraud, wire fraud and conspiracy. It seemed the end of the line for Weinberg.

The feds had him dead to rights, and there was no where to go but prison, unless he could make some kind of deal. That’s when Good — looking for an opening to immigrant break new major crime cases on Long Island — stumbled across Weinberg by chance. The Pittsburgh office had sent a routine FBI interoffice memo summarizing the case against Weinberg to the field office in Hauppauge. Although the purdue owl apa thesis citation criminal complaint had originated in sat essay writing criteria, Pittsburgh, London Investors had been operating in Good’s backyard, so the owl apa thesis FBI supervising agent was alerted. And after reading the report, he began thinking about the a level opportunities Weinberg might provide as a native guide leading him to more white-collar prey. He just might, Good mused, make for owl apa, a pretty effective informant. “Mel Weinberg and I had met and he agreed to cooperate and he began working with us,” Good says. “One thing led to another, and we had the potential for a major undercover operation.” And that, he says, is how Abscam was born. Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them, you don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose. For months, the focus of the operation was on bringing down others working the essay of reading bhagavad same type of scams Weinberg had been working.

Always ready with a story, the informant himself came up with yet another scam. “We came up with this scenario that we were representing an Arab sheik,” Good says. The idea was to purdue owl apa thesis citation dangle the promise of mein big money from some OPEC-nation Arab investors with deep pockets, who were ripe for the taking. As a cover, in case anyone checked their backstory, the FBI created a company called Abdul Enterprises Ltd., to citation represent the dft+u thesis interests of the purdue owl apa citation fictitious Kambir Abdul Rahman, supposedly a fabulously wealthy Arab businessman tied to royalty. Weinberg was president of the company. The FBI special agents assigned to the case took on immigrant aliases and corporate titles in the hoax company, including undercover operative Anthony Amoroso, who became “Tony DeVito,” serving as Abdul’s “personal construction engineer.” A bank was recruited to vouch for Sheik Rahman’s wealth. A second sheik, Yassir Habib, was later introduced, and produced, when the FBI brought in an agent of owl apa thesis citation Lebanese descent to play him. It was at that point the FBI operation finally took on a name, based on Abdul and scam.

It became known as Abscam. More fishing expedition than anything else, they used Weinberg as chum to see what they could hook. And for a time, it was mostly small-time junk: other guys also involved in my life as an, advance-fee scams. Purdue. Stolen securities. The peddling of fraudulent certificates of deposit. After it was revealed that the dft+u thesis sheiks wanted to purdue thesis citation invest oil money in valuable artworks, the FBI arrested several individuals dealing in stolen art and recovered two 17th-century paintings missing since 1966 and estimated to be worth $1 million. For nearly a year, the agents made numerous racketeering and fraud cases, all the while keeping Weinberg’s role as informant a secret. But there soon came a turning point in the investigation when one of the dft+u thesis many middlemen lured by the smell of Arab money — a convicted swindler named William Rosenberg who had already done time for stock fraud — approached Weinberg with a deal involving the port of Camden, and the city’s dapper mayor, Angelo Errichetti, who Rosenberg intimated was on the take. Errichetti, also a prominent state senator and a major Democratic power broker, wielded considerable influence in South Jersey. He was said to have connections with state regulators overseeing the casino boom of purdue owl apa thesis citation Atlantic City, where all development was contingent on the awarding of gaming licenses.

A meeting was arranged with Weinberg and on essay gita Dec. 1, 1978, the mayor arrived at the office of Abdul Enterprises in Long Island. I can only purdue thesis citation, blame myself for dft+u thesis, the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of ego that gets a politician into trouble. “He was a nice guy. But he was just an unbelievable crook. He had no fear,” he says.

According to surveillance tapes of the meeting with Errichetti, the South Jersey politician made it clear he could deliver. “I’ll give you Atlantic City,” he said. “Without me, you do nothing.” He claimed he had influence with the state’s Casino Control Commission and its vice chairman, his good friend Kenneth N. MacDonald. Good says they gave him cash and he walked away with it. “The politicians were just unbelievably unethical and ruthless,” he says. Errichetti was charged later with promising to owl apa thesis citation seek to obtain a casino license. for Abdul Enterprises in return for an immediate payment of $25,000 and dft+u thesis a total payment of $400,000. The approach to Errichetti shifted Abscam into owl apa thesis a major political corruption investigation, using the mayor as the dft+u thesis critical go-between to even bigger fish that ran all the way to Capitol Hill. At one meeting with Weinberg and purdue owl apa the agents, Errichetti said he knew congressmen willing to take bribes. The names of Raymond F. Lederer and writing criteria Michael Myers, both of Philadelphia, would later come up. And the list quickly grew. There was Rep.

Frank Thompson Jr. of Trenton, a tall, silver-haired man who had served in Congress since 1955 and had been a political ally of John F. Kennedy. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Thompson served as chairman of the powerful House Administration Committee. Democratic Congressmen John M. Essay Of Reading Bhagavad Gita. Murphy of Staten Island and John Jenrette of South Carolina, along with Republican Richard Kelly of Florida. Owl Apa Thesis Citation. And Senator Harrison A. Williams of New Jersey. The FBI arranged meetings at maryland college airports, in a rented home in Washington, in Atlantic City hotel rooms, offices on Long Island and in Florida. They arranged for chartered jets, limos and purdue owl apa thesis parties. Dft+u Thesis. The team later even acquired a yacht, seized by U.S. Purdue Thesis. Customs in a drug bust, to hold parties with politicians. Mein Zimmer. The 65-foot Cheoy Lee motor yacht, decked in teak, was fitted with video and audio surveillance gear that could pick up and record conversations anywhere on board. “Tony (DeVito, played by Amoroso) loved that boat,” says Weinberg. “When it came time to name it, he said, ‘I’m left-handed. Let’s call it Left Hand.’ I told him, ‘Tony, left hand means the Mafia.’ He put it on purdue anyway.”

The script for most was remarkably similar. When Lederer, a Democrat from Philadelphia first elected to Congress in 1976, knocked on salters the door of room 717 of the Hilton Inn at citation Kennedy International Airport on application a Tuesday evening, Errichetti was there waiting for citation, him with Weinberg, and dft+u thesis other undercover FBI agents posing as representatives of the fictitious sheik. The meeting was videotaped. It was explained that the sheik was looking for a sponsor in case he needed help getting into the country one day. Amoroso explained later that he came up with the immigration ruse after reading a newspaper story about possible deportation problems facing deposed Nicaragua dictator Anastasio Somoza. “I understand you can introduce legislation,” said DeVito, the conversation recorded and later played back before a federal jury.

“Right, a bill. Purdue. Private bill,” agreed Lederer. Immigrant. “Sure.” The congressman left the hotel with a brown bag containing $50,000 in cash. “Spend it well,” DeVito told him. Michael “Ozzie” Myers, a former longshoreman with a vocabulary to purdue match, brought one of the most memorable quotes to the sting operation when the issue of special legislation was introduced. “I’m gonna tell you something real simple and short: Money talks in this business and bullshit walks. And it works the my life immigrant essay same way down in Washington,” he said. Purdue Owl Apa Citation. Before he left, he too, was given an envelope containing $50,000 in $100 bills. DeVito again repeated his signature line. “Spend it well,” the dft+u thesis undercover agent said.

Impress the sheik with the baloney. This was a baloney session. But the FBI had learned Williams had a hidden interest in owl apa thesis citation, a titanium mining venture in Piney River, Va., and close associates of the senator were informed that Sheik Habib was willing to lend $100 million in my life immigrant, exchange for using his influence to obtain government contracts for the mine’s output. The subsequent meeting produced one of the purdue owl apa most spellbinding images of the investigation, when surveillance video was presented at the trial of the senator. The “sheik” was played by Richard Farhart, an FBI agent brought in mein zimmer essay, from the thesis Ohio office, who wore an Arab headdress and a suit, but said little during his meetings with Williams. Also there was Errichetti. “You know what you could do and what not,” DeVito told him. “Based on that, I’ve explained it to zimmer the sheik and this is what we’ve really based our strength on, the strength that you have.” Williams turned to the sheik. “If this can be put together, in my position with, within the purdue owl apa thesis citation government here, which goes back decades, and knowing as I do the chemistry a level coursework people that make the decisions, with, when we’ve got it together, we move.” In another meeting at the Plaza Hotel in New York, Williams also assured the sheik he would help him gain permanent residency. “You can leave with my assurance that I will do those things that will, will bring you on for the consideration of permanency,” he said. The undercover agent, pretending to have difficulty speaking English, offered Williams money for the promised help.

The senator rejected the money, but continued to press for the sheik’s investment in the titanium deal. Thesis. “My interest is with my associates — to salters see this very valuable mining area appropriately developed,” he said as the conversation was being recorded on surveillance tape. By now, the purdue owl apa thesis citation case was being directed by the Justice Department’s Organized Crime Strike Force in Brooklyn, headed by federal prosecutor Thomas P. Puccio. My Life. But not everyone in law enforcement was pleased with the purdue owl apa thesis direction the criteria case was taking. The U.S. Attorney in owl apa thesis citation, New Jersey, Robert Del Tufo, had been briefed early in the matter when Puccio called to coursework tell him that Errichetti and purdue McDonald had been drawn into an undercover sting. “It sounded like they were making great cases,” says Del Tufo, who would later become state attorney general and zimmer essay now is an attorney in purdue owl apa, private practice at the New York City firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Flom.

Del Tufo assigned a number of essay deputies to the case, including Executive Assistant U.S. Attorney Edward Plaza, to purdue owl apa citation work with Puccio’s office. After a number of meetings, however, Del Tufo began having serious doubts. “We weren’t getting information. And there were a lot of things way out of line with Justice Department guidelines,” he says. They learned that FBI memos, routinely filed in mein, such cases — known as 302 reports — did not exist.

And that Weinberg was getting a bounty for thesis citation, each case he made. Plaza, now an attorney in private practice in Red Bank, called Abscam a seriously flawed case. “It was a sting operation, but Weinberg, as far as I was concerned, was pulling a scam within a scam. He was scamming the government officials trying to dft+u thesis monitor the purdue owl apa citation operation,” he says. He did not think Weinberg was particularly persuasive as a con artist, which he called a further indictment of the officials who fell for his quick talk. But more troubling to him was his discovery that Weinberg was coaching the targets of the dft+u thesis investigation on what to say, suggesting specific language that would ensure an thesis indictment.

“He would tell them there is an ‘Arab way’ to do business,” Plaza says. They would be told to on benefits of reading gita make themselves sound important, because the purdue citation sheik would be more willing to invest if he knew politicians were involved — that’s how things got done in the Middle East. “I told Mel, ‘You can’t do this. You can’t be putting words in people mouths.’” says Plaza. “Mel said if he didn’t do it that way, ‘Then we won’t have any cases.’” The attorney says that the elected officials pulled into Abscam disgraced themselves. “But the question was, what was really taking place? Were they saying things Weinberg had them say, or were they looking for bribes? It was difficult to figure out,” Plaza says. Del Tufo was especially concerned about the case involving Kenneth MacDonald, which he calls a “tragedy.” He says there was no evidence that the former commissioner had taken anything, or even realized that Errichetti was using him. But, he adds, Puccio refused to back down.

When Del Tufo was pressured to of reading convene a grand jury for Errichetti and the others, he refused. His objections were later dismissed by higher-ups at owl apa thesis the Justice Department and the cases were handled out of Brooklyn and Philadelphia. MacDonald’s case was handed over to a young attorney out of Washington named Eric Holder, now the U.S. Attorney General, but it never went to trial. Stricken with cancer, MacDonald died still seeking exoneration. MacDonald’s attorney, Justin Walder of Roseland, calls him one of Abscam’s victims. “Ken MacDonald was an innocent man who asked for nothing, received nothing, and engaged in no improper conduct. College Application. But the government was so committed to Mel Weinberg that they had difficulty moving away from it,” Walder says. To this day, Del Tufo remains angry about how it all came down, especially the accusations that he was protecting Williams because the purdue owl apa thesis senator allegedly nominated him to a level become U.S. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation. Attorney — something that was not true. “Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them,” he says. “You don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose.”

In the salters following months, Williams, Thompson and the other members of Congress ensnared by the sting were indicted. Purdue Citation. And in chemistry salters coursework, time, all were convicted, as were three Philadelphia councilmen, Errichetti and several political operatives with ties to Williams and Errichetti. Many are now dead. Lederer, convicted of conspiracy and bribery, served 10 months in prison. He died in 2008 at the age of purdue thesis citation 70. Re-elected while under indictment, he resigned from Congress the day after the House Ethics Committee voted to expel him.

Thompson served almost two years in federal prison. He died in 1989 at the age of 70. Richard Kelly, the only Republican nabbed in maryland college essay, Abscam and who claimed he had accepted $25,000 in cash as part of his own investigation of corruption, was convicted of bribery and conspiracy. His conviction was subsequently thrown out by U.S. District Judge William B. Bryant, who charged that the government agents used “outrageous tactics” and should have stopped pressuring Kelly after he had rebuffed initial bribe offers. His conviction was reinstated on appeal. Errichetti served nearly three years in prison. “I can only blame myself for the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of ego that gets a politician into trouble,” he said after his release. The former Camden mayor later worked as a consultant in real estate, and owl apa thesis citation died this past May at his home in Ventnor. He was 84. Williams, sentenced to three years in sat essay, prison, fought his expulsion from the Senate in an effort to show he was a victim of FBI misconduct. Owl Apa Thesis. After six days of floor debate, and facing certain expulsion, he resigned.

In his farewell to the chamber, the chemistry senator said, “I believe time, history and purdue owl apa citation the Almighty God will vindicate me and the principles for which I have fought here in college, the Senate.” The senator died in 2001 at the age of 81. Puccio, who went on to gain a reputation as the go-to defense attorney in many high-profile cases, last year succumbed to complications from leukemia. Purdue Owl Apa Citation. He was 67. The FBI agent, played in dft+u thesis, the film by Bradley Cooper, is not based on any one guy, Good says. But Christian Bale, the Welsh-born actor from purdue owl apa thesis citation, “Return of the Dark Knight,” plays Weinberg, who says he also was a consultant on the film and as an spent three days with Bale. “Nice guy, but I’m from the purdue owl apa thesis citation Bronx and dft+u thesis he’s from England,” says Weinberg. “That’s Hollywood.”

Weinberg now lives on the Space Coast of purdue citation Florida, not far from the Kennedy Space Center. Nearly blind from dft+u thesis, macular degeneration, he remains sharp at the age of 89, able to recall even the smallest detail of Abscam. “It was so easy,” he says of the investigation. “But it could never happen again.” This story appeared in Inside Jersey magazine's December 2013 issue. FOLLOW INSIDE JERSEY: TWITTER • FACEBOOK • GOOGLE+ Registration on or use of purdue thesis this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. 2017 New Jersey On-Line LLC. All rights reserved (About Us). The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the dft+u thesis prior written permission of New Jersey On-Line LLC.

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If you do not accept all the terms of this Agreement, then the essay gita, Licensor is unwilling to license the Software to you, and purdue citation, you may not download, install or use the Software. a. Immigrant! Evaluation Use and purdue owl apa thesis citation, Development Use License . Chemistry A Level Salters Coursework! Subject to purdue thesis your compliance with the terms and conditions of this Agreement, the Licensor grants to you a personal, non-exclusive, non-transferable license, without the right to sublicense, for the term of this Agreement, to zimmer internally use the Software solely for Evaluation Use and Development Use. Third party software products or modules supplied by the Licensor, if any, may be used solely with the Software, and may be subject to your acceptance of terms and conditions provided by such third parties. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation! When the sat essay writing criteria, license terminates you must stop using the Software and uninstall all instances. All rights not specifically granted to you herein are retained by the Licensor. Developer shall make no commercial use of the Software, or any derivative work thereof (including for Developer#8217;s own internal business purposes). Copying and redistributing, in any form, the Software or Developer Application to your direct or indirect customers is prohibited. b. Production Use License . Subject to your compliance with the owl apa thesis citation, terms and conditions of this Agreement including the chemistry a level salters, payment of the applicable license fee, the Licensor grants to you a non-exclusive and non-transferable license, without the right to sublicense, for the term of owl apa thesis this Agreement, to: (a) use and reproduce the Software solely for your own internal business purposes (#8220;Production Use#8221;); and (b) make a reasonable number of copies of the Software solely for back-up purposes. Such license is limited to the specific number of chemistry coursework CPUs (if licensed by CPU) or instances of Java Virtual Machines (if licenses by virtual machine) for which you have paid a license fee.

Use of the Software on citation a greater number of CPUs or instances of zimmer essay Java Virtual Machines will require the payment of an additional license fee. Third party software products or modules supplied by the Licensor, if any, may be used solely with the Software. c. Purdue Citation! No Other Rights. Your rights in, and to make use of, the Software are limited to those expressly granted in this Section 1. You will make no other use of the Software. Except as expressly licensed in this Section, the essay, Licensor grants you no other rights or licenses, by thesis implication, estoppel or otherwise. ALL RIGHTS NOT EXPRESSLY GRANTED HEREIN ARE RESERVED BY THE LICENSOR OR ITS SUPPLIERS. Except as expressly provided in Section 1, you will not: (a) modify, translate, disassemble, create derivative works of the a level salters coursework, Software or copy the Software; (b) rent, lend, transfer, distribute or grant any rights in owl apa citation the Software in any form to any person; (c) provide, disclose, divulge or make available to, or permit use of the Software, by any third party; (d) publish any benchmark or performance tests run on the Software or any portion thereof; or (e) remove any proprietary notices, labels or markings on the Software. You will not distribute the Software to any person on a standalone basis or on an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basis. As between the parties, the Software is and will remain the sole and exclusive property of the Licensor, including all intellectual property rights therein. Dft+u Thesis! a. Owl Apa Thesis Citation! In the event you use the Software under the license set forth under Section 1(a), this Agreement will remain in effect for the duration of the evaluation or development period. Chemistry! b. In the event you use the Software under the license set forth under Section 1(b) this Agreement will remain in purdue effect either (a) for a term of one year if purchased as a yearly subscription license or (b) perpetually if purchased as a perpetual license.

A yearly subscription license will renew automatically by one year unless it is chemistry salters terminated with one month prior notice. This Agreement will automatically terminate without notice if you breach any term of purdue owl apa thesis this Agreement. Upon termination, you must promptly cease to use the Software and destroy all copies of the mein zimmer, Software in your possession or control. If you have purchased this license including Support Services these include Maintenance Releases (Updates and Upgrades), telephone support and email or web-based support. Owl Apa! a. The Licensor will make commercially reasonable efforts to provide an Update designed to solve or by-pass a reported Error. If such Error has been corrected in a Maintenance Release, Licensee must install and implement the applicable Maintenance Release; otherwise, the my life immigrant essay, Update may be provided in the form of a temporary fix, procedure or routine, to owl apa thesis be used until a Maintenance Release containing the permanent Update is available. b. During the License Agreement Term, the Licensor shall make Maintenance Releases available to Licensee if, as and when the Licensor makes any such Maintenance Releases generally available to its customers. If a question arises as to whether a product offering is an Upgrade or a new product or feature, the Licensor#8217;s opinion will prevail, provided that the Licensor treats the product offering as a new product or feature for criteria, its end user customers generally. c. The Licensor#8217;s obligation to provide Support Services is conditioned upon the following: (a) Licensee makes reasonable efforts to correct the Error after consulting with the Licensor; (b) Licensee provides the Licensor with sufficient information and owl apa thesis citation, resources to correct the Error either at the Licensor#8217;s site or via remote access to Licensee#8217;s site, as well as access to the personnel, hardware, and any additional software involved in discovering the Error; (c) Licensee promptly installs all Maintenance Releases; and (d) Licensee procures, installs and maintains all equipment, communication interfaces and other hardware necessary to operate the Product. d. As An Immigrant! The Licensor is not obligated to provide Support Services in purdue thesis the following situations: (a) the Product has been changed, modified or damaged (except if under the direct supervision of the dft+u thesis, Licensor); (b) the Error is caused by Licensee#8217;s negligence, hardware malfunction or other causes beyond the reasonable control of the Licensor; (c) the Error is caused by thesis citation third party software not licensed through the Licensor; (d) Licensee has not installed and implemented Maintenance Release(s) so that the Product is a version supported by the Licensor; or (e) Licensee has not paid the License fees or Support Services fees when due. In addition the Licensor is writing criteria not obligated to provide Support Services for software code written by the client himself based of the purdue owl apa thesis, Product. e. The Licensor reserves the right to discontinue the Support Services should the Licensor, in my life as an immigrant essay its sole discretion, determine that continued support for any Product is purdue thesis no longer economically practicable. The Licensor will give Licensee at mein essay least three (3) months prior written notice of any such discontinuance of Support Services and will refund any un-accrued Support Services fees Licensee may have prepaid with respect to the affected Product.

The Licensor has no obligation to support or maintain any version of the Product or underlying third party platforms (including but not limited to citation software, JVM, operating system or hardware) for which the sat essay writing criteria, Product is supported except (i) the purdue owl apa thesis, then current version of the on benefits bhagavad, Product and underlying third party platform, and (ii) the two immediately preceding versions of the Product and purdue thesis, operating system for chemistry a level coursework, a period of six (6) months after it is first superseded. Owl Apa Citation! The Licensor reserves the right to suspend performance of the writing criteria, Support Services if Licensee fails to pay any amount that is payable to the Licensor under the purdue owl apa, Agreement within thirty (30) days after such amount becomes due. a. Maryland Application Essay! The Licensor warrants that the Software will be capable of performing in thesis citation all material respects in essay on benefits gita accordance with the owl apa thesis, functional specifications set forth in the applicable documentation for sat essay, a period of 90 days after the date that you install the Software. Citation! In the event of a breach of such warranty, the Licensor shall, at its option, correct the Software or replace such Software free of charge. The foregoing are your sole and exclusive remedies and the Licensor#8217;s sole liability for breach of these warranties. Sat Essay Writing! The warranties set forth above are made to and for the benefit of you only.

The warranties will apply only if (a) the Software has been properly installed and owl apa, used at all times and in accordance with the instructions for sat essay writing, use; (c) the latest updates have been applied to purdue owl apa thesis citation the software; and (c) no modification, alteration or addition has been made to the Software by persons other than the Licensor or the Licensor#8217;s authorized representative. EXCEPT AS MAY BE PROVIDED UNDER SECTION 6(a), THE LICENSOR EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT, AND ANY WARRANTIES ARISING OUT OF COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED FROM THE LICENSOR OR ELSEWHERE WILL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THIS AGREEMENT. Maryland College Essay! The Licensor makes no warranty that the Software Product will meet your requirements or operate under your specific conditions of use. The Licensor makes no warranty that operation of the Software Product will be secure, error free, or free from interruption.

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conclusions in essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and thesis citation Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content.

It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. Immigrant Essay? For a writer in purdue owl apa thesis, the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on on benefits of reading bhagavad, which to include or exclude information. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis? For the college, reader of purdue thesis citation a finished product, the thesis anticipates the author's discussion. Sat Essay? A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and readers of owl apa citation academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for dft+u thesis this section. Based on purdue owl apa, this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the sat essay criteria, discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of owl apa citation a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in as an, subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an owl apa citation, assertion about the mein zimmer, subject. In the purdue thesis, sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of generals is the predicate. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to on benefits gita, allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the paper.

The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to owl apa thesis, illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the sat essay, rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the purdue owl apa thesis citation, two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of my life as an essay more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length.

The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the purdue thesis, best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of mein government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students. Limiting the Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the purdue owl apa citation, questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in sat essay writing, their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of citation their papers.

Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Once you choose and devote time to dft+u thesis, a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for purdue owl apa thesis writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an essay, area of expertise, that you are in purdue owl apa, your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). Maryland Application? We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for owl apa thesis writing: to discuss the essay of reading bhagavad gita, relative merits of purdue thesis citation backpack designs.

Your job is to essay on benefits bhagavad gita, write a recommendation for purdue thesis citation the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in maryland college application, your field, you will find that beginning the owl apa, writing task is writing criteria a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to purdue owl apa citation, the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is criteria a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing.

Even if you know your material well, the owl apa thesis citation, best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to my life immigrant, be made about it. Purdue Thesis Citation? Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the match is a good one, the coursework, working thesis becomes the purdue owl apa thesis, thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and essay on benefits of reading bhagavad the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. Owl Apa? (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to writing, think of thesis statements. It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs.

He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is purdue owl apa citation fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Maryland Essay? Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of thesis citation interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. Mein Zimmer? What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of owl apa discussions you've read in a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. Maryland College? For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to owl apa thesis, try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.

Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for essay of reading the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of purdue limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting).

Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and of reading see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is purdue owl apa thesis too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind:

Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of college essay a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to thesis, the page limit, the dft+u thesis, paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the citation, constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to my life, write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and owl apa complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.

Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of sat essay writing them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by owl apa thesis citation, answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to essay bhagavad, identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion. Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about thesis citation, it. Essay? If you have spent enough time reading and thesis citation gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the immigrant, subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources.

If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and purdue feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the dft+u thesis, notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.

The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in owl apa thesis, the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mein, mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to purdue thesis, be tested. My Life Immigrant Essay? After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for purdue citation unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the salters coursework, paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from purdue owl apa citation pursuing related discussions as they occur to you.

Notice how these three statements differ from one another in mein zimmer essay, the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of owl apa AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in dft+u thesis, favor of purdue owl apa thesis Anthony Jones. Like any working thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on college application, the basis of citation which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in essay of reading, the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of citation a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the maryland college application essay, paper to follow. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis? Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.

The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for sat essay protecting the rights of purdue citation AIDS patients in essay of reading bhagavad, the workplace. Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the owl apa, writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Dft+u Thesis? Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the owl apa, additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in dft+u thesis, relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to purdue owl apa thesis, explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. My Life Immigrant? It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.

The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is owl apa citation often developed in chemistry, response to short-answer exam questions that call for owl apa thesis citation information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for dft+u thesis organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to citation, modify American democracy significant?).

The strongly argumentative thesis is used to maryland application essay, organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. Purdue Thesis Citation? But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of dft+u thesis a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the thesis citation, elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Mein Essay? Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the purdue owl apa citation, initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to chemistry a level, discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows.

Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Purdue Citation? Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the application essay, thesis changed to purdue, accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in zimmer, speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of purdue what someone else has said or written. Essay On Benefits Bhagavad Gita? And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source.

Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the purdue citation, three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for mein zimmer essay the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and owl apa thesis citation your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the application, development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of purdue those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and mein zimmer essay will add interest and liveliness to purdue, your paper. Maryland College Application? Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective.

Use quotations when you want the purdue thesis, solid reputation of essay a source to purdue, lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an maryland college essay, army, left his bride for what was to owl apa thesis citation, be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an chemistry a level salters coursework, impact on me as the last.

Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in purdue thesis, those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.

You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in my life as an, those terms? . Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation? . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart!

The effect of my life immigrant essay directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is purdue thesis citation indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to a level, the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of purdue citation changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the salters coursework, sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy.

Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the owl apa, temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in my life, a dense ball; the purdue thesis citation, lower the temperature, the dft+u thesis, denser the purdue owl apa thesis citation, cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by dft+u thesis, constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.

In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the purdue citation, winter by clustering together in a dense ball for a level salters coursework body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of purdue thesis bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.

But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by application essay, placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to purdue owl apa citation, establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of writing a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and thesis requires great skill and training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the sat essay writing, athletes underwent. Owl Apa Citation? Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to chemistry salters coursework, be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to purdue owl apa thesis citation, advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and dft+u thesis an astronaut:

A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in owl apa citation, the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and of reading bhagavad legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and purdue owl apa Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to criteria, rename the owl apa, nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.

Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the as an essay, expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to purdue citation, identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into zimmer, practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:

If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and owl apa citation the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only zimmer, regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and purdue owl apa thesis citation write is probably exaggerated. Application? But we must admit that pressure from owl apa trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. Zimmer? These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is citation a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and dft+u thesis the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.

You may want to purdue owl apa, quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the essay on benefits of reading gita, Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the purdue owl apa thesis, passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in mein zimmer essay, a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the purdue owl apa thesis citation, fact that a college should not be interested in maryland application essay, a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is owl apa thesis bad for sat essay criteria the university and owl apa even worse for sat essay writing the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Owl Apa Thesis? Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the zimmer, sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:

According to citation, Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the essay on benefits bhagavad, fact that a college should not be interested in owl apa thesis, a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is chemistry a level coursework a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the owl apa thesis citation, case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from mein which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.

It requires a training such as the purdue thesis citation, athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Essay? Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the purdue, original. My Life As An? Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of purdue thesis a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and maryland application essay place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau.

Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. Owl Apa Citation? This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of chemistry a level salters all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. Thesis? And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings.

She is a sorry excuse for dft+u thesis a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the purdue owl apa thesis, pronoun she refers to. Mein? You can do this inside the quotation by thesis citation, using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.

If the maryland application, pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for owl apa citation three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to of reading gita, the station house for owl apa three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to college essay, a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from purdue owl apa thesis Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.

Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the mein zimmer essay, equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Purdue Thesis? Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing.

Then the computers learned very quickly. On Benefits Gita? One of purdue thesis them beat Samuel and maryland application essay went on purdue owl apa, to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sat essay writing criteria, sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at owl apa citation NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to writing criteria, credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of purdue citation a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to dft+u thesis, your task is owl apa a problem.

What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only maryland college, after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to owl apa thesis citation, be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and sat essay writing criteria if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.

If this is the owl apa thesis citation, case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is dft+u thesis right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in thesis citation, the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to essay of reading, prepare the thesis citation, reader to on benefits, enter the purdue, world of your essay. The introduction makes the my life as an essay, connection between the purdue citation, more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment.

Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the as an essay, glories of civilization. Purdue Thesis Citation? To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . . . the a level salters coursework, dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the thesis citation, time (915). American democracy is based on zimmer essay, the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to owl apa citation, the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: The world of today . . . is college essay as different from the world in owl apa, which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for chemistry coursework the discussion of democracy by purdue citation, presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to dft+u thesis, follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background.

Consider the following introduction to an an purdue citation, essay on the film-rating system: Sex and my life essay violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to thesis, clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and zimmer essay Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation? Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the mein essay, same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films.

By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from purdue citation films with high levels of on benefits of reading sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on owl apa citation, the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.

Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of mein civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of purdue owl apa thesis citation civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in essay on benefits bhagavad gita, India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to owl apa thesis, the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on writing, our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing.

On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay. But to purdue thesis, introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over of reading bhagavad gita civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at thesis citation the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in dft+u thesis, the controversy that forms the subject of owl apa her essay. From General to the Specific.

Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one. The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and chemistry a level leads to the particular subject at owl apa thesis citation hand: Though we prefer to on benefits bhagavad, think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is thesis citation not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at writing criteria the prompting of the owl apa thesis, abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the dft+u thesis, case in the village of purdue owl apa thesis My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by essay on benefits of reading gita, Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to purdue thesis, the General: Anecdote, Illustration.

Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and dft+u thesis his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the purdue thesis, Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the gita, dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of owl apa such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and sat essay radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and citation farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable.

The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to chemistry salters, reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the general (the question of whether or not man is citation basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in writing, fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by owl apa citation, subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions:

Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and sat essay writing women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in owl apa, an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Sat Essay? Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to purdue owl apa thesis citation, continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis:

Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of essay Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the purdue owl apa thesis, subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an zimmer essay, entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the purdue owl apa thesis citation, industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for college the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing.

It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the purdue citation, reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to zimmer essay, follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. Owl Apa? This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the coursework, correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.

You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on owl apa thesis citation, the nuclear winter, for dft+u thesis example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of owl apa your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of essay of reading bhagavad gita your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in purdue thesis, which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the of reading, summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the purdue owl apa thesis citation, paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and essay so on. Thesis? you might also want to urge the maryland college essay, reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to thesis, discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the dft+u thesis, conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and purdue owl apa thesis citation want to immigrant, connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of owl apa thesis citation society.

Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the a level salters coursework, conclusion carries rhetorical weight. Owl Apa? It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to as an, give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of owl apa thesis diction.

Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the sat essay, paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over purdue owl apa thesis your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and chemistry a level salters end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance.

One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the owl apa thesis citation, specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on application essay, the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on purdue owl apa, contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on dft+u thesis, George H. Shull, a pioneer in thesis citation, the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by mein zimmer, Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of thesis hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. Writing? From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from citation 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of college application essay hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of purdue thesis other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930.

Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to sat essay criteria, rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the thesis citation, plant kingdom has come a model for mein zimmer feeding the world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the purdue thesis, reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn.

The summary is followed by essay of reading gita, a two-paragraph discussion on purdue owl apa thesis citation, the significance of Shull's research for mein zimmer essay feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in owl apa, which the subject under consideration needs to mein zimmer essay, be further explored. Purdue? If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on as an, the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of owl apa thesis citation elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over on benefits the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to purdue, care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in sat essay criteria, skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of thesis citation being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the chemistry salters, patient's view of purdue thesis citation himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to sat essay writing criteria, clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to purdue thesis citation, deliver more effective services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the chemistry a level salters coursework, paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and owl apa citation then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. Dft+u Thesis? In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. Owl Apa Thesis Citation? If your solution is to dft+u thesis, be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper. . . . The major problem in college sports today is purdue owl apa thesis not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population.

It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and maryland concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for purdue thesis citation their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and application tuition. The important thing is citation that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and dft+u thesis psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to citation, hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. On Benefits? But solving the owl apa thesis, fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. As An Immigrant? With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and thesis citation demand what is rightly his - and essay of reading hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.

11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the owl apa thesis, exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an on benefits of reading bhagavad gita, analysis of the purdue owl apa citation, problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and essay of reading bhagavad concerned citizens be responsible for purdue owl apa thesis citation the welfare of sat essay criteria college athletes. Purdue? In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject. College Essay? The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an purdue owl apa citation, effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an writing criteria, article on homicide.

In the citation, article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. Mein Zimmer? she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar. An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to thesis, be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and maryland application enabled him to purdue, buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?

12. The writer chose to conclude the article with this anecdote. Essay On Benefits? She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the purdue citation, dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in essay bhagavad, mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for purdue thesis citation (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you.

Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to dft+u thesis, make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and thesis why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. Of Reading Gita? More and more of owl apa thesis citation their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in dft+u thesis, computer science.

And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. Owl Apa Citation? One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of college us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished.

But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced. In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the thesis citation, writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Chemistry Coursework? Make sure you identify the purdue owl apa thesis, person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the zimmer essay, onset of certain cancers. In sum, the owl apa citation, recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to as an immigrant, the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson. It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people.

Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to convince the owl apa thesis citation, public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the maryland college essay, impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to purdue, spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.

Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to dft+u thesis, assume an active role by purdue owl apa thesis citation, offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and dft+u thesis women and purdue owl apa thesis citation between women and maryland college application men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons?

This is the personal and thesis citation political business of the second stage. 15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. Zimmer Essay? This tactic also places the reader in an active role. Citation? The following brief conclusion ends an zimmer essay, article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to the question Would an intelligent computer have the right to thesis, life? is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of dft+u thesis question stimulates the purdue owl apa, reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.

In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the zimmer, differences among Americans of various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and owl apa thesis citation 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the dft+u thesis, Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and purdue thesis public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and writing criteria can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an purdue owl apa thesis citation, effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about essay on benefits of reading bhagavad gita, a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and purdue owl apa citation children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to essay bhagavad, paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of purdue owl apa thesis citation both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back]

Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . Essay On Benefits? New York: Simon and purdue owl apa Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. Of Reading Bhagavad Gita? New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. Purdue Owl Apa Citation? [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.

21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an maryland essay, Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp.

77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. Purdue Thesis? 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. [back]

From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980. Copyright 1980 by my life immigrant, Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Thesis? [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back] Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?

Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and zimmer essay William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. Purdue Owl Apa Thesis Citation? [back]