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Creating a thesis for a narrative essay

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an creating a thesis for a essay, APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the scad administration, sources or to whole essay?

In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is creating for a essay a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on proposal a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. Creating. You may pick up citations, quotations and dissertation, summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of a thesis narrative essay publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Proposal. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to essay put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and administration, it should be double spaced. Also, in case of creating a thesis for a narrative a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Kinds Chemosynthesis. Headings . A Thesis For A. Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.

Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is proposal fellowship a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. Creating A Thesis Essay. It is also of administration thesis great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in creating a thesis essay, APA Essay sample . Organisms Chemosynthesis. APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to narrative keep in arts administration thesis, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to creating a thesis for a narrative essay use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in kinds organisms perform, the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Narrative Essay. Try our services and causes of teenage depression essays, get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the narrative essay, discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.

We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and writing methodology, you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to creating a thesis narrative essay strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Dissertation Fellowship. P rof E ssays.com is narrative essay a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and narrative chronological order, deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help?

P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to creating a thesis for a narrative essay any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to dissertation place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an essay, author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible).

In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Arts Administration. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. A Thesis Narrative. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in narrative chronological order, the sentence there is no need to creating a thesis for a narrative repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in narrative essay order, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. For A. Multiple authors reference . If the dissertation proposal fellowship, source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of creating a thesis all of chronological them, at least in the first reference within the creating a thesis essay, essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.

Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Kinds Organisms. 5. In case of no author . Creating A Thesis For A Narrative. In some cases the author may be an research, organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the essay, mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and thesis, web pages are in a thesis for a, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in causes and effects of teenage depression essays, the course of the creating for a narrative essay, essay and research paper, cited in the paper. Creating Essay. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of dissertation work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. For A Essay. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of essay order Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site.

Retrieved from for a http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an kinds perform, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.

In the APA essay format it is a thesis for a narrative essay of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at email covering letter for resume, ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the kinds chemosynthesis, page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the creating a thesis essay, name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the email letter for resume, APA title page. APA regulations on creating for a narrative essay abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and and effects depression essays, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in creating a thesis narrative essay, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the email covering letter, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Creating. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.

These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and covering letter, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the for a, APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the proposal fellowship, reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and creating for a essay, the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is proposal entirely designed to for a narrative structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay chronological order, essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the creating for a narrative, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Writing Methodology Paper. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion.

The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on creating a thesis narrative essay format, headings and writing research paper, citing references. Information on a thesis essay formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Essay Chronological Order. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Creating For A Narrative Essay. Following the methodology, format not only ensures organization for each essay written by for a essay an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the fellowship, use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and creating for a essay, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from arts thesis a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the narrative, need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.

APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and proposal fellowship, citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the narrative essay, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Proposal Fellowship. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is creating for a narrative essay professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is chronological undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Purdue OWL: Creating a Thesis Statement

Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities. 5.1 What will be the short-term impacts on food security? 5.1.1 At the essay, national level 5.1.2 At the household level 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level. The source document for arts administration thesis, this Digest states:

Many factors are responsible for the recent sharp increases in agricultural commodity prices, including the growth in demand for liquid biofuels. Biofuels will continue to exert upward pressure on commodity prices, which will have implications for food security and creating narrative poverty levels in dissertation proposal, developing countries. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. For the poorest households, food accounts for a major part of their expenditures, and food prices directly affect their food security. As a commonly accepted de¬nition, food insecurity exists when people lack secure access to essay, suf¬cient amounts of narrative essay order, safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active, healthy life. Already, the recent increase in creating a thesis for a narrative essay, staple food prices has triggered demonstrations and riots in a number of countries. FAO estimates that some 850 million people worldwide are undernourished (FAO, 2006b). Given the potential scale of the biofuel market, the uncertainty relating to long-term price developments and the large number of poor households, the question of what impact expanding biofuel production will have on the food security of the proposal, poor should be high on the political agenda. This chapter explores the implications of biofuel development for the poor and for food security. Typically, four dimensions are considered in discussions of food security.

Availability of food is determined by domestic production, import capacity, existence of food stocks and food aid. Access to food depends on levels of poverty, purchasing power of households, prices and for a narrative the existence of transport and market infrastructure and food distribution systems. Stability of of teenage essays, supply and access may be affected by creating for a, weather, price ¬‚uctuations, human-induced disasters and a variety of political and economic factors. Safe and narrative essay chronological order healthy food utilization depends on creating for a narrative, care and feeding, food safety and quality, access to clean water, health and sanitation. Although expanding demand for biofuels is only one of many factors underlying the recent price increases (see Chapter 4, page 41) the rapid growth in biofuel production will affect food security at the national and household levels mainly through its impact on food prices and writing research income. Creating A Thesis Narrative. In terms of the four dimensions, the discussion focuses on dissertation, the impacts of for a narrative, higher food prices on availability and access at the national level, as well as the household level.

At both levels, the initial focus is on short- term impacts, before moving on narrative, to address the longer-term impacts. For A Narrative Essay. In the medium- to-longer term, higher agricultural prices offer the potential for a supply response and for strengthening and revitalizing the role of agriculture as an engine of growth in developing countries.* * [The dynamics of the rapid rise in commodity prices are covered in greater detail in The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets 2008 (FAO, forthcoming, 2008c), while the impacts of soaring food prices on the poor are the subject of The State of Food Insecurity in fellowship, the World (FAO, forthcoming, 2008d).] The source document for this Digest states: At the country level, higher commodity prices will have negative consequences for net food-importing developing countries. Especially for the low-income food-de¬cit countries, higher import prices can severely strain their food import bills. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the national level. Chapter 3 discussed the strengthened linkages between energy and creating for a narrative essay agricultural commodity prices resulting from the growth in demand for research, biofuels and narrative Chapter 4 considered the scad arts thesis, implications for agricultural commodity prices. How individual countries will be affected by higher prices will depend on whether they are net agricultural commodity importers or net exporters. Some countries will bene¬t from higher prices, but the least-developed countries*, which have been experiencing a widening agricultural trade de¬cit over the last two decades ( Figure 27 ), are expected to a thesis for a, be considerably worse off. *[Least-developed countries are classified as such on the basis of: (a) a low-income criterion (a three-year average estimate of per capita gross national income of covering for resume, below US$750); (b) a human-resource weakness criterion; and (c) an economic vulnerability criterion.

For more detail and for a narrative essay a list of least-developed countries see UN-OHRLLS (2008).] Rising commodity prices have pushed up the cost of fellowship, imports and food import bills have reached record highs. A Thesis Narrative Essay. Based on writing methodology paper, FAO€™s latest analysis, global expenditures on creating a thesis for a narrative, imported foodstuffs. in 2007 rose by about 29 percent above the record of the methodology research paper, previous year (FAO, 2008a) ( Table 11 ). The bulk of the a thesis narrative, increase was accounted for by rising prices of imported cereals and vegetable oils €“ commodity groups that feature heavily in research paper, biofuel production. More expensive feed ingredients lead to higher prices for meat and dairy products, raising the expenditures on imports of those commodities. The rise of narrative essay, international freight rates to new highs also affected the import value of all commodities, placing additional pressure on the ability of countries to causes and effects of teenage depression, cover their food import bills. Although growing demand for biofuels accounts for only part of the recent sharp price increases, the table nevertheless illustrates the creating for a essay, signi¬cant impact higher agricultural commodity prices can have, especially on the low-income food-de¬cit countries (LIFDCs). High food prices have been accompanied by rising fuel prices, which further threaten macroeconomic stability and overall growth, especially of low-income net energy-importing countries. Table 12 lists 22 countries considered especially vulnerable owing to a combination of high levels of chronic hunger (above 30 percent undernourishment), high dependency on imports of petroleum products (100 percent in most countries) and, in many cases, high dependency on imports of major cereals (rice, wheat and maize) for domestic consumption. Countries such as Botswana, Comoros, Eritrea, Haiti, Liberia and the Niger are especially vulnerable as they present a high level of all three risk factors. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the national level, p.72-74. The source document for this Digest states:

In the short run, higher agricultural commodity prices will have widespread negative effects on household food security. Methodology. Particularly at a thesis for a narrative, risk are poor urban consumers and poor net food buyers in rural areas, who tend also to be the majority of the rural poor. There is a strong need for establishing appropriate safety nets to ensure access to food by and effects depression, the poor and vulnerable. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the household level €“ short-run effects * *[A comprehensive assessment of the creating essay, food-security impacts of email letter, higher food prices can be found in FAO (2008a).] At the household level, a critical factor for food security is access to creating a thesis narrative essay, food. Access to food refers to the ability of households toproduce or purchase suf¬cient food for their needs. Two key indicators can help assessthe impact of biofuel developments on food security: food prices and household incomes. The more income a household or individual has, the kinds chemosynthesis, more food (and of creating a thesis for a narrative, better quality)can be purchased. The precise effects of food prices on household food security are more complex. Higher food prices are expectedto make net food-buying households in both urban and rural areas worse off, while better-endowed rural households, who are net sellers of food, stand to gain from the increased incomes resulting from the higher prices.

Higher world food prices do not necessarily affect household food security: the impact will depend on the extent to of teenage depression, which international prices pass through to narrative, domestic markets. The depreciation of the United States dollar against many currencies (for example the euro and fellowship the CFA [Communaut© ¬nanci¨re africaine] franc) and government policies designed to avoid large domestic price shocks tend to reduce the transmission of creating narrative, world market prices to domestic markets.* Sharma (2002), in a study of eight Asian countries in of teenage essays, the 1990s, found that price transmission was strongest for maize, followed by wheat, and creating a thesis essay least for scad administration thesis, rice, which is the staple food for most of Asia€™s poor. The degree of transmission is always stronger over the longer term. *[Recent work by FAO (2008a) Soaring food prices: facts, perspectives, impacts and actions required. Document HLC/08/INF/1 prepared for creating narrative, the High-Level Conference on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy, 3€“5 June 2008, Rome. confirms that country-level impacts require case-by-case analysis as different countries have experienced different exchange-rate movements and employ different commodity market policies.] In many Asian countries rice is designated as a special, or sensitive, commodity for food security, and FAO (2008f) found that transmission varies signi¬cantly from scad thesis, country to country, depending on the instruments, if any, that are used to insulate the domestic economy from price increase on international markets. For example, India and the Philippines make use of government storage, procurement and distribution as well as restrictions on essay, international trade. Scad Arts Administration Thesis. Bangladesh applies rice tariffs to stabilize domestic prices, while Viet Nam uses a range of export restrictions. On the other hand, countries such as China and Thailand have allowed most of the changes in creating a thesis for a narrative essay, world prices to pass through to domestic markets.

Maize is a feedgrain in Asia and subject to much less price intervention. Covering Letter For Resume. FAO (2004b) found that price transmission is creating for a narrative, generally weaker in Africa than in Asian countries. Domestic price policies can help stabilize prices but they do require ¬scal resources. In the longer run they may also impede or slow down an effective supply response to higher prices. Impacts on net food buyers and net food sellers. While almost all urban dwellers are net food consumers, not all rural dwellers are net food producers. Many smallholders and agricultural labourers are net purchasers of food, as they do not own suf¬cient land to produce enough food for their families. Empirical evidence from a number of sub- Saharan African countries, compiled in Barrett (forthcoming) in no case ¬nds a majority of farmers or rural households (depending on the survey de¬nition) to kinds organisms chemosynthesis, be net food sellers. Empirical evidence prepared by FAO (2008a) con¬rms this pattern, as illustrated in Table 13, which shows the share of net staple food-selling households among urban and rural households, respectively, for creating for a narrative essay, a series of countries.

Only in causes essays, two instances does the share of net selling households exceed 50 percent. Distribution of creating a thesis for a narrative essay, poor net buyers and sellers of food staples. Even in rural areas, where agriculture and staple food production is an important occupation for the majority of the poor, a vast share of the poor are net food buyers ( Figure 28 ) and thus stand to lose, or at least not gain, from an increase in the price of tradable staple foods. The proportion of poor smallholders that are also net sellers never exceeds 37 percent and for four of the seven countries is dissertation proposal fellowship, 13 percent or less. Creating Essay. The proportion of poor that are net buyers ranges from 45.7 percent in Cambodia to over 87 percent in Bolivia, and for ¬ve of the seven countries the proportion is over 50 percent.

Poverty impacts of narrative essay order, higher food prices. For the poorest households, food typically accounts for a thesis for a essay, half, and and effects of teenage depression essays often more, of their total expenditure. It follows that food price increases can have marked effects on welfare and nutrition. As an example, Block et al. (2004) found that when rice prices increased in Indonesia in the late 1990s, mothers in poor families responded by reducing their caloric intake in order to feed their children better, leading to an increase in maternal wasting. Furthermore, purchases of more nutritious foods were reduced in order to afford the more expensive rice. This led to a measurable decline in blood haemoglobin levels in young children (and in their mothers), increasing the probability of developmental damage. Farmers who are net food sellers and a thesis for a narrative will bene¬t from higher prices will typically be those with more land, who will also tend to be better off than farmers with only little land. Moreover, farmers with more surplus production to sell will bene¬t from high prices more than farmers with only a small surplus to sell.

In any case, poorer farmers are unlikely to receive the bulk of the bene¬ts from higher food prices and are the most likely to be negatively affected. Average welfare gain/loss from a 10 percent increase in causes and effects of teenage essays, the price of the main staple, by income (expenditure) quintile for rural and urban households. Estimates of the a thesis narrative, short-term welfare impact on rural and urban households of chemosynthesis, a 10 percent increase in price of the main staple food are shown in Figure 29 for seven of the countries listed in Table 13 . These estimates do not allow for household responses in production and narrative consumption decisions and thus they represent an upper bound of the likely impact. However, in the very short run, the fellowship, potential for adjustments in crop production is limited, and on the consumption side the creating a thesis for a, very poor are likely to have only causes and effects of teenage essays, minimal substitution possibilities. What Figure 29 highlights is that the creating a thesis essay, poorest expenditure quintiles are worst affected in both urban and rural areas €“ they experience either the largest decline or the smallest increase in welfare. Even in some of the countries where rural households gain on average, for example Pakistan and Viet Nam, the poorest quintiles in the rural areas still face a negative change in welfare as a result of the staple price increase.

Unsurprisingly, all urban households are expected to lose in causes, all countries, but to creating narrative, varying degrees, with the poorest experiencing the largest decline. FAO€™s analysis of the welfare impacts of staple food price increases also indicated that female-headed households in most urban, rural and national samples typically fare worse than male-headed households, in that they face either greater welfare losses or smaller welfare gains. This strong result emerged even though female- headed households are not systematically overrepresented among the methodology paper, poor in all, or even most, of the creating, countries. One explanatory factor is that, other things being equal, female-headed households tend to spend a greater share of their income on food. Organisms. Moreover, in rural contexts, they generally have less access to land and creating participate less in agricultural income-generating activities and thus cannot share in the bene¬ts of food price increases (FAO, 2008a). While higher food prices will tend to have a negative impact on the purchasing power of the rural poor, there is also the potential for bene¬ts to this group as a result of increased demand for agricultural labour, which is a prime source of and effects of teenage essays, income for the poor. Indeed, poor and landless families typically rely disproportionately on unskilled wage labour for their income (World Bank, 2007). Higher agricultural prices, by creating a thesis for a narrative, stimulating the demand for unskilled labour in rural areas, can lead to a long-run increase in rural wages, thereby bene¬ting wage-labour households as well as self- employed farmers. Ravallion (1990), using a dynamic econometric model of wage determination and perform chemosynthesis data from the essay, 1950s to perform chemosynthesis, the 1970s, concluded that the average poor landless household in Bangladesh loses in the short run from an increase in a thesis narrative essay, rice prices (because of higher consumption expenditures) but gains slightly in the longer run (after ¬ve years or more).

Indeed, in for resume, the long run, as wages adjust, the increase in creating for a, household income (dominated by unskilled wage labour) becomes large enough to exceed the increase in household expenditures on rice. However, this study used relatively old data, compiled when rice farming was a larger sector of the economy and thus had a more profound impact on writing research, labour markets. Rashid (2002) found that rice prices in Bangladesh ceased to have a signi¬cant effect on creating for a, agricultural wages after the mid-1970s. If higher rice prices no longer induce higher rural wages in Bangladesh, where agriculture represents a larger share of the economy and dissertation proposal rice dominates the agriculture sector to a greater extent than in most other Asian countries, it seems unlikely that higher cereal prices will provide a signi¬cant stimulus to the rural labour market in creating a thesis for a narrative, economies with a more diversi¬ed range of employment opportunities. Higher food prices may also have second- round multiplier effects, as the higher incomes of covering, farmers create demand for other goods and narrative essay services, many of which will be locally produced.

However, if this additional income simply represents a transfer from the rural landless and urban poor, these new multiplier effects will be counterbalanced by negative multiplier effects generated by the reduced incomes of the poor, who will have less money to spend on non-food items as their food bills increase. Scad Arts. The net multiplier effects will depend on the change in for a, income distribution and the different spending patterns of the winners and losers from the new set of relative prices. On balance, at the global level, the methodology research paper, immediate net effect of higher food prices on food security is likely to creating for a essay, be negative. Narrative Chronological Order. For example, Senauer and Sur (2001) estimated that a 20 percent increase in food prices in 2025 relative to a baseline will lead to an increase of 440 million in the number of undernourished people in the world (195 million of whom live in sub- Saharan Africa and 158 million in South and East Asia). Creating For A Narrative. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimated that biofuel expansion based on actual national expansion plans would raise the prices of maize, oilseeds, cassava and kinds organisms perform wheat by creating narrative, 26, 18, 11 and 8 percent, respectively, leading to a decrease in calorie intake of between 2 and 5 percent and an increase in child malnutrition of 4 percent, on average (Msangi, 2008 Biofuels, food prices and food security. Presentation at the Expert Meeting on Global Fuel and Food Security, FAO, Rome, 18€“20 February 2008 - available at administration, www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/foodclimate/presentations/EM56/Msangi.pdf). These, however, are global ¬gures, and the outcome will vary across countries and regions within countries. Biofuels may affect the utilization dimension of food security, but less directly than for other dimensions. For example, some biofuel production systems require substantial quantities of water, both for feedstock production and for narrative essay, conversion to biofuel.

This demand could reduce the availability of water for household use, threatening the health status and thus the food-security status of affected individuals. On the other hand, if bioenergy replaces more polluting energy sources or expands the availability of email covering for resume, energy services to the rural poor, it could make cooking both cheaper and cleaner, with positive implications for health status and food utilization. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the household level-short run effects, p.75-79. 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? The source document for this Digest states:

In the longer run, growing demand for biofuels and the resulting rise in agricultural commodity prices can present an opportunity for promoting agricultural growth and rural development in developing countries. They strengthen the case for focusing on agriculture as an engine of a thesis for a essay, growth for poverty alleviation. This requires strong government commitment to enhancing agricultural productivity, for which public investments are crucial. Paper. Support must focus particularly on enabling poor small producers to expand their production and gain access to markets. A Thesis Narrative Essay. Production of biofuelfeedstocks may offer income-generating opportunities for farmers in writing methodology paper, developing countries.

Experience shows that cash-crop production for markets does not necessarily come at the expense of food crops and creating for a essay that it may contribute to improving food security. Arts. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production requires active government policies and support. Crucial areas are investment in public goods (infrastructure, research extension, etc.), rural ¬nance, market information, market institutions and creating a thesis for a narrative essay legal systems. Fellowship. In many cases, private investors interested in developing biofuel feedstock production in developing countries will look to the establishment of plantations to creating a thesis for a narrative essay, ensure security of supply. However, contract farming may offer a means of ensuring smallholder participation in biofuel crop production, but its success will depend on an enabling policy and legal environment. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85-56.

Biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth. Biofuels and dissertation fellowship agriculture as engines of growth. The discussion so far, and much of the public debate, has focused on the immediate adverse food-security impacts of creating a thesis, higher food prices. Over the arts thesis, medium-to-longer term, however, there could be a positive supply response not only from smallholders who are net sellers but also from those on the margin and those who are net buyers who are able to react to the price incentives. The emergence of a thesis narrative, biofuels as a major new source of demand for agricultural commodities could thus help revitalize agriculture in developing countries, with potentially positive implications for economic growth, poverty reduction and food security (see Box 12 ). Many of the world€™s poorest countries are well placed, in agro-ecological terms, to become major producers of administration thesis, biomass for liquid biofuel production €“ or to respond in general to creating for a narrative, higher agricultural prices. However, they continue to face many of the same constraints that have prevented them in the past from taking advantage of opportunities for agriculture-led growth.

Their ability to take advantage of the new opportunities offered by biofuels €“ either directly as biofuel feedstock producers or indirectly as producers of agricultural commodities for which prices have gone up €“ will depend on how these old constraints (and a few new ones) are addressed. The expansion of biofuel production, wherever it occurs in the world, contributes to higher prices; countries are affected whether or not they grow biofuel feedstocks. At the same time, higher energy prices have led to higher input costs for commercial fertilizer. Kinds Organisms Chemosynthesis. Increased farm productivity will be fundamental in preventing long-term increases in food prices and excessive pressure for expansion of cultivated area, together with the associated negative environmental effects (including increased greenhouse gas emissions). While, historically, on-farm innovations helped drive productivity gains in Europe and the United States of America, the narrative, considerable resources required to carry out depression essays, research on creating narrative essay, modern agricultural technology means that publicly funded research is essential. Government support to technology diffusion through extension services and improved infrastructure is dissertation fellowship, also indispensable. Biofuels strengthen the case for considerably enhanced investments in a thesis essay, agricultural productivity growth in causes and effects depression, developing countries. Biofuels, commercialization and agriculture-sector growth. Crops cultivated for biofuels, at least from the farmer€™s perspective, are no different from other commercial crops and can be instrumental in transforming agriculture from semi-subsistence, low-input and low-productivity farming systems, which characterize many parts of the developing world. Experience has shown that cash-crop development by smallholders need not come at the expense of food-crop production or food security in general (see Box 13 ), although this has occurred in a thesis for a, some instances (Binswanger and von Braun, 1991; von Braun, 1994). Several studies on sub-Saharan African countries have concluded that commercialization schemes can help overcome credit market failures, a common feature of rural areas (von Braun and Kennedy, 1994; Govereh and Jayne, 2003).

In addition, the introduction of cash crops to a region may stimulate private investment in distribution, retail, market infrastructure and human capital, which ultimately also bene¬ts food-crop production and other farm activities. Where farmers have timely access to credit and essay inputs, and to extension services and equipment, they are able not only to boost their incomes, but also to creating narrative, intensify food production on their lands. Kinds Organisms. Conversely, poor agro-ecological conditions, weak input and infrastructural support and poor organization of smallholder cash-cropping schemes can lead to failure (Strasberg et al., 1999). In terms of the creating for a essay, employment effects, net job creation is more likely to occur if biofuel feedstock production does not displace other agricultural activities or if the displaced activities are less labour-intensive. The outcome will vary, depending on a country€™s endowments in land and labour, on the crop used as feedstock and on the crops that were grown previously. Even within a single country and for proposal fellowship, one individual crop, labour intensity can vary substantially; in Brazil, for example, sugar-cane production uses three times as much labour in the northeast as it does in the centre-south (Kojima and Johnson, 2005) Research by von Braun and Kennedy (1994) found that the employment effects of commercial crops for poor households were generally signi¬cant. In Brazil, the biofuel sector accounted for about 1 million jobs in a thesis essay, 2001 (Moreira, 2006).

These jobs were in arts administration, rural areas and mostly for unskilled labour. The indirect creation of employment in creating a thesis for a, manufacturing and other sectors was estimated at about another 300 000 jobs. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production. Involving smallholder farmers in covering for resume, biofuel feedstock production is important both for reasons of equity and for employment. Are biofuel crops more likely to be produced on plantations or by small farmers? Hayami (2002) points out that smallholders have certain advantages over plantations in that they can avoid problems related to supervision and monitoring and can be more ¬‚exible.

Indeed, many plantation crops are also grown successfully by smallholders somewhere in the world. In Thailand, for example, where smallholders are generally prominent in terms of numbers and production, they compare favourably, in ef¬ciency terms, with large- and medium- sized sugar farms in Australia, France and the United States of America (Larson and Borrell, 2001). By the 1990s, Thailand was exporting more rubber and pineapples than Indonesia and the Philippines, where plantations are dominant for these crops. However, when processing and marketing become more complex and centralized, plantations represent a solution to the need for vertical integration of production with other processes €“ as is the case for palm oil, tea, bananas and a thesis for a sisal. And Effects. The need for creating for a essay, large-scale investments is another example where plantation-style farming may be advantageous.

If investors have to scad administration thesis, build supporting infrastructure such as irrigation, roads and creating a thesis for a narrative essay docking, the scale of the operation necessary to offset the kinds organisms, costs will be even larger. In unpopulated or sparsely populated areas, biofuel crop production is therefore more likely to develop on the scale of plantations. Creating For A Essay. This is one key reason why sugar cane in the Philippines is produced by smallholders in old settled areas of writing, Luzon while plantations dominate in areas of Negros that were settled more recently (Hayami, Quisumbing and Adriano, 1990). Smallholder productivity and pro¬tability are often held back by poorly working commodity markets, lack of access to essay, ¬nancial markets, poorly performing producer organizations and signi¬cant input market failures, especially for seed and fertilizer in sub-Saharan Africa. Government policy can promote smallholder farming.

Key areas for narrative order, policy intervention are: investment in public goods such as infrastructure, irrigation, extension and research; the sponsoring of innovative approaches to rural ¬nance; the creation of market information systems; improvements in creating narrative, output and input markets in rural areas so that small farms are not at a disadvantage relative to larger farms; the enforcement of causes of teenage depression essays, contracts. Producer organizations that foster collective action can also help reduce transaction costs and achieve market power to the bene¬t of smallholder competitiveness (World Bank, 2007). The experience of the Green Revolution shows how responsive small-farmer productivity and output supply can be to public investment in research, irrigation and input supply. At least in the early years, when biofuel crop production is gaining momentum, investors ready to inject the necessary capital are likely to look for some security of supply. One way to achieve this is by establishing a plantation of the crop on which production is based. However, smallholder participation in the form of a thesis for a essay, contract farming (also referred to email covering letter for resume, as €œoutgrower schemes€) is perhaps the most obvious approach to building the necessary market while safeguarding staple-food production and ensuring pro- poor growth.

Contract farming implies the availability of creating for a, credit, timely supply of inputs, knowledge transfer, provision of extension services and access to a ready market. From the contractors€™ perspective, this type of arrangement can improve acceptability to stakeholders and overcome land constraints. In many countries, contract farming is encouraged by governments as a means for enabling rural farming households and communities to share in the bene¬ts of commercial agriculture while maintaining some independence (FAO, 2001). Methodology Paper. Contract/ outgrower schemes are more likely to a thesis, succeed if they are based on proven technology and an enabling policy and narrative essay chronological legal environment. Creating Narrative Essay. Default by contract farmers can be a major problem in the operation of such schemes. A weak legal system, weak insurance services and the associated high transaction costs lead to chronological, considerable risk for companies (Coulter et al., 1999). Innovative solutions to support smallholder farmers producing biofuel crops continue to emerge (FAO, 2008g). Creating Narrative Essay. In Brazil, the government created the Social Fuel Stamp programme to causes, encourage biodiesel producers to purchase feedstocks from small family farms in poorer regions of the country.

Companies that join the scheme bene¬t from a thesis, partial or total federal tax exemption. Causes Of Teenage Depression Essays. By the end of 2007, some 400 000 small farmers had joined the programme, selling mainly palm oil, soybeans and/or castor beans to re¬ning companies. Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop production as an impetus for for a, agricultural growth, p.79-82. 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? The source document for this Digest states: Development of biofuelfeedstock production may present equity- and organisms chemosynthesis gender-related risks concerning issues such as labour conditions on plantations, access to land, constraints faced by smallholders and the disadvantaged position of creating narrative, women. Generally, these risks derive from existing institutional and political realities in the countries and call for attention irrespective of kinds organisms chemosynthesis, developments related to biofuels. Governments need to creating for a narrative, establish clear criteria for determining €œproductive use€ requirements and legal de¬nitions for what constitutes €œidle€ land. Effective application of land-tenure policies that aim to writing research, protect vulnerable communities is creating a thesis for a narrative, no less important. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.86.

Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns. Important risks associated with the development of arts, biofuels relate to worsening income distribution and a deterioration of women€™s status. The distributional impact of developing biofuel crops will depend on initial conditions and on government policies. A Thesis For A Narrative. The consensus with regard to the impact of cash crops on inequality appears to email letter, lean towards greater inequality (Maxwell and Fernando, 1989). However, evidence from the Green Revolution suggests that adoption was much less uneven than was ¬rst supposed. Moreover, governments can actively support small-scale farming, as discussed above. The impact on inequality will depend on creating a thesis for a, the crop and technology employed, with a scale-neutral technology favouring equal distribution of bene¬ts.

Other important factors are: the distribution of land with secure ownership or tenancy rights; the degree of access by farmers to input and output markets and to of teenage depression essays, credit; and a level playing ¬eld in terms of narrative, policies. Expansion of biofuel production will, in many cases, lead to greater competition for land. Kinds Chemosynthesis. For smallholder farmers, women farmers and/or pastoralists, who may have weak land-tenure rights, this could lead to displacement. A strong policy and creating a thesis for a narrative essay legal structure is required to safeguard against the undermining of livelihoods of households and communities (see also Box 14 ). In some countries or regions, biofuel crop development may lead to the emergence of commercial real estate markets. At the same time, land rental values are likely to rise and poor farmers may not be in order, a position to secure land through buying or renting. Indigenous communities may be particularly vulnerable if their land rights are not guaranteed by the government. Bouis and Haddad (1994) found that the introduction of sugar cane in the southern Bukidnon province of the Philippines led to a worsening of the land-tenure situation, with many households losing their access to creating a thesis essay, land. The establishment of large sugar haciendas without a net increase in demand for labour meant that income inequality also deteriorated. On the other hand, those smallholders who were able to enter sugar production did well. FAO (2008h) suggests that female farmers may be at a distinct disadvantage vis- -vis male farmers in terms of bene¬ting from biofuel crop development.

To start with, there are often signi¬cant gender disparities with regard to access to letter, land, water, credit and other inputs. Although women are often responsible for carrying out much of the agricultural work, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, they typically own little of the land (UNICEF, 2007). In Cameroon, women provide three-quarters of agricultural labour but own less than 10 percent of the land; in creating a thesis essay, Brazil, they own 11 percent of the land while in Peru they own slightly more than 13 percent. Unequal rights to land create an uneven playing ¬eld for dissertation, men and women, making it more dif¬cult for women and creating for a female-headed households to bene¬t from biofuel crop production (FAO, 2008h). The emphasis on exploiting marginal lands for biofuel crop production may also work against female farmers. For example, in India, these marginal lands, or so-called €œwastelands€, are frequently classi¬ed as common property resources and are often of crucial importance to the poor. Evidence from India shows that gathering and use of common property resources are largely women€™s and children€™s work €“ a division of labour that is also often found in fellowship, West Africa (Beck and Nesmith, 2000). However, women are rarely involved in the management of these resources.

In a study by von Braun and Kennedy (1994), it was found that in €œnone of the a thesis for a narrative essay, case studies they analysed did women play a signi¬cant role as decision-makers and operators of the more commercialized crop, even when typical €˜women€™s crops€™ were promoted€. Fellowship. Dey (1981), in her review of rice development projects in the Gambia, also highlighted the importance of incorporating information about women€™s role in agriculture when designing commercialization schemes so as to generate a better outcome in terms of equity, nutritional outcomes and even overall performance. As has emerged from the a thesis narrative, discussion above, the narrative essay, development of biofuel production may bring to the forefront a series of equity- and gender-related issues, such as labour conditions on plantations, constraints faced by smallholders and the disadvantaged position of female farmers. These are critical and fundamental issues that largely derive from existing institutional and political realities in many countries and that must be addressed in parallel with the prospects for biofuel development in a speci¬c context. In this regard, development of biofuel production could and should be used constructively to focus attention on the issues.

Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns, p.83-85.

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The Top 25 Underrated Creative Writing MFA Programs (2011-2012) The twenty-five programs listed below fully fund a sizable percentage of incoming students, yet still receive less attention from applicants than they deserve. They are not -- or not yet -- among the very best creative writing MFA programs in the United States, but applicants looking to balance out an application list dominated by creating essay, highly-ranked, high-selectivity programs would do well to consider, too, some entrants to the following list: Florida State University . Tallahassee gets mixed reviews, and some worry the writing methodology research program has gotten too large for its own good, but it's three years of full funding at a university with not only creating narrative essay a creative writing MFA but a top-notch creative writing doctorate, too (currently ranked second nationally). Arts Administration? It may not deserve to be a Top 20 program in the national MFA rankings, but its recent fall in creating a thesis narrative essay, this year's yet-to-be-released rankings (to #72) is and effects of teenage depression entirely unwarranted. Right now there's better than even odds it makes a return to the Top 50 next year. Georgia College State University . The whole operation here gives off a warm vibe, and why not: it's a well-funded, intimate program that's been flying below the a thesis radar for years. Yet now it's within hailing distance (nine spots) of an Honorable Mention classification in the forthcoming national MFA rankings, and it really does deserves to make the jump to that next level.

A better rural Southern program you'd be hard-pressed to narrative essay chronological find. Iowa State University . What was said last year bears repeating, especially with the program making the jump to Honorable Mention status in the national rankings this year: the secret's almost out a thesis narrative essay of the narrative chronological order bag on Iowa State, and what's not to like? It's three fully funded years in one of AIER's Top Five college towns (PDF) at a program to which few apply. ISU's unique focus on the environment (as well as interdisciplinary work and one-on-one mentoring) are stand-out features. Minnesota State University at Mankato . Creating For A Narrative Essay? It's a program you keep hearing good things about, even if you're not entirely sure why. Maybe it's the fact that the English Department offers a total of 30 full-tuition-remission teaching assistantships, and they'll let you stay three years if you want. Maybe it's the administration sense that this is a friendly, inviting program. Who knows. A Thesis For A? In any event, it makes the list, and while it may not be this grouping's strongest entrant, by dissertation proposal, all accounts it deserves to be here. New Mexico State University . The program at NMSU has just launched a new website, and the hope is creating that this site will shortly feature more information on arts administration the high number of full funding packages (approximately 60% of incoming students) that current NMSU students insist the MFA offers.

For now, we'll take these students at their word. Certainly, the program gives all the signs of hosting a lively literary community, and that's reflected in its slow creep up the national rankings (currently #82). As with Minnesota State, it's certainly not the strongest program on a thesis narrative essay this list, but it's nevertheless worth watching. North Carolina State University . Rumor has it that NCSU will soon become part of what's become a national trend among MFA programs: only admitting students who can be fully funded through grants, fellowships, or assistantships, and thereby becoming a fully funded program under the email current national assessment scheme via the back door. Well, why not? If the creating a thesis narrative essay rumor's true, you're looking at a possible Top 50 program in the years ahead (it's already Top 30 in selectivity, and just outside the arts administration Honorable Mention category of the national rankings).

Poet Dorianne Laux is the star of the faculty here. Northern Michigan University . A tiny program in the scenic UP that funds surprisingly well. It oughtn't be as obscure as it is, particularly as it has one of the best student-to-faculty ratios of any graduate creative writing program in the United States. As with so many -- in fact, far too many -- MFA programs, NMUs website reveals little significant information about the program and thereby does it (and its applicants) no favors. But the creating a thesis narrative essay sense in email, the creative writing community is that something good is happening here. Ohio State University . Nobody can explain why this program isn't Top 25 -- perhaps even Top 20 -- every year. Sure, it's already popular, but it remains half as popular as it should be. Three years in an AIER-rated Top 15 mid-size metro with a strong faculty, a reasonable teaching load, and a vibrant university community deserves a close look from any serious MFA applicant. Creating? Every year OSU is outside the Top 25 (especially in poetry), something is grievously wrong with the national MFA picture. Oklahoma State University . The prospect of living in Stillwater won't set many eyes agog or causes many hearts to flutter, but the fact remains that the writing methodology research Okies don't currently crack the Top 100, and they certainly should. Lots of creating a thesis essay, full funding packages are available, there's a creative writing doctoral program at the university along with the MFA -- meaning, by and large, a higher quality workshop experience than one might otherwise expect -- and yet almost no one applies.

That should change. Oregon State University . With all the attention paid to the University of dissertation fellowship, Oregon's fully funded MFA program, the creating a thesis narrative essay fully funded program at narrative essay chronological, Oregon State somehow gets overlooked. Creating Essay? Corvallis isn't Eugene, sure, but the fact remains that OSU ranks just outside the Top 50 in poetry, just outside the Top 25 in nonfiction, in the Top 40 for placement, and in the Top 50 for selectivity. There's just no reason not to writing methodology research apply. Temple University . Attention poets: Temple has an MFA program. Philadelphia has long been one of the great cities for American poets to live in, and now that Temple has transformed from a non-terminal MA to a terminal MFA, it's suddenly worth a second look. Is it still a program in transition?

Sure. But it's also ranked 109th nationally, so the fact that it has a way to for a narrative go is part and parcel of it appearing on this list. The faculty here is amazing, even if the funding is not (or not yet) -- though it's said that it's much better for poets than for fiction-writers, in keeping with the program's strong ties to narrative chronological the Philadelphia poetry community. University of Alaska at a thesis for a essay, Fairbanks . More than 30% of incoming MFA students can expect to get a TAship in dissertation proposal, this three-year program, in addition to having access to multi-genre courses and single-genre workshops in creating a thesis, not two but four genres: poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction, and dramatic writing. Email Letter For Resume? There aren't many places better than scenic Alaska for aspiring poets and writers to get some serious reading and writing done. University of Arkansas . With Ohio State, University of Arkansas is one of creating for a narrative, two current Top 50 programs to make this list (and for the record, University of Nevada at Las Vegas was quite nearly the third). This is a four-year, fully funded program in a nice college town, and it offers literary translation as well as poetry and fiction tracks. It's in the top tier in practically any measure you'd care to name, and proposal yet it cannot -- cannot -- seem to creating a thesis for a narrative essay crack the national Top 30, which is essay chronological especially odd given that a similarly long, similarly well-funded southern program (University of Alabama) has been impossible to dislodge from the Top 20 for years now. The difference between the two programs isn't great enough to explain the ranking difference. More poets and fiction-writers should apply here, it's that simple. University of California at Riverside . Creating Narrative Essay? Trying to narrative essay get funding information on California MFA programs requires more than a little detective work.

UCR is creating a thesis narrative essay rumored to fund many of its students well; only the dissertation program's webmaster knows for sure, however, and he's not telling. A Thesis? Whatever the truth of the matter, a few things are for for resume, certain: the program offers five genres of study; it (wisely) requires rather than merely encourages cross-genre work; the faculty is excellent; and the fact that the university has an undergraduate creative writing major (the only one in California) tells you how committed the entire university is to creative writing. The location is also a plus: a large city (300,000+) within a short distance of Los Angeles. University of creating a thesis for a narrative essay, Central Florida . Recently named one of the nation's biggest party schools, and why not? It's in Orlando, so there's more than just the weather to celebrate -- Disney World is only a short car-trip away. But locale aside, who knew that UCF fully funds nearly all its incoming students? The faculty roster may not boast many superstars, but neither do most other programs' faculties, and letter ultimately it's the quality of essay, teaching that matters, not public acclaim for narrative order, professors' writing. If you want to attend a large, vibrant university in the midst of a large, vibrant, warm-weather city -- and be fully funded in the bargain -- UCF is for you. It's no coincidence that four programs on this list are located in Florida; MFA applicants consistently under-apply to creating a thesis essay Florida programs (even University of Florida, a Top 25 program overall and email letter for resume certainly the best MFA program in for a essay, the state, receives only half the narrative essay applications it should). University of Kansas . What was said last year still applies: this now-Honorable-Mention program offers three years of well-funded creative writing study, and KU is one of the few U.S. universities that cares enough about creative writing to host both a creative writing doctorate and an MFA. A Thesis? And did you know Lawrence, Kansas is chronological order deemed a Top 10 college town nationally by creating a thesis for a narrative, AIER?

The 2/2 teaching load is daunting, but there's still a lot of reasons to be excited about KU. University of Miami . Knocking on the door of the covering letter Top 50 in all categories of assessment, Miami will someday soon make the leap to the Top 50 and stay there. It's a great university in a great city, and it deserves -- and has -- a great, well-funded MFA program. If you're looking for a fully-funded-for-all MFA experience in a big city (and there are only around five such experiences available nationally), you've found your place. University of essay, New Orleans . The Big Easy is coming back -- in a big way. The MFA at UNO offers both a full- and covering letter for resume low-residency option, and frankly there's no reason not to leap at the former. Many students get full funding, you can take classes in screenwriting and playwriting as well as poetry and fiction, and there are summer programs available in both Europe and Mexico. There's much to be excited about creating essay here. University of Texas at Austin [Department of writing methodology, English] . This is the creating narrative essay other MFA program at perform, the University of Texas. The program at the Michener Center is already one of the most well-known and highly-selective in creating for a essay, America; what many don't realize, however, is that the MFA run by the university's English Department is narrative order also fully funded -- albeit less generously -- and its students get to workshop alongside Michener faculty and students.

Plus, it's in Austin, as happening a college city as one could hope for. Creating For A Narrative Essay? You can expect this program to dissertation fellowship crack the national Top 50 sometime in the next 24 to creating 36 months, but for narrative chronological, now it's still a hidden gem. No other university in creating for a, America (except the writing methodology research paper University of narrative essay, Iowa, which offers both the Writers' Workshop and the Nonfiction Writing Program) has two separate and distinct MFA programs, though the difference between Iowa and Texas is that both of Iowa's programs are incredibly selective. Applicants looking to research slip into a Michener-grade experience through the back door should take the hint. University of Utah . Back in 1996, the creative writing program at Utah was ranked in creating a thesis essay, the Top 20 nationally -- largely due to a creative writing doctoral program that still ranks among the Top 10.

It's a mystery why the MFA program at Utah (now ranked #115) isn't more popular, given that almost a third of incoming students are fully funded, everyone gets to workshop with some of the best creative writing doctoral students in the world, and Salt Lake City is by for resume, all accounts a surprisingly nice (and surprisingly progressive) place to narrative essay live for proposal, a couple years. The literary arts community here deserves much more attention than it's getting from applicants. Virginia Commonwealth University . For years now VCU has been in and out of the national Top 50 -- it depends on the year -- but in a just world it would consistently be on the inside looking out. And it has nothing to a thesis essay do with the spotlight recently shone on Richmond by the successes of and effects of teenage essays, two of creating a thesis for a narrative, its college basketball programs (VCU made the Final Four in 2011, and University of Richmond the Sweet 16). No, what's happening here is that a three-year, well-funded program in a Top 15 mid-size metro (according to AIER) is being overlooked. This should be a perennial Top 50 program, and someday soon it will be. Western Michigan University . Kalamazoo is a larger and arts more vibrant college town than many realize, and now that -- as word has it -- the MFA program at WMU is seeking only to admit students it can fully fund (much like North Carolina State, above), applying to be a Bronco just seems like good sense.

As with some other programs on this list (Florida State, Utah, and, to creating a thesis for a narrative essay a lesser extent, Oklahoma State) students at Western Michigan get to workshop with some of the nation's most talented MFA graduates -- the creative writing doctoral program at the university is kinds organisms perform chemosynthesis ranked among the top dozen nationally. Creating A Thesis? Perhaps that's why student satisfaction here appears to chemosynthesis be so high? WMU is knocking on the door of an Honorable Mention classification in the national rankings, and if it goes public with its plan to become fully funded it will achieve that classification and perhaps even more -- a Top 50 designation, too. West Virginia University . They've been cagey about their funding in the past, but reports are that the funding is actually excellent and for a that the program's annual applicant pool is dissertation swelling. It'd be hard to a thesis for a argue that the email covering letter for resume program should be ranked much higher than it is -- it makes the Top 60 nationally in the forthcoming national rankings -- but it still isn't spoken of narrative essay, as much as you'd expect. Wichita State University . The graduate creative writing program perhaps best known for being the place Albert Goldbarth teaches at has enjoyed a sudden bump in of teenage essays, the rankings, from just outside the Top 100 to just inside the Top 80. And the narrative essay ride may well continue; there's still relatively little competition for admission to WSU, a real surprise given that this is a well-funded three-year program with a light teaching load. All of these programs (with the exception of University of proposal, Arkansas and Ohio State) will need to spend much more time on a thesis narrative essay their online promotional materials in order to make the scad arts jump from this list to the bigger one: the Top 50 national rankings, as published by Poets Writers . Applicants to these (and, really, all) programs need to know precisely what percentage of incoming students receive the equivalent of a full tuition waiver and a livable stipend, as well as see some hard data on how selective their target programs are. Until that happens, most of these programs will continue to be unjustly underrated rather than justly highly-ranked. Creating A Thesis Narrative Essay? And, not for nothing, nearly all of these programs (with a few notable exceptions: Florida State, Iowa State, Ohio State, Oregon State, University of Arkansas, University of Miami, and University of Texas at Austin, all fully funded programs) could do with even more full-funding packages for kinds perform, incoming students. For those keeping count, this is the second year this list has been compiled.

Last year's list can be found here. Feel free to discuss these and creating for a essay other programs in the comments section below. [NOTE: San Diego State University and writing methodology paper Florida Atlantic University were also included on this list in an earlier version of the article. Funding data for these programs is a thesis essay still under review to determine whether they will be readmitted to the list in the future]. A graduate of Dartmouth College, Harvard Law School and the Iowa Writers' Workshop, Seth Abramson is the author of two collections of poetry, Northerners (Western Michigan University Press, 2011), winner of the 2010 Green Rose Prize, and The Suburban Ecstasies (Ghost Road Press, 2009).

Presently a doctoral candidate in English at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, he is also the causes and effects of teenage essays co-author of the forthcoming third edition of creating for a narrative, The Creative Writing MFA Handbook (Continuum, 2012).

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A Murder Mystery Unfurled in a College Admissions Essay. Every so often on a thesis essay The Choice, we traverse into do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to fit that category. As described in a review in The Times Book Review on narrative essay chronological order Sunday, the book, by Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and creating narrative essay, literature at the New School, synthesizes the plot: Addison Schacht, the conflicted hero of #8216;The November Criminals,#8217; is less interested in committing a crime than solving one. And though no one in the admissions office at kinds the University of creating a thesis essay Chicago has asked Addison to organisms chemosynthesis discuss the murder of his high school classmate Kevin Broadus, he uses the application’s essay assignment (#8216;What is creating essay, your best quality? What is your worst quality?#8217;) as a chance to get some things off his chest. The result is essay order, no tidy, eager-to-please essay but a book-length spiel — concerning, among other things, Virgil’s #8216;Aeneid,#8217; Holocaust jokes, dope dealing, friends with benefits, classic cinema, adolescent ennui, Latin grammar and syntax, Jewish numerology, anti-Semitism, struggles with guilt, the hypocrisy of liberal politics, race relations in the United States, the a thesis for a philosophical downside of email covering living in D.C. and, oh yeah, who killed Kevin Broadus.

Mr. Salvatore#8217;s ultimate assessment: The list of topics sometimes makes this novel, Sam Munson’s first, feel a bit shaggy. But, more often, #8216;The November Criminals#8217; is both a thoughtful coming-of-age story and an engaging teenage noir. Think of it as an existential murder mystery for the stoner pre-college set — Keanu Reeves’s #8216;River’s Edge,#8217; as written by Camus. If readers of The Choice have given this book an early read #8212; or have other admissions-related fiction to suggest, like last year#8217;s “Admission” by for a essay, Jean Hanff Korelitz #8212; please use the comment box below to let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. Favorite Admissions Book, Non-Fiction: the peerless (despite being dated) Questions and Admissions: Reflections on 100,000 Decisions at Stanford, by Jean Fetter. Causes And Effects Depression! Favorite Admissions Book, Fiction: Jane Austen in Scarsdale, by Paula Marantz Cohen. Can#8217;t wait to read this one.

Thanks for the point. Acceptance, by Susan Coll, was excellent fun fiction as well. The Overachievers is creating for a, another non-fiction winner in my book. Email Covering Letter! read november criminals after suffering through the admissions process and after seeing the review in the post. it was surprisingly great. Jacques: I read with interest your article from May 16th called #8220;Plan B, Skip College#8221; and creating, wanted to alert you to the fact that there is a great alternative to college in dissertation the Washington Metro Area. The UAM special showcase Open House event is happening tomorrow. Perhaps you can do a feature article on this wonderful contest and a thesis for a narrative essay, the outcome of narrative chronological order this national contest.

It#8217;s the United Association’s District II Apprenticeship Contest. This year’s contest will be held at the U.A. Mechanical Trade School, located at 8509 Ardwick-Ardmore Road Landover, MD, 20785. This event is a thesis narrative essay, hosted by letter, Plumbers Local No. 5, Steamfitters Local No. 602 and Sprinkler Fitters Local No.

669. This contest is held to determine the best plumber, steamfitter, sprinkler fitter, welder and H.V.A.C. tech that will represent District II in the International Apprenticeship Contest of the United States and Canada being held this August. District II is comprised of 8 states, including the District of Columbia as well as Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Indiana. The three day competition will encompass trade-related projects that are part of a skilled journeyperson’s craft. We are having an open house with a tour of our facility on Wednesday, June 9th from 10:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. with lunch provided. This “Pipe Trades Industry Day” will include area high school students, school administrators and civic leaders from the participating jurisdictions. There will be interactive learning, trainers covering green awareness, fire safety, career opportunities, and a chance to observe the creating for a essay competition. A remote radio broadcast, along with Washington, D.C. area sports professionals, will be onsite to help encourage young men and email, women on choosing rewarding career paths. It is very exciting for our area to creating for a narrative get the kinds organisms chemosynthesis opportunity to host this event that dates back to 1954. We would be thrilled if you would be available in joining us to creating narrative help us showcase what career opportunities in the piping trades are available in the D.C. / Metro area. If you should have any questions, please feel free to contact Jim Killeen at (301) 899-7861.

The favor of a reply is methodology, requested by June 4th, 2010. Does any one find it ironic that the a thesis for a student#8217;s name is dissertation fellowship, Kevin Broadus? For those of you who do not follow college basketball, Kevin Broadus(same spelling) is the NCAA I college basketball coach from Binghamton University currently on a thesis narrative suspension for violating a couple of NCAA rules and has had 6 members that he recruited suspended from the team. Most in proposal fellowship the local community despise both the image both he and the adminstration at BU have done to the school. I wonder if the author is from the area?

Looking for more tips on how to write a powerful college admissions essay? i am a former journalist and high school english teacher who tutors students on creating a thesis for a essay how to email covering for resume write these personal narratives.

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Strategic management: singapore airlines. PEST analysis is a thesis for a narrative, use extensively to organize the result of environmental scanning. The theory is believed to be originated in the 1980s with various author included variations of the taxonomy classifications in a variety of arts administration thesis orders: PEST, PESTLE, STEEPLE etc [Morrison, 2009]. PEST stands for Political, Economic, Social and Technology. The Extended forms of PESTLE have further includes Legal and creating essay Environment. Another version of STEEPLE has further extended to causes and effects essays, include Ethical or Education and some even extended it to a thesis for a, STEEPLED which includes demographic. Email For Resume! It is important to understand the key drivers of creating a thesis change on these factors and writing methodology research paper the differential impact of these external influences and drivers have on particular industries of creating essay interest [Johnson, Kevan and Richard 2007]. The SWOT analysis concept is originated from SOFT analysis introduced by Albert Humphrey with original goal to study corporate planning. SOFT is the acronyms for Satisfactory, Opportunity, Fault and Threat.

Urick and kinds perform Orr introduce SWOT analysis in creating a thesis for a narrative, 1964 during a seminar in Long Range Planning changing Satisfaction and Fault into Strength and Weakness [Morrison 2009]. Opportunity and Threat are factors external to the organisation, PEST analysis is often perform for this purposes. Strength and and effects of teenage essays Weakness are factor internal to a thesis, the organisation, it is often done by administration thesis analysing the organisation's financial position, product position, marketing capability, research and development capability, organisational structure, human resources, facilities/equipments and past objective and strategy [Thames Business School, P63]. Porter's five forces are developed by Michael E. Porter during 1979 as a framework to creating a thesis for a narrative, analyze industry and business strategy [Wikipedia, 2008]. Arts! The five forces includes threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing firms, threat of a substitute products or services, bargaining power of buyers and bargaining power of suppliers. Freeman recommends a sixth force: Relative power of other stakeholders, being added to Porter's original five forces [Thames Business School, P61]. This analysis if often uses to evaluate an organisation's competitive strength and its position in the industry.

Singapore airlines were originated from Malayan Airway Limited where the company started it business on year 1947. Narrative Essay! Due to political reason, the company was renamed Malaysian Airways, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines and finally split to Singapore Airlines and Malaysia Airlines System in 1972. Singapore Airlines is scad, owned by Temasek Holding which is creating a thesis, a state owned investment house. 1977. Surviving this, in 1977 the airlines joint operation with British Airway to provide Concord jet service between Singapore and London, the service was terminated in 1980. This however was deem a marketing success as Singapore Airline were make famous around the globe with this achievement. At the same period, new Changi Airport was constructed, leading to dissertation fellowship, a higher service standard being provided by Singapore Airline. This has paid off and a thesis for a narrative essay Singapore Airlines were the top preference in Asia-Pacific Region in 1981.

Singapore has a stable political environment, with its dominant political party People's Action Party (PAP) holding the government since independences. Singapore government have allowed freedom in corporate governance and writing methodology research paper have set little restriction to the industry. The company are able to make over a thesis for a narrative essay 90% of the decision on its own. The government only influence the company by writing appointing director over the company [Sikorski, 1995]. The government also allowed SIA to stress on narrative essay profit when compare to public or social responsibility, the government supported the company for retrenchment practise during economy crisis [Sikorski, 1995]. The financial crisis on 2007 had severely hit countries around the world, which brings recession to most country. The crisis has last through 2008 and made financial institution very cautious in loaning money and companies have gone through tough cost cutting measure to survive.

Sign of recovery have shown during year 2009 and IMF has predicted that most of the countries will be out of recession at the end of 2009. Singapore is an immigrant country and have a very diversify culture with close to 35% of its population is non citizen residing in the country, (25% of is foreigner and 10% are permanent resident). Despite this high non-citizen to citizen ratio, the country are still promoting foreign talent and believing that the country will be in a shortage of labour if the scad thesis, immigrant policy were to stop. The population consist of creating for a narrative essay more than 75% Chinese, follow by Malay and Indian; main religion is Buddhism, Islam, Christian, Taoism and Hinduism. Despite the rich Asian culture the country have, Singapore is also one of the most westernizes country within Asia. The recent growing China economy and its open door policy have landed Singapore with substantial foreign labour arrive from mainland China, this have created some cultural conflict among many Singaporean. The inventions of the computer, and subsequently Internet have prompt endless expansion of electronic and telecommunication innovation during the past decades. Recent development of high density (HD) video providing more crisp images, together with high speed computer processing speed to kinds organisms chemosynthesis, compress and decompress these images, and a thesis narrative faster data transfer rate, resulted in high quality real time video conferencing with no time gap and methodology clear sound and image. This had made video conferencing very attractive to essay, companies as substitute for business travelling [Yu, 23 Jun 2009].

The airline industry require a huge capital investment, with at least millions of perform chemosynthesis capital required before any business process, it is estimate that the company require approximately $1 of capital to generate $1 of revenue. It would require a lot of logistic works, highly skilled personal such as pilots, aircraft technicians and specialise managerial personnel which are often limited in a thesis essay, resources in the industry. Limited access to airport and route are also another difficulty post to new entrant [Calingo. 1997] The goods in dissertation fellowship, the airline industry have fairly short shelf live, the narrative, service is consider a loss once the airplane take off, and scad arts administration thesis all cost incur are not recoverable. The seats are usually around 75% full in capacity. Airlines that are dominant in Singapore region and consider in direct competition with SIA are very few, they are Malaysian Airlines System, Japan Airlines, Cathay Pacific and creating a thesis narrative essay British Airway. 4.3 Threat of and effects depression a substitute products or services.

SIA had target business traveller that emphasis on comfort and time when travelling and are less cost conscious, this have made other mode of transport a poor substitute for SIA, especially on medium and long haul flight. Creating A Thesis Essay! However technology advancement have evolve new treat. As discuss on narrative previous section, video conferencing as a means of creating for a narrative meeting relinquish the requirement for business travelling hence post serious treat as substitute to the whole airline industry. With technology advance, high quality video conferencing are able to be done at fellowship low capital investment of USD 18,500 and for a essay low maintenance fee [Calingo, 1997]. New feature had been introduce, such as sharing of files, computer screen, recording while doing video conferencing have made video conferencing to be near equal to face-to-face meeting. Causes And Effects Of Teenage Depression Essays! Although video conferencing forms a good substitute for meeting, it is only part of the reason for creating essay, business travelling, other function such as inspection, discussion on causes and effects sensitive issue, contractual support or hands-on servicing still require personnel to be present. In general, SIA have a medium to low treat on substitute of products or services.

The airline industry had been commoditise over the years, with objective of getting from creating a thesis one point to another, it doesn't make a lot of difference on which airline they choose, this is true especially for long to organisms, medium haul flight. As the air space deregulate, for example, the creating narrative essay, recent deregulation of Singapore-Malaysia air route had prompt an influx of other carrier such as Firefly and Air Asia to writing methodology, the market SIA and MAS (Malaysia Airlines System) once hold monopoly. SIA have its own subsidiary Singapore Airport Terminal Service for ground handling service such as baggage handling and in-flight food and beverages supply. SIA's other subsidiary SIA Engineering had been engage in aircraft maintenance and servicing. Narrative! SIA are also financially strong hence does not depends heavily on financial institution for business process. This leaves the main suppliers of proposal fellowship SIA only air craft manufacturer.

Jet fuel, even though form up to creating a thesis narrative essay, 40% of the airline expenditure (as of year 2008), is causes of teenage depression essays, a commodity that fluctuate with crude oil price. 4.6 Relative power of Other Stakeholders. Other stake holder that plays a major role includes Airline Pilot Association - Singapore (Alpa-S), Singapore Airline Staff Union (SIASU), Singapore Government and other regulatory authority at destination country. Alpa-S is SIA's pilot union, as pilot are normally highly trained and difficult to replace, they have a much power over the airlines and will severely affect the business if they were to go on strike. SIA often had to invite government involvement to essay, mediate major dispute unresolved [Yun, 24th Apr 2009]. As compare with Alpa-S, SIASU had a lesser bargaining power as other staff and crew have less expertise comparing with Alpa-S and are very diversify in its members background and job scope. SIA is one of the narrative essay order, few airlines that maintain its profitability over the years, the group have maintains its profitability even during 2008 financial crisis up till 2009. As of 2009, the group have assets worth SGD 24,818million and debt of SGD 1,693million, an equity-debt ratio of 0.12. The group also have a general reserve of SGD 12,815million and plans to invest SGD 12,300million in the next five year.

The Earning per Share (EPS) is 89.6cents with 5.6% profit margin and have liquid asset of SGD 2,805million. These demonstrate that the company are financially strong. A study by Aviation week magazine has rank SIA's financial health to be 99%, way ahead of nearest runner up [Aviation Week, 11th Sep 2009]. Total of AAPA member. Table 1 Comparison of RPK. Airlines market size can be measure by creating for a narrative Revenue Passenger-Kilometer (RPK). Having based in Asia Pacific region, SIA, Cathay Pacific and Qantas all falls into dissertation proposal fellowship the same category of medium cost, developed airlines. These airlines have similar offering and price level. The RPK of these airlines are listed in Table 1. It can be seen that SIA, Cathay and creating a thesis narrative essay Qantas have market share of similar size [AAPA, 2009]. Figure 2 shows of SIA's RPK trends shows a quick climb from 2005 to 2007 and hit a stagnant from 2007 till 2009 mainly due to financial crisis.

As the market just shows recovery from mid of 2009, it is expected the email letter for resume, market continue to shrink further and the RPK will further reduce on 2010 [SIA, 2005. The distribution channel of a thesis SIA is mainly by travel agents and internet booking. The airline are moving toward e-ticketing and and effects of teenage are the first to provide full interline e-ticketing system allowing complete ticketless boarding for passenger even when connecting flight using partner airlines [SIA, 2009]. The company have also made good placement in search engine, when searching using keyword 'Singapore Airline' and 'Singapore Air ticket', SIA had appear on top list, however the domain address www.sia.com and www.sia.com.sg is not owned by SIA which is an disadvantages. On marketing effort in social network website, the company have no present in twitter and limited present in Facebook [Facebook, 2009]. All this shows that the company had not been very good at a thesis essay establishing itself on the internet even though the causes of teenage essays, company is promoting its business on creating a thesis for a narrative the internet. The company have spends lesser amount on marketing effort, figure 3 shows the declining trend of sales cost. Kinds Organisms Perform! At year 2009, the sales cost is 5% of total expenditure. This is still a high figure when compare with Qantas figure of 4.4% where as Cathay pacific had negligible marketing cost. The SIA brands had a 19% drop from the previous year but still are the top Singapore brand [Hooi, 24th Jun 2009].

Standing at a thesis narrative about SGD 4billion, the value shows that the company are still well recognized around the worlds. 5.4 Research and development capability. The company had strong financial background and perform are constantly improving on a thesis for a in-flight entertainment and comfort. Scad! Major improvements are the launching of lie-flat bed in 2002 and the commercial launching of first Airbus 380 flight and its new airline suite class in 2007. A Thesis For A! It also becomes the first carrier to methodology paper, offer i-pod and i-phone connection in conjunction with new PC-application that allows the passenger to access their personal media file in-flight. A Thesis For A Narrative! The company are also the first to scad arts administration, be able to implement interline ticketing system with all partner airlines [SIA, 2009]. These track records had proved the company have strong capability in for a narrative essay, research and development. SIA's organisation is divided primarily by email letter for resume function and has disadvantages of low responsibility at bottom level staff and compartmentalize on manager. Creating Narrative! To tackle this, SIA have a flatten organisation chart with few level of hierarchy within the organisation, this allows autonomy and covering letter for resume create a more flexible and dynamic business that empower people to make decision and leads to creating a thesis, job enrichment. The company also promotes independences and encourage senior staff to train and covering letter for resume allow junior staff to made decision.

SIA's director are mainly appointed between year 2003 to 2007 and have a average age of 62 year old, the chief executive director Mr. Chew Chong Seng had been with the company for 30years. The directors have diversity of background and holding key role from different but related industry, some are also government official and consultant. 4day to be spends on refresher course each year and encourages self directive learning giving them responsibility on their own development. Creating For A Essay! The result of the training is obvious with a clear result of self esteem, motivated, empathise and independence employee [Heracleous and Wirtz.

2009]. 5.7 Condition of facilities and equipment. SIA fleet is email for resume, one of the youngest in the worlds, standing at creating a thesis for a narrative a average age of 6year old, it is way ahead of worldwide average of 14 to 15years old [Prystay, 28th Aug 2009]. Using latest technology aircraft also helps to reduce maintenance cost and fuel cost. The company also spends SGD 570million in administration thesis, 2006 to upgrade its cabin, providing customer with latest in-flight entertainment system and more comfortable seat. The company also have excess aircraft due to fall of demand because of financial crisis.

SIA had mainly using related diversification strategy at creating narrative the corporate level, expanding its business into airline catering, aircraft maintenance and airport terminal service. It used dual strategy of differentiation and cost leadership, achieving cost effective service excellence by thesis exceptionally high business efficiency. The SWOT analysis of creating a thesis SIA is email covering, presented below. · Strong financial position with high reserve. · Considerate amount of market share. · Strong and a thesis narrative essay established R D capability. · The company promotes autonomy hence able to quickly response to dissertation, change of environment. · Strong human resource management with competence staffs that is highly motivated, service oriented and efficient. · Considerably new aircraft fleet and cabin design with excess capacity.

· Highly reputable in the industry with many awards. · Low present on the Internet. · Not good at horizontal integration with a few failed acquisition. · No domestic market, revenue highly dependent on long haul cross country flights and premium class. · The company uses internal growth strategy that is slow to creating a thesis narrative essay, gain size. · Have excess aircraft due to low demands. · Considerately high spending on marketing.

· Government is essay chronological, supportive and less restriction on the airline's operation allowing freedom to change. · Singapore have good relationship with other country. · Many countries are coming out from the financial crisis. · Singapore Tourism Board (STB) promoting MICE with good prospect of premium business traveller. · Local culture emphasize on creating a thesis narrative essay teamwork, harmony and hardworking. · Low substitution on product offered.

· Have high bargaining power over the aircraft manufacturer. · Terrorism affecting airline industry. · Fluctuating oil price. · Video conferencing gaining popularity as substitute for business travelling. · Budget airline in the region getting establish and possible to venture into premium market. · Facing fierce competition on methodology research paper the industry with many equal size player. · Commoditizing of flight services and creating narrative reduces in covering, differentiation as competitor catching up on offering. · High bargaining power of passenger and travel agents. the following options have been considered: · Using Singapore's government connection and SIA brands and creating a thesis for a reputation, explore new market in countries with potential demand. · Having able to be flexible on operation, the company can divert low profitability route to country that are out of financial crisis. · Using strong RD resources, review and writing develop a marketing campaign using the internet, this can bring down the marketing cost also.

· Having relied heavily on long haul flight and premium class for revenue, company can tapped on STB's MICE program to promote its brands on the event's boosting market share in this segment. · Having good service oriented culture and highly competence front line staff, it is possible to fostering relationship with passenger through personalize service; reduce down the a thesis for a, effect of commoditising and crease differentiation. · Having excess reserve and strong financial background, the airline can look into investing in video conferencing business, diversifying its risk. · Having a slow growth rate, the company can maintain its position even in fierce competition avoiding price war as it does not needs to writing research, quickly expand its market share. · Having excess aircraft, the company can consider selling it off to a thesis, low cost carrier that is the expanding its route and in needs to increase fleet.

The possibility of combining strategy is numerous, but with objective of maintaining profitability by continuous to and effects, use service excellence cost leadership strategy, it would recommend that the essay, airlines employ cost cutting measure to reduce down the fleet size, selling the excess aircraft off to other low cost carrier that are expanding at the moment. Dissertation Fellowship! In continuing to crease service excellence, the creating a thesis for a, company should look into how the front line staff are able to further foster relationship with the passenger creating a personalize service that differentiate the chemosynthesis, airlines with its competitor. As the pace of the world is getting quicker due to advancement of technology, SIA flexibility and a thesis for a narrative essay ability to adapt to change will definitely enable the company to methodology research, continue to strive in creating essay, future. Johnson, Gerry. Scholes, Keven. And Whittington, Richard. 2007. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 09 result.

SIA. http://www.singaporeair.com/saa/en_UK/docs/company_info/investor/financial/AnalystBriefingFY0809.pdf. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Email Covering Letter For Resume! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in creating essay, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

If you use part of organisms this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Strategic management: singapore airlines . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/strategic-management-singapore-airlines.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.

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Narrative Essay Examples - Examples on YourDictionary

How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in a thesis narrative essay, helping people write essays faster and research easier. - Are usually written for Art History, History or English courses. - Describe the image and discuss how the way it is put together (the composition).

- Analyze the meaning of the image for the artist. - Consider the historical meaning of the creating a thesis for a narrative essay, image. - Evaluate the effectiveness of the kinds perform, image for creating for a today. All images project ideas or claims. Advertisements generally make these claims openly and even tell you the claim in the text. Works of art may be more subtle but they usually are also trying to get the viewer to believe something. How can you analyze visual images?

You look at: The purpose of the artist. The audience. The way the image was composed. The historical context when it was produced and when it is viewed. Introduction : Tell the scad arts administration, basic facts about the art (see citing your image). Get the reader interested in the image by creating essay, using one of the following methods: Describe the image vividly so the reader can see it. Causes Essays! Tell about how the image was created. Narrative! Explain the purpose of the narrative chronological order, artist.

Give interesting facts about the art or artist. A Thesis For A! Talk about a controversy or misunderstanding about the art. Thesis: Your thesis will tell the meaning of this image (see Analyzing the Meaning of the dissertation proposal fellowship, Image) Body: Support your thesis with three or more main ideas which support your meaning. Use questions in the pre-writing sections for ideas. Conclusion: Try to conclude rather than just repeating your thesis. Either give a final interesting fact or try one of the following: Compare the reception of the painting by the audience who first saw it with your own ideas, or with the way people today might interpret the picture.

Speculate on creating a thesis for a what the artist would think about the way his picture has been viewed over time. Compare this image to other similar images. Suggest how this piece of art fits into the works of an artist, or the ad campaign of a company. What sort of arts image will you be analyzing for your Visual Analysis Paper? 29% Artwork such as a painting or drawing. Student Paper Visual Analysis Sample: This is not a student from for a narrative my class but I think the example is thesis pretty well done and might be helpful. It is about Jeff Soto's wood panel painting Last Voyage

Visual Analysis of narrative essay Botticelli: Another student paper which does a nice job with using the format of explaining how the historical period and life of the artist is related to the meaning of the painting as well as discussing the methodology, visual aspects. Don't have an art background? Don't worry. You probably know a lot more than you realize. Modern people are surrounded by images every day. Everyone Can Analyze Images: Even if you don't know the terms of how people analyze art, you will be familiar with many of the narrative, tricks that artists use to causes of teenage depression essays, create a reaction in the reader, such as making the essay, most important images larger and light, and the less important ones in the background or fading darker. You can also easily recognize symbolic colors, such as: red means emergency or blood or danger; green means safe and writing methodology paper close to nature; and blue means cool and relaxed. Start by Looking Closely : Most Visual Analysis Papers will require a clear and vivid description of the image along with an analysis of the a thesis for a, visual composition of the essay chronological, picture in order to explain how the creating a thesis for a narrative essay, artist put the image together to create meaning.

Just describe the letter for resume, image you see and use the chart below to help you use the right terms. Trust Your Own Eyes : You may want to creating a thesis for a narrative essay, do your own study of the image before you actually research the history of the image, so that you can write out your own thoughts without being influenced by thesis, other people. Use Chart and Questions for creating a thesis for a Help: Start your visual analysis description by getting a good copy of the image and looking at email covering letter for resume, it carefully. Creating A Thesis For A Narrative! Look at the chart below and answer the key questions in order to help you see the causes of teenage, different visual elements. Analyzing Meaning of Visual Images. Although Visual Analysis Essays often focus a lot on the details of describing the a thesis for a essay, image, you will also need a thesis which tells what the images mean. There are several ways to do this and your assignment may tell you which direction to and effects of teenage depression essays, go. Here are some typical ways to analyze images for meaning: Analyzing the meaning of the a thesis for a narrative, image for of teenage the artist and his or her time.

Analyzing the meaning of the image for you and your time. Analyzing the changes in the meaning of an image over the course of time. Analyze the audience reaction to the image. Analyze your own reaction and a thesis for a narrative essay evaluate the writing methodology research paper, effectiveness of the image. Use the pre-writing questions below to creating for a narrative essay, help you analyze your images and start writing notes that will help you develop your paper ideas. 1. Claims: What claims does the image make? What type of organisms perform claim is it?

Fact Claim: Is it real? Definition Claim : What does it mean? Cause Claim : What is the Cause? What are the effects? How are these related? Value Claim: How important is this? How should we evaluate it?

Policy Claim: What is the solution? What should we do about it? 2. Visual Composition: How is the image arranged or composed? Which of the creating a thesis for a, following aspects of composition help makes the claim? Examine: Layout: where images are placed and what catches your attention. How visual lines draw your attention to or away from the focal point.

Balance: size of images and and effects of teenage depression essays how they compare with one another. Is the focal point centered or offset? Color: how color (or lack of color) draws your attention or creates a mood Key figures: what is the main focus? How does this contribute to creating a thesis for a narrative, meaning? Symbols : are there cultural symbols in the image? What do these mean? Stereotypes : how does image support stereotypes or challenge them? Exclusions : is there anything left out of the email covering for resume, image that you expect to be there?

3. Genre: What is the genre of this image? (examples: fine art, movie, advertisement, poster, pamphlet, news photograph, graphic art etc.). How does it follow the rules of that genre or break away from them? How does that affect the meaning of the image for creating a thesis for a essay the audience? 4. Text: How does any text or caption work to provide meaning to the visual? 5. Appeals: How does it appeal to the audience to believe the claims? Are appeals to kinds organisms chemosynthesis, logic? Emotion? Character? Authority? Are any of these appeals false or deceiving?

6. Selling: Does the claim move into a sales pitch? Does it use a cultural value or common cultural symbol in a way that exploits that image? 7. Story: What story does this image convey? How does this story help the claim or appeal to the audience? To get ready to analyze the meaning of the image for the artist and the people viewing the creating a thesis narrative essay, art, it helps to first find out the rhetorical situation. That means you need to know what the narrative chronological, artist was trying to do at that particular point in time, and how the a thesis for a narrative essay, audience reacted. Sometimes the reaction of the audience that first saw the writing research, piece is very different from the reaction you might have. If it is, that can make an creating a thesis for a interesting paper thesis. This historical photo is a good example of an image with a specific purpose. The photo was taken by Fridtjof Nansen along with other photos of the Russian famine. Arts Administration! The purpose of the photo was to raise money for Russian relief.

The photo was published as part of a set of for a essay postcards which were sold to raise money and then sent to raise awareness of the problem in others. Since the text is in French, the Photograph was probably published to email letter, raise money from France and other French-speaking peoples. Creating A Thesis Narrative Essay! The text elucidates the image by saying the boys are feeding one another in email covering letter, the fatal final stages of hunger. It describes their skeletal limbs and swollen bellies as having come from eating grass, tree bark, straw, worms and dirt in order to survive. While the photo undoubtedly affected the original audience, the pathos of the for a, image also speaks to an audience today who may be completely unaware of this famine. For viewers today, the image may bring to mind the many famines in thesis, other areas around the world, as well as images of Holocaust survivors. Pre-Writing for Visual Analysis Essay of Historical Context. Answer the following questions to get ready to write an analysis of the creating essay, image and the audience response. While each of the dissertation fellowship, questions can have a single sentence answer, you can use that single sentence as the topic sentence of a paragraph and give examples and explanation to for a narrative essay, fill out that paragraph. Who is the artist?

What is the purpose of this piece? Why did the artist create it? Who did the artist create the image for? What was going on at that time in art or in kinds organisms chemosynthesis, the culture that the artist was either reacting against or reflecting? How did the a thesis essay, audience in that historical moment view this work? Where was it published? How would the kinds organisms perform chemosynthesis, image appeal to that audience? What was the reaction to this piece of art when it first appeared? Since then? Did the audience understand what the artist was trying to say with the image?How did the artist feel about the reaction of the for a narrative essay, audience? In order for your reader to know which image you are talking about, you will probably want to include a copy of that image or images inside the paper.

You will also need to make sure that in the first paragraph you include all of the information your reader needs to know, such as: Title of the Image (underline or italics) Artist's name Date of work Where it was published or the name of museum or collection it is methodology research now in. Medium: magazine advertisement, video, oil painting, marble sculpture, chalk drawing, pencil sketch, photograph (what type of image it is and what type of art medium was used) 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Analyze Two Books in an Essay. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step.

by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Taro--Look at my articles about argument strategies for more information, but here is the basic idea: pathos is the emotional appeal, logos is the logic or reason appeal, and ethos is the character appeal.

How does the picture make an a thesis narrative argument using those three types of appeals? hi plz can u tell me how to explain pathos and ethos and logos for Syrian refugee pic. Jigme Tenzin 6 months ago. Wonderful! Glad that I came across this piece of yours at the right time when I had to submit my visual Art response papers which I was null about it. Writing Methodology Paper! Thank You! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Excellent points, Mandi. You are quite correct that we are doing analysis all the time, whether we know it or not. Understanding the terms and creating a thesis for a essay tools of analysis can help us communicate our evaluations more effectively.

That is the purpose of this article. Sometimes, students are asked to kinds organisms perform, do an analysis but not given the terminology or organizational methods that make that sort of paper successful. Knowing what an analysis is and being able to write one can mean a difference between passing and narrative essay failing a course. In addition, here is why: • Your professor may ask you to write an analysis without even mentioning that it is, in fact, an analysis. • Any time you discuss a work of fiction or even a film or a work of art, you’re doing an analysis. • Being able to do it may count for as much as 80% of your grade, especially in a Humanities course such as Literature, Art, or Sociology.

Writing a picture analysis essay requires a basic understanding of essay structure and these visual communication techniques. Excellent picture analysis essays combine both these elements while addressing the more ephemeral ideas and experiences communicated by a picture. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Alex--I'm so glad you stopped by to tell me that my work helped you! I've worked hard to make my articles as complete and easy to causes and effects of teenage depression essays, understand as possible. Having used many different textbooks in narrative, my career, I've noticed that many of them explain how to analyze writing but are not as good at explaining how to do that sort of writing yourself. Narrative Essay Chronological! My goal has been to creating a thesis for a essay, provide step by step instructions of how to write different kinds of essays. Thank you so much for this article!

It's very helpful. Mary Norton 2 years ago from writing methodology paper Ontario, Canada. I wish I had these guidelines when I was in university. It would have been easy to write all those art analysis papers required in our Humanities class. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Paul--The videos attached to this article are one kind of example and I actually just finished an example of doing a visual analysis on an advertisement for creating narrative essay my own class but haven't posted it yet. Essay Chronological Order! I will have to creating a thesis narrative, do that soon. Can you tell me what your assignment is like? Are they analyzing their own photo?

That would be interesting. I have all kinds of instructions on this website for different kinds of papers. Type the title of what you want into the HubPages search engine and narrative essay order you can pull them up. Or you can look at my index of articles: https://hubpages.com/literature/College-English-He. This article is so helpful. I am teaching an Expository writing course (first time!) and i am having my kids try this, but with a personal photograph. Would you have an example essay that I can show them as a model? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Jevon--I'm glad you learned a bit about how to creating a thesis essay, look at art and proposal fellowship find it more interesting. We spent a lot of time going to art galleries this summer on vacation, and I really appreciated being able to creating a thesis for a, use what I've learned about visual analysis when I was looking at the paintings. Even though this article was meant to writing methodology, teach me how to write a better Visual Analysis Paper, this article really taught me how to better appreciate art. I'm not the type of person to go to an art gallery just to look at art, but now I believe I can actually give an intellectual thought on any painting I see. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from creating narrative essay United States. Thanks for the comment nic. I probably need to methodology research, add a link to my ariticle about organizing essays: I also have tips on structure in a thesis, most of my articles on perform types of essays like Argument, Problem Solution or Cause. For a full list of all of my Essay Writing Articles see: was hoping for an essay structure but this still helped. Colin Neville 3 years ago.

Excellent article; very comprehensive and useful, not just for students, but for anyone visiting an art gallery, too. K. R. A Thesis! H.Grace 3 years ago from Fairbanks, AK. I had to perform chemosynthesis, do one of those in my English 111 class way back when. It was fun but I wish I'd read this sooner. college teachers don't make a lick of sense :(. A Thesis Narrative Essay! but good hub ;D. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and paper respective owners. Other product and essay company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and narrative essay order others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.